Abstract

The influence of surface roughness on the polarimetric performance of a wire-grid polarizer (WGP) is numerically investigated using rigorous coupled-wave analysis over 100 random surface realizations. Surface roughness is modeled with a Gaussian surface, represented by two independent parameters: surface height deviation and correlation length of a profile. The results show that WGP performance can suffer from significant degradation as well as increased deviation with surface roughness, although the extent varies with specific parameters. The influence of roughness was also examined with respect to grating period as a WGP parameter and incident light properties, such as wavelength and angle.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, and K.-D. Lee, “Fabrication of a nano-wire grid polarizer for brightness enhancement in liquid crystal display,” Nanotechnol. 17, 4436-4438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

S.-W. Ahn, K.-D. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, S.-H. Lee, and P.-W. Yoon, “Fabrication of a 50 nm half-pitch wire grid polarizer using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnol. 16, 1874-1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Kim, “Polarization characteristics of a wire-grid polarizer in a rotating platform,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1366-1371 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kim, “Performance uniformity analysis of a wire-grid polarizer in imaging polarimetry,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5398-5402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

F. W. Millet and K. F. Warnick, “Validity of rough surface backscattering models,” Waves Random Media 14, 327-347(2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

2001 (1)

F. A. Sadjadi and C. S. L. Chun, “Passive polarimetric IR target classification,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 37, 740-751 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. H. Smith, J. D. Howe, J. B. Woodruff, M. A. Miller, G. R. Ax, T. E. Petty, and E. A. Sornsin, “Multispectral infrared Stokes imaging polarimeter,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 137-143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

Y. Kuga, J. S. Colburn, and P. Phu, “Millimetre-wave scattering from one-dimensional surfaces of different surface correlation functions,” Waves Random Media 3, 101-110(1993).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1907 (1)

J. W. S. Rayleigh, “Note on the remarkable case of diffraction spectra described by Prof. Wood,” Philos. Mag. 14, 60-65(1907).

1902 (1)

R. W. Wood, “On the remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 18, 269-275 (1902).
[CrossRef]

Adamson, D. H.

Ahn, S.-W.

S.-W. Ahn, K.-D. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, S.-H. Lee, and P.-W. Yoon, “Fabrication of a 50 nm half-pitch wire grid polarizer using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnol. 16, 1874-1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Akioka, S.

Arnold, S.

S. Arnold, E. Gardner, D. Hansen, and R. Perkins, “An improved polarizing beamsplitter LCOS projection display based on wire-grid polarizers,” in SID 01 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2001), pp. 1282-1285.
[CrossRef]

Asakawa, K.

Ax, G. R.

M. H. Smith, J. D. Howe, J. B. Woodruff, M. A. Miller, G. R. Ax, T. E. Petty, and E. A. Sornsin, “Multispectral infrared Stokes imaging polarimeter,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 137-143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burke, K.

Byun, K. M.

Chaikin, P. M.

Chen, E.

E. Chen and S. Y. Chou, “Polarimetry of thin metal transmission gratings in the resonance region and its impact on the response of metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2673-2675 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.-C.

H.-L. Kuo, C.-H. Chiu, and P.-C. Chen, “A novel wire grid polarizer,” in SID 04 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2004), pp. 732-735.
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C.

Chiu, C.-H.

H.-L. Kuo, C.-H. Chiu, and P.-C. Chen, “A novel wire grid polarizer,” in SID 04 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2004), pp. 732-735.
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. S.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Kim, H. J. Min, H. S. Kim, S. C. Kang, S. E. Lee, K. H. Park, J. H. Oh, S. H. Kim, D. H. Kang, J. S. Choi, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “A wire grid stereoscopic display,” in SID 06 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 89-92.
[CrossRef]

Chou, H.

Chou, S. Y.

E. Chen and S. Y. Chou, “Polarimetry of thin metal transmission gratings in the resonance region and its impact on the response of metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2673-2675 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chun, C. S. L.

F. A. Sadjadi and C. S. L. Chun, “Passive polarimetric IR target classification,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 37, 740-751 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Colburn, J. S.

Y. Kuga, J. S. Colburn, and P. Phu, “Millimetre-wave scattering from one-dimensional surfaces of different surface correlation functions,” Waves Random Media 3, 101-110(1993).
[CrossRef]

Deng, X.

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. Deng, “High performance, large area, deep ultraviolet to infrared polarizers based on 40 nm line/78 nm space nanowire grids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doumuki, T.

Fainman, Y.

Fang, Q.

Y. T. Pang, G. W. Meng, Q. Fang, and L. D. Zhang, “Silver nanowire array infrared polarizers,” Nanotechnol. 14, 20-24(2003).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, E.

