Abstract

This study aims at optimizing two-line OH thermometry strategies for in-cylinder measurement in internal combustion engines. Various aspects are investigated experimentally, such as the selection of suitable OH lines and the possibility of using a single calibration coefficient for variable mixture composition, temperature, and pressure conditions. Two kinds of experimental systems have been investigated. First, a laminar methane–air burner flame at atmospheric pressure, whose stability allowed the determination of OH-laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) intensity ratios from nonsimultaneous imaging. The temperature distribution in the flame is presented for OH-transition pairs with various temperature sensitivities. The burner flame was studied for equivalence ratios from ϕ=0.93 to 1.30 in order to check for the stability of calibration over various flame conditions. Additionally, OH LIF images were acquired in an optical engine for the chosen OH transitions yielding data about the effect of pressure on OH LIF signals under realistic experimental conditions.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Cattolica, “OH rotational temperature from two-line laser excited fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1156-1166 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. M. Seitzman, R. K. Hanson, P. A. DeBarber, and C. F. Hess, “Application of quantitative two-line OH planar laser-induced fluorescence for temporally resolved planar thermometry in reacting flows,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4000-4012 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Cessou, U. Meier, and D. Stepowski, “Application of planar laser induced fluorescence in turbulent reacting flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 887-901 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Atakan, J. Heinze, and U. E. Meier, “OH laser-induced fluorescence at high pressures: spectroscopic and two-dimensional measurements exciting the A−X(1,0) transition,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 585-591 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. U. Meier, D. Wolff-Gabmann, and W. Stricker, “LIF imaging and 2D temperature mapping in a model combustor at elevated pressures,” Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 4, 403-414 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Giezendanner-Thoben, U. Meier, W. Meier, J. Heinze, and M. Aigner, “Phase-locked two-line OH planar laser-induced fluorescence thermometry in a pulsating gas turbine model combustor at atmospheric pressure,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6565-6577 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. U. Rahmann, W. Kreutner, and K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Rate-equation modeling of single- and multiple-quantum vibrational energy transfer of OH (A2Σ+, v′=0 to 3),” Appl. Phys. B 69, 61-70 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Singla, P. Scouflaire, C. Rolon, and S. Candel, “Planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH in high-pressure cryogenic LOx/GH2 jet flames,” Combust. Flame 144, 151-169 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Luque and D. R. Crosley, “LIFBASE: Database and Spectral Simulation Program (Version 1.5),” SRI International Report MP 99-009 (1999).
  10. G. Dieke and H. Crosswhite, “The ultraviolet bands of OH,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 97-199 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Struck, D. Dietrich, R. Valentine, and I. Feier, “Comparison of gas-phase temperature measurements in a flame using thin-filament pyrometry and thermocouples,” in 41st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit NASA/TM 2003-212096, AIAA-2003-853 (American Institute of Astronautics and Aeronautics, 2003).
  12. www.engr.colostate.edu/~allan/thermo/page12/adia_flame/Flamemain.html, A. T. Kirkpatrick, Colorado State University.
  13. A. Gilbert and J. M. Baggott, Essentials of Molecular Photochemistry (Blackwell Scientific, 1991), p. 135.

2006

G. Singla, P. Scouflaire, C. Rolon, and S. Candel, “Planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH in high-pressure cryogenic LOx/GH2 jet flames,” Combust. Flame 144, 151-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2000

A. Cessou, U. Meier, and D. Stepowski, “Application of planar laser induced fluorescence in turbulent reacting flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 887-901 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Meier, D. Wolff-Gabmann, and W. Stricker, “LIF imaging and 2D temperature mapping in a model combustor at elevated pressures,” Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 4, 403-414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

U. Rahmann, W. Kreutner, and K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Rate-equation modeling of single- and multiple-quantum vibrational energy transfer of OH (A2Σ+, v′=0 to 3),” Appl. Phys. B 69, 61-70 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

B. Atakan, J. Heinze, and U. E. Meier, “OH laser-induced fluorescence at high pressures: spectroscopic and two-dimensional measurements exciting the A−X(1,0) transition,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 585-591 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

1981

1961

G. Dieke and H. Crosswhite, “The ultraviolet bands of OH,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 97-199 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Aigner, M.

Atakan, B.

