Abstract

The thermal infrared radiance simulation with aggregation modeling (TITAN) model, presented here, is an innovative transfer radiative code in the infrared domain (314μm). It takes into account the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the landscape and simulates all the radiative components introduced by this 3D structure, which are due to the reflection and emission of walls and sloping roofs. Examples are given to illustrate the new opportunities offered by TITAN over urban areas. First, a phenomenological study is conducted at four wavelengths analyzing the relative effect of all the radiative contributors to the total signal. The same analysis is performed at bottom of atmosphere, which reveals an error occurring when a flat assumption is made (between 1% and 5%). In a second example, the directional effects at sensor level are simulated and show that the radiative temperature can vary by up to 10K.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Herold, H. Couclelis, and K. C. Clarke, “The role of spatial metrics in the analysis and modeling of urban land use change,” Comput. Environ. Urban Syst. 29, 369-399 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. K. Rao, “Remote sensing of urban heat islands from an environmental satellite,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 53, 647-648(1972).
  3. J. A. Voogt and T. R. Oke, “Thermal remote sensing of urban climates,” Remote Sens. Environ. 86, 370-384 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, L. Salmond, J.-P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. Oke, C. Lac, C. Liousse, and D. Maro, “The Canopy and Aerosol Particles In Toulouse Urban Layer (CAPITOUL) experiments: first results,” Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment (AMS, 2004).
  5. P. Mestayer, P. Durand, and P. Augustin, “The urban boundary-layer field campaign in Marseille (UBL/CLU-ESCOMPTE): setup and first results,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 114, 315-365 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. A. Voogt and T. R. Oke, “Effects of urban surface geometry on remotely-sensed surface temperature,” Intl. J. Remote Sens. 19, 895-920 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-P. Lagouarde, P. Moreau, M. Irvine, J.-M. Bonnefond, J. A. Voogt, and F. Solliec, “Airbone experimental measurements of the angular variations in surface temperature over urban areas: case study of Marseille (France),” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 443-462 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M.-J. Antoine and G. Groleau, “Assessing solar energy and environmental variables in urban outdoor spaces: a simulation tool,” in 5th European Conference on Solar Energy in Architecture and Urban Planning (Eurosolar, 1999).
  9. G. T. Johnson, T. R. Oke, T. J. Lyons, D. G. Steyn, I. D. Watson, and J. A. Voogt, “Simulation of surface urban heat islands under 'ideal' conditions at night,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 56, 275-294 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. Voogt, “Remote sensing of urban surface temperatures,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of British Columbia, 1995).
  11. E. S. Krayenhoff and J. A. Voogt, “A micro-scale 3D urban energy balance model for studying surface temperatures,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 123, 433-461 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, V. Demarez, V. Pinel, and F. Zagolski, “Modeling radiative transfer in heterogeneous 3D vegetation canopies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 131-156(1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. O. Myrup, “A numerical model of the urban heat island,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 908-918 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Soux, J. A. Voogt, and T. R. Oke, “A model to calculate what a remote sensor 'sees' of an urban surface,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 111, 401-424 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Pallotta, X. Briottet, C. Miesch, and Y. Kerr, “Sensor radiance physical model for rugged heterogeneous surfaces in the 3-14 μm region,” Opt. Express 14, 2130-2150(2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. V. Masson, “A physically-based scheme for the urban energy budget in atmospheric models,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 94, 357-397 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Lachérade, C. Miesch, D. Boldo, X. Briottet, C. Valorge, and H. Le Men, “Development of an inversion code, ICARE, able to extract urban areas ground reflectances,” presented at the Tenth International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (ISPMSRS'07), Davos, Switzerland, 12-14 March 2007.
  19. M. Abrams, “The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) : data products for the high spatial resolution imager on NASA's Terra platform,” Intl. J. Remote Sens. 21, 847-859 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Schmugge, A. French, J. C. Ritchie, A. Rango, and H. Pelgrum, “Temperature and emissivity separation from multispectral thermal infrared observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 79, 189-198 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. A. Voogt, “Assessment of an urban sensor view model for thermal anisotropy,” Remote Sens.Environ. 112, 482-495(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Hénon, P. Mestayer, and D. Groleau, “Thermo-radiative modeling and energy balance of the urban canopy: relations between simulated and measurable temperatures,” presented at the Seventh Symposium on the Urban Environment, San Diego, California, 10-17 September 2007.
  23. S. Pallotta, “Compréhension du signal issu d'une surface hétérogène dans le domaine infrarouge en télédétection : analyse de l'agrégation des propriétés thermo-optiques de ses constituents,” Ph.D. dissertation ( l'Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace, 2006).