S. Arnold, E. Gardner, D. Hansen, and R. Perkins, “An improved polarizing beamsplitter LCOS projection display based on wire-grid polarizers,” in SID 01 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2001), pp. 1282-1285.
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Hansen, D.

S. Arnold, E. Gardner, D. Hansen, and R. Perkins, “An improved polarizing beamsplitter LCOS projection display based on wire-grid polarizers,” in SID 01 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2001), pp. 1282-1285.
[CrossRef]

Hong, S. M.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Kim, H. J. Min, H. S. Kim, S. C. Kang, S. E. Lee, K. H. Park, J. H. Oh, S. H. Kim, D. H. Kang, J. S. Choi, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “A wire grid stereoscopic display,” in SID 06 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 89-92.
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y.-R.

Howe, J. D.

M. H. Smith, J. D. Howe, J. B. Woodruff, M. A. Miller, G. R. Ax, T. E. Petty, and E. A. Sornsin, “Multispectral infrared Stokes imaging polarimeter,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 137-143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hur, J. H.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Kim, H. J. Min, H. S. Kim, S. C. Kang, S. E. Lee, K. H. Park, J. H. Oh, S. H. Kim, D. H. Kang, J. S. Choi, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “A wire grid stereoscopic display,” in SID 06 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 89-92.
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Kim, H. J. Min, H. S. Kim, S. C. Kang, S. E. Lee, K. H. Park, J. H. Oh, S. H. Kim, D. H. Kang, J. S. Choi, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “A wire grid stereoscopic display,” in SID 06 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 89-92.
[CrossRef]

Kang, D. H.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Kim, H. J. Min, H. S. Kim, S. C. Kang, S. E. Lee, K. H. Park, J. H. Oh, S. H. Kim, D. H. Kang, J. S. Choi, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “A wire grid stereoscopic display,” in SID 06 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 89-92.
[CrossRef]

Kang, S. C.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Kim, H. J. Min, H. S. Kim, S. C. Kang, S. E. Lee, K. H. Park, J. H. Oh, S. H. Kim, D. H. Kang, J. S. Choi, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “A wire grid stereoscopic display,” in SID 06 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 89-92.
[CrossRef]

Kessler, D.

X.-D. Mi, D. Kessler, L. W. Tutt, and L. Weller-Brophy, “Low-fill-factor wire-grid polarizers for LCD backlighting,” in SID 05 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2005), pp. 1004-1007.
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

Kim, H. S.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Kim, H. J. Min, H. S. Kim, S. C. Kang, S. E. Lee, K. H. Park, J. H. Oh, S. H. Kim, D. H. Kang, J. S. Choi, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “A wire grid stereoscopic display,” in SID 06 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 89-92.
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-S.

S.-W. Ahn, K.-D. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, S.-H. Lee, and P.-W. Yoon, “Fabrication of a 50 nm half-pitch wire grid polarizer using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnol. 16, 1874-1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. J.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Kim, H. J. Min, H. S. Kim, S. C. Kang, S. E. Lee, K. H. Park, J. H. Oh, S. H. Kim, D. H. Kang, J. S. Choi, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “A wire grid stereoscopic display,” in SID 06 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 89-92.
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, and K.-D. Lee, “Fabrication of a nano-wire grid polarizer for brightness enhancement in liquid crystal display,” Nanotechnol. 17, 4436-4438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Ahn, K.-D. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, S.-H. Lee, and P.-W. Yoon, “Fabrication of a 50 nm half-pitch wire grid polarizer using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnol. 16, 1874-1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Lee, M. J. Kim, H. J. Min, H. S. Kim, S. C. Kang, S. E. Lee, K. H. Park, J. H. Oh, S. H. Kim, D. H. Kang, J. S. Choi, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “A wire grid stereoscopic display,” in SID 06 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 89-92.
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. J.

Kintaka, K.

Knotts, M. E.

Kuga, Y.

Y. Kuga, J. S. Colburn, and P. Phu, “Millimetre-wave scattering from one-dimensional surfaces of different surface correlation functions,” Waves Random Media 3, 101-110(1993).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.-L.

H.-L. Kuo, C.-H. Chiu, and P.-C. Chen, “A novel wire grid polarizer,” in SID 04 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2004), pp. 732-735.
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H.-S.

Lee, K.-D.

S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, and K.-D. Lee, “Fabrication of a nano-wire grid polarizer for brightness enhancement in liquid crystal display,” Nanotechnol. 17, 4436-4438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Ahn, K.-D. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, S.-H. Lee, and P.-W. Yoon, “Fabrication of a 50 nm half-pitch wire grid polarizer using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnol. 16, 1874-1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. E.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Kim, H. J. Min, H. S. Kim, S. C. Kang, S. E. Lee, K. H. Park, J. H. Oh, S. H. Kim, D. H. Kang, J. S. Choi, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “A wire grid stereoscopic display,” in SID 06 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 89-92.
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Kim, H. J. Min, H. S. Kim, S. C. Kang, S. E. Lee, K. H. Park, J. H. Oh, S. H. Kim, D. H. Kang, J. S. Choi, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “A wire grid stereoscopic display,” in SID 06 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 89-92.
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-H.