B. Atakan, J. Heinze, and U. E. Meier, “OH laser-induced fluorescence at high pressures: spectroscopic and two-dimensional measurements exciting the A−X(1,0) transition,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 585-591 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baggott, J. M.

A. Gilbert and J. M. Baggott, Essentials of Molecular Photochemistry (Blackwell Scientific, 1991), p. 135.

Candel, S.

G. Singla, P. Scouflaire, C. Rolon, and S. Candel, “Planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH in high-pressure cryogenic LOx/GH2 jet flames,” Combust. Flame 144, 151-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cattolica, R.

Cessou, A.

A. Cessou, U. Meier, and D. Stepowski, “Application of planar laser induced fluorescence in turbulent reacting flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 887-901 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Crosley, D. R.

J. Luque and D. R. Crosley, “LIFBASE: Database and Spectral Simulation Program (Version 1.5),” SRI International Report MP 99-009 (1999).

Crosswhite, H.

G. Dieke and H. Crosswhite, “The ultraviolet bands of OH,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 97-199 (1961).
[CrossRef]

DeBarber, P. A.

Dieke, G.

G. Dieke and H. Crosswhite, “The ultraviolet bands of OH,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 97-199 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Dietrich, D.

P. Struck, D. Dietrich, R. Valentine, and I. Feier, “Comparison of gas-phase temperature measurements in a flame using thin-filament pyrometry and thermocouples,” in 41st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit NASA/TM 2003-212096, AIAA-2003-853 (American Institute of Astronautics and Aeronautics, 2003).

Feier, I.

P. Struck, D. Dietrich, R. Valentine, and I. Feier, “Comparison of gas-phase temperature measurements in a flame using thin-filament pyrometry and thermocouples,” in 41st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit NASA/TM 2003-212096, AIAA-2003-853 (American Institute of Astronautics and Aeronautics, 2003).

Giezendanner-Thoben, R.

Gilbert, A.

A. Gilbert and J. M. Baggott, Essentials of Molecular Photochemistry (Blackwell Scientific, 1991), p. 135.

Hanson, R. K.

Heinze, J.

R. Giezendanner-Thoben, U. Meier, W. Meier, J. Heinze, and M. Aigner, “Phase-locked two-line OH planar laser-induced fluorescence thermometry in a pulsating gas turbine model combustor at atmospheric pressure,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6565-6577 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Atakan, J. Heinze, and U. E. Meier, “OH laser-induced fluorescence at high pressures: spectroscopic and two-dimensional measurements exciting the A−X(1,0) transition,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 585-591 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hess, C. F.

Kirkpatrick, A. T.

www.engr.colostate.edu/~allan/thermo/page12/adia_flame/Flamemain.html, A. T. Kirkpatrick, Colorado State University.

Kohse-Höinghaus, K.

U. Rahmann, W. Kreutner, and K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Rate-equation modeling of single- and multiple-quantum vibrational energy transfer of OH (A2Σ+, v′=0 to 3),” Appl. Phys. B 69, 61-70 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kreutner, W.

U. Rahmann, W. Kreutner, and K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Rate-equation modeling of single- and multiple-quantum vibrational energy transfer of OH (A2Σ+, v′=0 to 3),” Appl. Phys. B 69, 61-70 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luque, J.

J. Luque and D. R. Crosley, “LIFBASE: Database and Spectral Simulation Program (Version 1.5),” SRI International Report MP 99-009 (1999).

Meier, U.

R. Giezendanner-Thoben, U. Meier, W. Meier, J. Heinze, and M. Aigner, “Phase-locked two-line OH planar laser-induced fluorescence thermometry in a pulsating gas turbine model combustor at atmospheric pressure,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6565-6577 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Meier, D. Wolff-Gabmann, and W. Stricker, “LIF imaging and 2D temperature mapping in a model combustor at elevated pressures,” Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 4, 403-414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Cessou, U. Meier, and D. Stepowski, “Application of planar laser induced fluorescence in turbulent reacting flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 887-901 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meier, U. E.

B. Atakan, J. Heinze, and U. E. Meier, “OH laser-induced fluorescence at high pressures: spectroscopic and two-dimensional measurements exciting the A−X(1,0) transition,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 585-591 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meier, W.

Rahmann, U.