2008 (1)

J. A. Voogt, “Assessment of an urban sensor view model for thermal anisotropy,” Remote Sens.Environ. 112, 482-495(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

E. S. Krayenhoff and J. A. Voogt, “A micro-scale 3D urban energy balance model for studying surface temperatures,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 123, 433-461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

P. Mestayer, P. Durand, and P. Augustin, “The urban boundary-layer field campaign in Marseille (UBL/CLU-ESCOMPTE): setup and first results,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 114, 315-365 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J.-P. Lagouarde, P. Moreau, M. Irvine, J.-M. Bonnefond, J. A. Voogt, and F. Solliec, “Airbone experimental measurements of the angular variations in surface temperature over urban areas: case study of Marseille (France),” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 443-462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Soux, J. A. Voogt, and T. R. Oke, “A model to calculate what a remote sensor 'sees' of an urban surface,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 111, 401-424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. A. Voogt and T. R. Oke, “Thermal remote sensing of urban climates,” Remote Sens. Environ. 86, 370-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Herold, H. Couclelis, and K. C. Clarke, “The role of spatial metrics in the analysis and modeling of urban land use change,” Comput. Environ. Urban Syst. 29, 369-399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Schmugge, A. French, J. C. Ritchie, A. Rango, and H. Pelgrum, “Temperature and emissivity separation from multispectral thermal infrared observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 79, 189-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. Abrams, “The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) : data products for the high spatial resolution imager on NASA's Terra platform,” Intl. J. Remote Sens. 21, 847-859 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Masson, “A physically-based scheme for the urban energy budget in atmospheric models,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 94, 357-397 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. A. Voogt and T. R. Oke, “Effects of urban surface geometry on remotely-sensed surface temperature,” Intl. J. Remote Sens. 19, 895-920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, V. Demarez, V. Pinel, and F. Zagolski, “Modeling radiative transfer in heterogeneous 3D vegetation canopies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 131-156(1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. T. Johnson, T. R. Oke, T. J. Lyons, D. G. Steyn, I. D. Watson, and J. A. Voogt, “Simulation of surface urban heat islands under 'ideal' conditions at night,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 56, 275-294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. K. Rao, “Remote sensing of urban heat islands from an environmental satellite,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 53, 647-648(1972).

1969 (1)

L. O. Myrup, “A numerical model of the urban heat island,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 908-918 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, M.

M. Abrams, “The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) : data products for the high spatial resolution imager on NASA's Terra platform,” Intl. J. Remote Sens. 21, 847-859 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Acharya, P. K.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adler-Golden, S. M.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Allred, C. L.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, M.-J.

M.-J. Antoine and G. Groleau, “Assessing solar energy and environmental variables in urban outdoor spaces: a simulation tool,” in 5th European Conference on Solar Energy in Architecture and Urban Planning (Eurosolar, 1999).

Augustin, P.

P. Mestayer, P. Durand, and P. Augustin, “The urban boundary-layer field campaign in Marseille (UBL/CLU-ESCOMPTE): setup and first results,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 114, 315-365 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berk, A.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, L. S.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boldo, D.

S. Lachérade, C. Miesch, D. Boldo, X. Briottet, C. Valorge, and H. Le Men, “Development of an inversion code, ICARE, able to extract urban areas ground reflectances,” presented at the Tenth International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (ISPMSRS'07), Davos, Switzerland, 12-14 March 2007.

Bonnefond, J.-M.

J.-P. Lagouarde, P. Moreau, M. Irvine, J.-M. Bonnefond, J. A. Voogt, and F. Solliec, “Airbone experimental measurements of the angular variations in surface temperature over urban areas: case study of Marseille (France),” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 443-462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Briottet, X.