S.-W. Ahn, K.-D. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, S.-H. Lee, and P.-W. Yoon, “Fabrication of a 50 nm half-pitch wire grid polarizer using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnol. 16, 1874-1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. Deng, “High performance, large area, deep ultraviolet to infrared polarizers based on 40 nm line/78 nm space nanowire grids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loewen, E. G.

E. G. Loewen and E. Popov, Diffraction Gratings and Applications (Marcel Dekker, 1997), Chap. 8, pp. 285-322.

Matsumoto, S.

Meng, G. W.

Y. T. Pang, G. W. Meng, Q. Fang, and L. D. Zhang, “Silver nanowire array infrared polarizers,” Nanotechnol. 14, 20-24(2003).
[CrossRef]

Mi, X.-D.

X.-D. Mi, D. Kessler, L. W. Tutt, and L. Weller-Brophy, “Low-fill-factor wire-grid polarizers for LCD backlighting,” in SID 05 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2005), pp. 1004-1007.
[CrossRef]

Michel, T. R.

Miller, M. A.

M. H. Smith, J. D. Howe, J. B. Woodruff, M. A. Miller, G. R. Ax, T. E. Petty, and E. A. Sornsin, “Multispectral infrared Stokes imaging polarimeter,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 137-143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Millet, F. W.

F. W. Millet and K. F. Warnick, “Validity of rough surface backscattering models,” Waves Random Media 14, 327-347(2004).
[CrossRef]

Min, H. J.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Kim, H. J. Min, H. S. Kim, S. C. Kang, S. E. Lee, K. H. Park, J. H. Oh, S. H. Kim, D. H. Kang, J. S. Choi, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “A wire grid stereoscopic display,” in SID 06 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 89-92.
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Nishii, J.

O'Donnell, K. A.

Ogilvy, J. A.

J. A. Ogilvy, Theory of Wave Scattering from Random Rough Surfaces (Institute of Physics, 1991).

Oh, J. H.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Kim, H. J. Min, H. S. Kim, S. C. Kang, S. E. Lee, K. H. Park, J. H. Oh, S. H. Kim, D. H. Kang, J. S. Choi, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “A wire grid stereoscopic display,” in SID 06 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 89-92.
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

Pang, Y. T.

Y. T. Pang, G. W. Meng, Q. Fang, and L. D. Zhang, “Silver nanowire array infrared polarizers,” Nanotechnol. 14, 20-24(2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-D.

S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, and K.-D. Lee, “Fabrication of a nano-wire grid polarizer for brightness enhancement in liquid crystal display,” Nanotechnol. 17, 4436-4438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Ahn, K.-D. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, S.-H. Lee, and P.-W. Yoon, “Fabrication of a 50 nm half-pitch wire grid polarizer using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnol. 16, 1874-1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. H.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Kim, H. J. Min, H. S. Kim, S. C. Kang, S. E. Lee, K. H. Park, J. H. Oh, S. H. Kim, D. H. Kang, J. S. Choi, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “A wire grid stereoscopic display,” in SID 06 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 89-92.
[CrossRef]

Perkins, R.

S. Arnold, E. Gardner, D. Hansen, and R. Perkins, “An improved polarizing beamsplitter LCOS projection display based on wire-grid polarizers,” in SID 01 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2001), pp. 1282-1285.
[CrossRef]

Petty, T. E.

M. H. Smith, J. D. Howe, J. B. Woodruff, M. A. Miller, G. R. Ax, T. E. Petty, and E. A. Sornsin, “Multispectral infrared Stokes imaging polarimeter,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 137-143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phu, P.

Y. Kuga, J. S. Colburn, and P. Phu, “Millimetre-wave scattering from one-dimensional surfaces of different surface correlation functions,” Waves Random Media 3, 101-110(1993).
[CrossRef]

Popov, E.

E. G. Loewen and E. Popov, Diffraction Gratings and Applications (Marcel Dekker, 1997), Chap. 8, pp. 285-322.

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmon on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Rayleigh, J. W. S.

J. W. S. Rayleigh, “Note on the remarkable case of diffraction spectra described by Prof. Wood,” Philos. Mag. 14, 60-65(1907).

Register, R. A.

Sadjadi, F. A.

F. A. Sadjadi and C. S. L. Chun, “Passive polarimetric IR target classification,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 37, 740-751 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

Salvekar, A.