U. Rahmann, W. Kreutner, and K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Rate-equation modeling of single- and multiple-quantum vibrational energy transfer of OH (A2Σ+, v′=0 to 3),” Appl. Phys. B 69, 61-70 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rolon, C.

G. Singla, P. Scouflaire, C. Rolon, and S. Candel, “Planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH in high-pressure cryogenic LOx/GH2 jet flames,” Combust. Flame 144, 151-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scouflaire, P.

G. Singla, P. Scouflaire, C. Rolon, and S. Candel, “Planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH in high-pressure cryogenic LOx/GH2 jet flames,” Combust. Flame 144, 151-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seitzman, J. M.

Singla, G.

G. Singla, P. Scouflaire, C. Rolon, and S. Candel, “Planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH in high-pressure cryogenic LOx/GH2 jet flames,” Combust. Flame 144, 151-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stepowski, D.

A. Cessou, U. Meier, and D. Stepowski, “Application of planar laser induced fluorescence in turbulent reacting flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 887-901 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stricker, W.

U. Meier, D. Wolff-Gabmann, and W. Stricker, “LIF imaging and 2D temperature mapping in a model combustor at elevated pressures,” Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 4, 403-414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Struck, P.

P. Struck, D. Dietrich, R. Valentine, and I. Feier, “Comparison of gas-phase temperature measurements in a flame using thin-filament pyrometry and thermocouples,” in 41st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit NASA/TM 2003-212096, AIAA-2003-853 (American Institute of Astronautics and Aeronautics, 2003).

Valentine, R.

P. Struck, D. Dietrich, R. Valentine, and I. Feier, “Comparison of gas-phase temperature measurements in a flame using thin-filament pyrometry and thermocouples,” in 41st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit NASA/TM 2003-212096, AIAA-2003-853 (American Institute of Astronautics and Aeronautics, 2003).

Wolff-Gabmann, D.

U. Meier, D. Wolff-Gabmann, and W. Stricker, “LIF imaging and 2D temperature mapping in a model combustor at elevated pressures,” Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 4, 403-414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aerosp. Sci. Technol.

U. Meier, D. Wolff-Gabmann, and W. Stricker, “LIF imaging and 2D temperature mapping in a model combustor at elevated pressures,” Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 4, 403-414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

B. Atakan, J. Heinze, and U. E. Meier, “OH laser-induced fluorescence at high pressures: spectroscopic and two-dimensional measurements exciting the A−X(1,0) transition,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 585-591 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Rahmann, W. Kreutner, and K. Kohse-Höinghaus, “Rate-equation modeling of single- and multiple-quantum vibrational energy transfer of OH (A2Σ+, v′=0 to 3),” Appl. Phys. B 69, 61-70 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame

G. Singla, P. Scouflaire, C. Rolon, and S. Candel, “Planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH in high-pressure cryogenic LOx/GH2 jet flames,” Combust. Flame 144, 151-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

G. Dieke and H. Crosswhite, “The ultraviolet bands of OH,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 97-199 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

A. Cessou, U. Meier, and D. Stepowski, “Application of planar laser induced fluorescence in turbulent reacting flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 887-901 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Struck, D. Dietrich, R. Valentine, and I. Feier, “Comparison of gas-phase temperature measurements in a flame using thin-filament pyrometry and thermocouples,” in 41st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit NASA/TM 2003-212096, AIAA-2003-853 (American Institute of Astronautics and Aeronautics, 2003).

www.engr.colostate.edu/~allan/thermo/page12/adia_flame/Flamemain.html, A. T. Kirkpatrick, Colorado State University.