S. Pallotta, X. Briottet, C. Miesch, and Y. Kerr, “Sensor radiance physical model for rugged heterogeneous surfaces in the 3-14 μm region,” Opt. Express 14, 2130-2150(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lachérade, C. Miesch, D. Boldo, X. Briottet, C. Valorge, and H. Le Men, “Development of an inversion code, ICARE, able to extract urban areas ground reflectances,” presented at the Tenth International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (ISPMSRS'07), Davos, Switzerland, 12-14 March 2007.

Chetwynd, J. H.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, K. C.

M. Herold, H. Couclelis, and K. C. Clarke, “The role of spatial metrics in the analysis and modeling of urban land use change,” Comput. Environ. Urban Syst. 29, 369-399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Couclelis, H.

M. Herold, H. Couclelis, and K. C. Clarke, “The role of spatial metrics in the analysis and modeling of urban land use change,” Comput. Environ. Urban Syst. 29, 369-399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Demarez, V.

J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, V. Demarez, V. Pinel, and F. Zagolski, “Modeling radiative transfer in heterogeneous 3D vegetation canopies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 131-156(1996).
[CrossRef]

Dothe, H.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Durand, P.

P. Mestayer, P. Durand, and P. Augustin, “The urban boundary-layer field campaign in Marseille (UBL/CLU-ESCOMPTE): setup and first results,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 114, 315-365 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, L. Salmond, J.-P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. Oke, C. Lac, C. Liousse, and D. Maro, “The Canopy and Aerosol Particles In Toulouse Urban Layer (CAPITOUL) experiments: first results,” Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment (AMS, 2004).

French, A.

T. Schmugge, A. French, J. C. Ritchie, A. Rango, and H. Pelgrum, “Temperature and emissivity separation from multispectral thermal infrared observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 79, 189-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.-P.

J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, V. Demarez, V. Pinel, and F. Zagolski, “Modeling radiative transfer in heterogeneous 3D vegetation canopies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 131-156(1996).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, L.

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, L. Salmond, J.-P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. Oke, C. Lac, C. Liousse, and D. Maro, “The Canopy and Aerosol Particles In Toulouse Urban Layer (CAPITOUL) experiments: first results,” Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment (AMS, 2004).

Groleau, D.

A. Hénon, P. Mestayer, and D. Groleau, “Thermo-radiative modeling and energy balance of the urban canopy: relations between simulated and measurable temperatures,” presented at the Seventh Symposium on the Urban Environment, San Diego, California, 10-17 September 2007.

Groleau, G.

M.-J. Antoine and G. Groleau, “Assessing solar energy and environmental variables in urban outdoor spaces: a simulation tool,” in 5th European Conference on Solar Energy in Architecture and Urban Planning (Eurosolar, 1999).

Hénon, A.

A. Hénon, P. Mestayer, and D. Groleau, “Thermo-radiative modeling and energy balance of the urban canopy: relations between simulated and measurable temperatures,” presented at the Seventh Symposium on the Urban Environment, San Diego, California, 10-17 September 2007.

Herold, M.

M. Herold, H. Couclelis, and K. C. Clarke, “The role of spatial metrics in the analysis and modeling of urban land use change,” Comput. Environ. Urban Syst. 29, 369-399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoke, M. L.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Irvine, M.

J.-P. Lagouarde, P. Moreau, M. Irvine, J.-M. Bonnefond, J. A. Voogt, and F. Solliec, “Airbone experimental measurements of the angular variations in surface temperature over urban areas: case study of Marseille (France),” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 443-462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, L. S.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, G. T.

G. T. Johnson, T. R. Oke, T. J. Lyons, D. G. Steyn, I. D. Watson, and J. A. Voogt, “Simulation of surface urban heat islands under 'ideal' conditions at night,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 56, 275-294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, Y.

Krayenhoff, E. S.

E. S. Krayenhoff and J. A. Voogt, “A micro-scale 3D urban energy balance model for studying surface temperatures,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 123, 433-461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lac, C.

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, L. Salmond, J.-P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. Oke, C. Lac, C. Liousse, and D. Maro, “The Canopy and Aerosol Particles In Toulouse Urban Layer (CAPITOUL) experiments: first results,” Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment (AMS, 2004).

Lachérade, S.