Scherer, A.

Sciortino, P.

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. Deng, “High performance, large area, deep ultraviolet to infrared polarizers based on 40 nm line/78 nm space nanowire grids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sim, E.

Smith, M. H.

M. H. Smith, J. D. Howe, J. B. Woodruff, M. A. Miller, G. R. Ax, T. E. Petty, and E. A. Sornsin, “Multispectral infrared Stokes imaging polarimeter,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 137-143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sornsin, E. A.

M. H. Smith, J. D. Howe, J. B. Woodruff, M. A. Miller, G. R. Ax, T. E. Petty, and E. A. Sornsin, “Multispectral infrared Stokes imaging polarimeter,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 137-143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, P. C.

Tamada, H.

Tutt, L. W.

X.-D. Mi, D. Kessler, L. W. Tutt, and L. Weller-Brophy, “Low-fill-factor wire-grid polarizers for LCD backlighting,” in SID 05 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2005), pp. 1004-1007.
[CrossRef]

Tyan, R.

Vaccaro, K.

Walters, F.

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. Deng, “High performance, large area, deep ultraviolet to infrared polarizers based on 40 nm line/78 nm space nanowire grids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. J.

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. Deng, “High performance, large area, deep ultraviolet to infrared polarizers based on 40 nm line/78 nm space nanowire grids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Warde, C.

Warnick, K. F.

F. W. Millet and K. F. Warnick, “Validity of rough surface backscattering models,” Waves Random Media 14, 327-347(2004).
[CrossRef]

Weller-Brophy, L.

X.-D. Mi, D. Kessler, L. W. Tutt, and L. Weller-Brophy, “Low-fill-factor wire-grid polarizers for LCD backlighting,” in SID 05 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2005), pp. 1004-1007.
[CrossRef]

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, “On the remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 18, 269-275 (1902).
[CrossRef]

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M. H. Smith, J. D. Howe, J. B. Woodruff, M. A. Miller, G. R. Ax, T. E. Petty, and E. A. Sornsin, “Multispectral infrared Stokes imaging polarimeter,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 137-143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Yoon, S. J.

Yu, X.-J.

Zhang, L. D.

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

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[CrossRef]

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. Deng, “High performance, large area, deep ultraviolet to infrared polarizers based on 40 nm line/78 nm space nanowire grids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, and K.-D. Lee, “Fabrication of a nano-wire grid polarizer for brightness enhancement in liquid crystal display,” Nanotechnol. 17, 4436-4438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Ahn, K.-D. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, S.-H. Lee, and P.-W. Yoon, “Fabrication of a 50 nm half-pitch wire grid polarizer using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnol. 16, 1874-1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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R. W. Wood, “On the remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 18, 269-275 (1902).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. H. Smith, J. D. Howe, J. B. Woodruff, M. A. Miller, G. R. Ax, T. E. Petty, and E. A. Sornsin, “Multispectral infrared Stokes imaging polarimeter,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 137-143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

S. J. Lee, M. J. Kim, H. J. Min, H. S. Kim, S. C. Kang, S. E. Lee, K. H. Park, J. H. Oh, S. H. Kim, D. H. Kang, J. S. Choi, S. M. Hong, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “A wire grid stereoscopic display,” in SID 06 Digest (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 89-92.
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

WGP model without roughness

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Representative surface profiles produced with random surface parameters at δ = 3.0 nm and CL = (a)  50 nm , (b)  100 nm , (c)  150 nm , and (d)  200 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TM transmittance as a function of (a) δ and (b) CL statistically averaged for 100 surface realizations ( N = 100 ) when Λ = 200 nm at normal incidence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Statistically-averaged ER when Λ = 200 nm at normal incidence as a function of (a) δ and (b) CL.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) TM transmittance and (b) ER, as a function of wire-grid period Λ, of a WGP on a flat surface (solid line) and with roughness at δ = 30 nm and CL = 50 nm (squares). Normal incidence at λ = 400 nm is assumed. The results with roughness were statistically averaged for 100 surface realizations. Error bars represent standard deviation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) TM transmittance and (b) ER, as a function of incident light wavelength λ, of a WGP on a flat surface (solid line) and with roughness at δ = 3.0 nm and CL = 50 nm (squares). Normal incidence at Λ = 20 nm is assumed.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) TM transmittance and (b) ER, as a function of incidence angle θ, of a WGP on a flat surface (solid line) and with roughness at δ = 3.0 nm and CL = 50 nm (squares). Light incidence at λ = 400 nm is assumed on wire grids at Λ = 200 nm .

Equations (1)

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W ( K ) = δ 2 · CL 2 π exp ( CL 2 4 K 2 ) ,

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