A. Gilbert and J. M. Baggott, Essentials of Molecular Photochemistry (Blackwell Scientific, 1991), p. 135.

J. Luque and D. R. Crosley, “LIFBASE: Database and Spectral Simulation Program (Version 1.5),” SRI International Report MP 99-009 (1999).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental apparatus for OH LIF thermometry in a Bunsen flame.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OH LIF intensity as a function of laser pulse energy. P 1 ( 7 ) excitation at 285.004 nm . The dotted and thick lines illustrate the linearity with laser-pulse energy, extrapolated from the OH LIF intensity data at low laser energy.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Correlation of temperature and OH concentration in the Bunsen burner flame for the various flame equivalence ratios Φ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two-line OH LIF temperature measurements. R 2 ( 13 ) / P 1 ( 2 ) ( E i E j ) / k = 4696 K . The area where the calibration coefficient was estimated at Φ = 1.00 is illustrated by a small box.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Peak temperatures measured with two-line OH LIF thermometry, calculated adiabatic flame temperatures and measurements by IR pyrometry versus equivalence ratio φ. OH LIF ratio— R 2 ( 13 ) / P 1 ( 2 ) . Calibration coefficient estimated at φ = 1.00 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temperature fields from OH LIF ratios. Flame equivalence ratio: Φ = 1.00 . Top: P 1 ( 7 ) / Q 2 ( 11 ) ( E i E j ) / k = 2054 K . Bottom: P 1 ( 2 ) / R 2 ( 13 ) ( E i E j ) / k = 3979 K Average of 1600 single measurements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated statistical error of OH LIF thermometry for our Bunsen burner measurements as a function of the temperature energy gap in between the two investigated transitions. The lower transition is given in the legend, and the upper transition is marked at each data point. Comparison with the measurement fluctuations is presented. Flame equivalence ratio φ = 1.00 , temperature 2250 K .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effect of SNR on the statistical temperature error and on the optimum OH-transition pair for OH LIF thermometry. The OH LIF signal is scaled on the flame with the equivalence ratio φ = 1.00 for various temperatures (scale 100%).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

OH LIF image in the engine at 390 ° CA Top: instantaneous measurement. Bottom: average from 25 instantaneous images.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

OH LIF fluorescence excitation spectra. Spectra at atmospheric pressure simulated with LIFBASE [9] (Gaussian laser line profile, FWMH = 0.05 cm 1 ) Spectra measured in the IC engine at 23 bars .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Total light attenuation of the laser beam after its path through the cylinder for the OH transitions P 1 ( 2 ) and R 1 ( 12 ) . Values are calculated for homogeneous conditions in temperature and OH concentration in the cylinder. The dotted line indicates the temperatures at which the two transitions generate the same absorption.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

2D map of temperature error due to difference in attenuation at the chamber exit, as a function of temperature and OH concentration. OH-transition pair: P 1 ( 2 ) and R 1 ( 12 ) . The thick line represents the evolution of temperature and OH concentration during the engine cycle.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Effect of the difference in attenuation for two OH lines. Top: burnt gas fraction and column-averaged OH number density calculated from the average pressure in the engine. Center: OH LIF signal without any absorption and after the laser beam has crossed the complete cylinder (dashed line). Bottom: temperature determined from OH LIF thermometry, at the light-sheet entry and exit of the cylinder. Calculations are shown for P 1 ( 2 ) / R 1 ( 12 ) pair.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

2D map of temperature error due to the difference in attenuation at the laser-sheet exit for an optimized set of OH- transition pairs. The black dotted lines limit the area of each of the five selected OH-transition pairs.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Temperature error due to the difference in laser attenuation at the laser-sheet exit, for typical combinations of temperature and OH density in an IC engine. Top: burnt gas fraction and column-averaged OH number density in the cylinder. Bottom: temperature error versus crank angle for the OH-transition pairs presented in Fig. 14.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Selected Wavelengths in the OH Band A X ( 1 , 0 ) [9, 10]

Tables Icon

Table 2 Errors on Gas Temperature from IR Pyrometry Measurements a

Tables Icon

Table 3 OH Transition and SNR Values Used for the Error Evaluation

Tables Icon

Table 4 Two-Line OH LIF Thermometry Error Sources for Single-Shot OH LIF Ratios a

Tables Icon

Table 5 Selection of the OH Transitions: Experimental Results a

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S fl = α N i B i 1 I laser g ( ν laser , ν abs ) Φ fl .
R fl = S fl ( 1 ) S fl ( 2 ) = C I laser ( 1 ) I laser ( 2 ) exp ( E i E j k T ) .
| d T T | = k T | E i E j | | d R fl R fl | .
d I laser ( x ) d x = α ( x ) I laser ( x ) ;
α ( x ) N OH ( x ) B i ( 2 J i + 1 ) exp ( E i k T ( x ) ) .
d I laser ( x ) d x S fl ( x ) α Φ fl .
L ( ν , T ) = ε Pt c 1 ν 5 [ exp ( c 2 / ν T ) 1 ] .
1 T 1 T + | T bias | = k E i E j | α j α i | L .

Metrics