S. Lachérade, C. Miesch, D. Boldo, X. Briottet, C. Valorge, and H. Le Men, “Development of an inversion code, ICARE, able to extract urban areas ground reflectances,” presented at the Tenth International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (ISPMSRS'07), Davos, Switzerland, 12-14 March 2007.

Lagouarde, J.-P.

J.-P. Lagouarde, P. Moreau, M. Irvine, J.-M. Bonnefond, J. A. Voogt, and F. Solliec, “Airbone experimental measurements of the angular variations in surface temperature over urban areas: case study of Marseille (France),” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 443-462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, L. Salmond, J.-P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. Oke, C. Lac, C. Liousse, and D. Maro, “The Canopy and Aerosol Particles In Toulouse Urban Layer (CAPITOUL) experiments: first results,” Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment (AMS, 2004).

Le Men, H.

S. Lachérade, C. Miesch, D. Boldo, X. Briottet, C. Valorge, and H. Le Men, “Development of an inversion code, ICARE, able to extract urban areas ground reflectances,” presented at the Tenth International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (ISPMSRS'07), Davos, Switzerland, 12-14 March 2007.

Liousse, C.

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, L. Salmond, J.-P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. Oke, C. Lac, C. Liousse, and D. Maro, “The Canopy and Aerosol Particles In Toulouse Urban Layer (CAPITOUL) experiments: first results,” Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment (AMS, 2004).

Lyons, T. J.

G. T. Johnson, T. R. Oke, T. J. Lyons, D. G. Steyn, I. D. Watson, and J. A. Voogt, “Simulation of surface urban heat islands under 'ideal' conditions at night,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 56, 275-294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Maro, D.

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, L. Salmond, J.-P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. Oke, C. Lac, C. Liousse, and D. Maro, “The Canopy and Aerosol Particles In Toulouse Urban Layer (CAPITOUL) experiments: first results,” Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment (AMS, 2004).

Masson, V.

V. Masson, “A physically-based scheme for the urban energy budget in atmospheric models,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 94, 357-397 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, L. Salmond, J.-P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. Oke, C. Lac, C. Liousse, and D. Maro, “The Canopy and Aerosol Particles In Toulouse Urban Layer (CAPITOUL) experiments: first results,” Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment (AMS, 2004).

Matthew, M. W.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mestayer, P.

P. Mestayer, P. Durand, and P. Augustin, “The urban boundary-layer field campaign in Marseille (UBL/CLU-ESCOMPTE): setup and first results,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 114, 315-365 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Hénon, P. Mestayer, and D. Groleau, “Thermo-radiative modeling and energy balance of the urban canopy: relations between simulated and measurable temperatures,” presented at the Seventh Symposium on the Urban Environment, San Diego, California, 10-17 September 2007.

Miesch, C.

S. Pallotta, X. Briottet, C. Miesch, and Y. Kerr, “Sensor radiance physical model for rugged heterogeneous surfaces in the 3-14 μm region,” Opt. Express 14, 2130-2150(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lachérade, C. Miesch, D. Boldo, X. Briottet, C. Valorge, and H. Le Men, “Development of an inversion code, ICARE, able to extract urban areas ground reflectances,” presented at the Tenth International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (ISPMSRS'07), Davos, Switzerland, 12-14 March 2007.

Moreau, P.

J.-P. Lagouarde, P. Moreau, M. Irvine, J.-M. Bonnefond, J. A. Voogt, and F. Solliec, “Airbone experimental measurements of the angular variations in surface temperature over urban areas: case study of Marseille (France),” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 443-462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Myrup, L. O.

L. O. Myrup, “A numerical model of the urban heat island,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 908-918 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Oke, T.

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, L. Salmond, J.-P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. Oke, C. Lac, C. Liousse, and D. Maro, “The Canopy and Aerosol Particles In Toulouse Urban Layer (CAPITOUL) experiments: first results,” Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment (AMS, 2004).

Oke, T. R.

A. Soux, J. A. Voogt, and T. R. Oke, “A model to calculate what a remote sensor 'sees' of an urban surface,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 111, 401-424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Voogt and T. R. Oke, “Thermal remote sensing of urban climates,” Remote Sens. Environ. 86, 370-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Voogt and T. R. Oke, “Effects of urban surface geometry on remotely-sensed surface temperature,” Intl. J. Remote Sens. 19, 895-920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Johnson, T. R. Oke, T. J. Lyons, D. G. Steyn, I. D. Watson, and J. A. Voogt, “Simulation of surface urban heat islands under 'ideal' conditions at night,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 56, 275-294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pallotta, S.

S. Pallotta, X. Briottet, C. Miesch, and Y. Kerr, “Sensor radiance physical model for rugged heterogeneous surfaces in the 3-14 μm region,” Opt. Express 14, 2130-2150(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pallotta, “Compréhension du signal issu d'une surface hétérogène dans le domaine infrarouge en télédétection : analyse de l'agrégation des propriétés thermo-optiques de ses constituents,” Ph.D. dissertation ( l'Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace, 2006).

Pelgrum, H.

T. Schmugge, A. French, J. C. Ritchie, A. Rango, and H. Pelgrum, “Temperature and emissivity separation from multispectral thermal infrared observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 79, 189-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pigeon, G.

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, L. Salmond, J.-P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. Oke, C. Lac, C. Liousse, and D. Maro, “The Canopy and Aerosol Particles In Toulouse Urban Layer (CAPITOUL) experiments: first results,” Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment (AMS, 2004).

Pinel, V.

J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, V. Demarez, V. Pinel, and F. Zagolski, “Modeling radiative transfer in heterogeneous 3D vegetation canopies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 131-156(1996).
[CrossRef]

Pukall, B.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rango, A.

T. Schmugge, A. French, J. C. Ritchie, A. Rango, and H. Pelgrum, “Temperature and emissivity separation from multispectral thermal infrared observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 79, 189-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rao, P. K.

P. K. Rao, “Remote sensing of urban heat islands from an environmental satellite,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 53, 647-648(1972).

Richtsmeier, S. C.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, J. C.

T. Schmugge, A. French, J. C. Ritchie, A. Rango, and H. Pelgrum, “Temperature and emissivity separation from multispectral thermal infrared observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 79, 189-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Salmond, L.

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, L. Salmond, J.-P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. Oke, C. Lac, C. Liousse, and D. Maro, “The Canopy and Aerosol Particles In Toulouse Urban Layer (CAPITOUL) experiments: first results,” Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment (AMS, 2004).

Schmugge, T.

T. Schmugge, A. French, J. C. Ritchie, A. Rango, and H. Pelgrum, “Temperature and emissivity separation from multispectral thermal infrared observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 79, 189-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solliec, F.

J.-P. Lagouarde, P. Moreau, M. Irvine, J.-M. Bonnefond, J. A. Voogt, and F. Solliec, “Airbone experimental measurements of the angular variations in surface temperature over urban areas: case study of Marseille (France),” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 443-462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soux, A.

A. Soux, J. A. Voogt, and T. R. Oke, “A model to calculate what a remote sensor 'sees' of an urban surface,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 111, 401-424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steyn, D. G.

G. T. Johnson, T. R. Oke, T. J. Lyons, D. G. Steyn, I. D. Watson, and J. A. Voogt, “Simulation of surface urban heat islands under 'ideal' conditions at night,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 56, 275-294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Valorge, C.

S. Lachérade, C. Miesch, D. Boldo, X. Briottet, C. Valorge, and H. Le Men, “Development of an inversion code, ICARE, able to extract urban areas ground reflectances,” presented at the Tenth International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (ISPMSRS'07), Davos, Switzerland, 12-14 March 2007.

Voogt, J.

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, L. Salmond, J.-P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. Oke, C. Lac, C. Liousse, and D. Maro, “The Canopy and Aerosol Particles In Toulouse Urban Layer (CAPITOUL) experiments: first results,” Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment (AMS, 2004).

Voogt, J. A.

J. A. Voogt, “Assessment of an urban sensor view model for thermal anisotropy,” Remote Sens.Environ. 112, 482-495(2008).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Krayenhoff and J. A. Voogt, “A micro-scale 3D urban energy balance model for studying surface temperatures,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 123, 433-461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Soux, J. A. Voogt, and T. R. Oke, “A model to calculate what a remote sensor 'sees' of an urban surface,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 111, 401-424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Lagouarde, P. Moreau, M. Irvine, J.-M. Bonnefond, J. A. Voogt, and F. Solliec, “Airbone experimental measurements of the angular variations in surface temperature over urban areas: case study of Marseille (France),” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 443-462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Voogt and T. R. Oke, “Thermal remote sensing of urban climates,” Remote Sens. Environ. 86, 370-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Voogt and T. R. Oke, “Effects of urban surface geometry on remotely-sensed surface temperature,” Intl. J. Remote Sens. 19, 895-920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Johnson, T. R. Oke, T. J. Lyons, D. G. Steyn, I. D. Watson, and J. A. Voogt, “Simulation of surface urban heat islands under 'ideal' conditions at night,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 56, 275-294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Voogt, “Remote sensing of urban surface temperatures,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of British Columbia, 1995).

Watson, I. D.

G. T. Johnson, T. R. Oke, T. J. Lyons, D. G. Steyn, I. D. Watson, and J. A. Voogt, “Simulation of surface urban heat islands under 'ideal' conditions at night,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 56, 275-294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zagolski, F.

J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, V. Demarez, V. Pinel, and F. Zagolski, “Modeling radiative transfer in heterogeneous 3D vegetation canopies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 131-156(1996).
[CrossRef]

Boundary Layer Meteorol. (5)

P. Mestayer, P. Durand, and P. Augustin, “The urban boundary-layer field campaign in Marseille (UBL/CLU-ESCOMPTE): setup and first results,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 114, 315-365 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Johnson, T. R. Oke, T. J. Lyons, D. G. Steyn, I. D. Watson, and J. A. Voogt, “Simulation of surface urban heat islands under 'ideal' conditions at night,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 56, 275-294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Krayenhoff and J. A. Voogt, “A micro-scale 3D urban energy balance model for studying surface temperatures,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 123, 433-461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Soux, J. A. Voogt, and T. R. Oke, “A model to calculate what a remote sensor 'sees' of an urban surface,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 111, 401-424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Masson, “A physically-based scheme for the urban energy budget in atmospheric models,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 94, 357-397 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

P. K. Rao, “Remote sensing of urban heat islands from an environmental satellite,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 53, 647-648(1972).

Comput. Environ. Urban Syst. (1)

M. Herold, H. Couclelis, and K. C. Clarke, “The role of spatial metrics in the analysis and modeling of urban land use change,” Comput. Environ. Urban Syst. 29, 369-399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Intl. J. Remote Sens. (2)

J. A. Voogt and T. R. Oke, “Effects of urban surface geometry on remotely-sensed surface temperature,” Intl. J. Remote Sens. 19, 895-920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Abrams, “The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) : data products for the high spatial resolution imager on NASA's Terra platform,” Intl. J. Remote Sens. 21, 847-859 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

L. O. Myrup, “A numerical model of the urban heat island,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 908-918 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (4)

J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, V. Demarez, V. Pinel, and F. Zagolski, “Modeling radiative transfer in heterogeneous 3D vegetation canopies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 131-156(1996).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Lagouarde, P. Moreau, M. Irvine, J.-M. Bonnefond, J. A. Voogt, and F. Solliec, “Airbone experimental measurements of the angular variations in surface temperature over urban areas: case study of Marseille (France),” Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 443-462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Voogt and T. R. Oke, “Thermal remote sensing of urban climates,” Remote Sens. Environ. 86, 370-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Schmugge, A. French, J. C. Ritchie, A. Rango, and H. Pelgrum, “Temperature and emissivity separation from multispectral thermal infrared observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 79, 189-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens.Environ. (1)

J. A. Voogt, “Assessment of an urban sensor view model for thermal anisotropy,” Remote Sens.Environ. 112, 482-495(2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

A. Hénon, P. Mestayer, and D. Groleau, “Thermo-radiative modeling and energy balance of the urban canopy: relations between simulated and measurable temperatures,” presented at the Seventh Symposium on the Urban Environment, San Diego, California, 10-17 September 2007.

S. Pallotta, “Compréhension du signal issu d'une surface hétérogène dans le domaine infrarouge en télédétection : analyse de l'agrégation des propriétés thermo-optiques de ses constituents,” Ph.D. dissertation ( l'Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace, 2006).

V. Masson, G. Pigeon, P. Durand, L. Gomes, L. Salmond, J.-P. Lagouarde, J. Voogt, T. Oke, C. Lac, C. Liousse, and D. Maro, “The Canopy and Aerosol Particles In Toulouse Urban Layer (CAPITOUL) experiments: first results,” Proceedings Fifth Symposium on the Urban Environment (AMS, 2004).

J. A. Voogt, “Remote sensing of urban surface temperatures,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of British Columbia, 1995).

M.-J. Antoine and G. Groleau, “Assessing solar energy and environmental variables in urban outdoor spaces: a simulation tool,” in 5th European Conference on Solar Energy in Architecture and Urban Planning (Eurosolar, 1999).

S. Lachérade, C. Miesch, D. Boldo, X. Briottet, C. Valorge, and H. Le Men, “Development of an inversion code, ICARE, able to extract urban areas ground reflectances,” presented at the Tenth International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (ISPMSRS'07), Davos, Switzerland, 12-14 March 2007.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Direct solar irradiance, E D ( P ) , and radiance, L D ( P ) .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Atmospheric irradiance E A ( P ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Environment irradiance, E env ( P ) , and radiance, L env ( P ) .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sensor radiance L S ( P ) .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated case with street material reflectances.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sensor radiance along a street profile at four wavelengths.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relative contribution of each component in the BOA radiance.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

“Equivalent” flat surface without 3D structure.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relative difference of BOA radiances ( L BOA ) between 3D and flat surfaces.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Relative contribution of each component on the BOA radiance for flat surfaces.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Temperature profiles: 15 July 2004 (left) and 25 February 2005 (right).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Top view of the street profile and aggregated area.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Angular variations of total radiance at sensor level at 8.6 μm : 15 July 2004 (left) and 25 February 2005 (right).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Angular variations for each component of the signal at sensor level at 8.6 μm for 25 February 2005 at 10 p.m. (a) reflected atmospheric radiance, (b) emitted radiance, (c) environment radiance, and (d) upwelling atmospheric radiance.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Angular variations for emitted radiance (left) and solar radiance (right) at sensor level at 8.6 μm for 15 July 2004.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Radiative Influence of the Neighborhood Size a

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E D ( P ) = E TOA · t ( u S un , P ) · n P · u s · o ( P ) ,
L D ( P ) = E D ( P ) · ρ P d d ( u S un , u s ) π ,
E A ( P ) = Ω sky L atm , ( u ) × cos θ × d ω + Ω sky ¯ L relief atm , ( u ) × cos θ × d ω ,
L A ( P ) = Ω sky L atm , ( u ) × cos θ × ρ P d d ( u , u s ) π × d ω + Ω sky ¯ L relief atm , ( u ) × cos θ × ρ P d d ( u , u s ) π × d ω ,
L emis ( P ) = ε P ( u s ) × L B B ( T P , λ ) ,
E env ( P ) = N ( P ) E env M ( P ) · d N ( P ) .
E env M ( P ) = E D env M ( P ) + E A env M ( P ) + E emis env M ( P ) ,
E D env ( P ) = N ( P ) E D ( M ) · ρ M d d ( u sun , u M P ) π · t M P · g M P · v ( P , M ) · d S M ,
E A env ( P ) = N ( P ) E A ( M ) π · ρ M d h ( u M P ) · t M P · g M P · v ( P , M ) · d S M ,
E emis env ( P ) = N ( P ) ε M ( u M P ) · L B B ( T M ) · t M P · g M P · v ( P , M ) · d S M ,
g M P = n P · u P M · n M · u M P r 2 .
L env ( P ) = N ( P ) L env M ( P ) · d N ( P ) ,
L env M ( P ) = L D env M ( P ) + L A env M ( P ) + L emis env M ( P ) .
L BOA ( P ) = L D ( P ) + L A ( P ) + L emis ( P ) + L env ( P ) .
L S ( P ) = Ω IFOV [ L BOA ( P ) · t P sensor + L atm , ] · d ω ,
Δ L L = α × Δ T T + Δ ε ε Δ T = 1 % × T 4 0.7 K with T = 300 K .
L aggregated ( λ , θ sensor , φ sensor ) = 1 Ω i L sensor , i ( λ , θ sensor , φ sensor ) × d ω i ,

Metrics