Abstract

We propose a method for manufacturing linear variable interference filters for two-dimensional (2D) array detectors, based on the use of correcting masks combining both rotation and translation movements of the masks and substrates. The major advantage of this method is its capability to produce several identical filters in a single run. 20mm×20mm samples were manufactured with a wavelength ratio almost equal to 2 along the thickness gradient direction. In agreement with calculations, the measured uniformity perpendicular to the gradient is about 99.8% along 20mm.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. A. Macleod, “Layer uniformity and thickness monitoring,” in Thin-Film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (Institute of Physics, 2001), pp. 488-497.
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Piegari, “Graded coatings,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1995), pp. 475-519.
  3. A. Piegari, M. R. Perrone, and M. L. Protopapa, “Ultraviolet-graded coatings for lasers: surface optical performance,” Thin Solid Films 373, 155-158 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. P. Coates, “New microspectrometers,” Spectrosc. 15, 21-27(2000).
  5. A. Semery, “Wedge filter imaging spectrometer,” presented at the Sixth International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO 2006), Noordwijk, Nederland, 27-30 June 2006).
  6. A. Piegari and J. Bulir, “Variable narrowband transmission filters with a wide rejection band for spectrometry,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3768 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Villa and O. Pompa, “Emission pattern of a real vapor sources in high vacuum: an overview,” Appl. Opt. 38, 695-703 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Yamamura and N. Itoh, “Sputtering yield,” in Ion Beam Assisted Film Growth, T. Itoh, ed., Beam Modification of Materials (Elsevier, 1989), Vol. 3, pp. 59-100.
  9. E. Vireton, P. Ganau, J. M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, A. Remillieux, and P. Laprat, “SiO2-Ta2O5 sputtering yields: simulated and experimental results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 95, 34-40 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Pekker, “Using calibration tests for adjusting target uniformity masks,” Thin Solid Films 474, 211-216(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Abel-Tiberini, F. Lemarquis, and M. Lequime, “Dedicated spectrophotometer for localized transmittance and reflectance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1386-1391(2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

L. Pekker, “Using calibration tests for adjusting target uniformity masks,” Thin Solid Films 474, 211-216(2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. Piegari, M. R. Perrone, and M. L. Protopapa, “Ultraviolet-graded coatings for lasers: surface optical performance,” Thin Solid Films 373, 155-158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Coates, “New microspectrometers,” Spectrosc. 15, 21-27(2000).

1999 (1)

1995 (1)

E. Vireton, P. Ganau, J. M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, A. Remillieux, and P. Laprat, “SiO2-Ta2O5 sputtering yields: simulated and experimental results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 95, 34-40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Abel-Tiberini, L.

Bulir, J.

Coates, J. P.

J. P. Coates, “New microspectrometers,” Spectrosc. 15, 21-27(2000).

Ganau, P.

E. Vireton, P. Ganau, J. M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, A. Remillieux, and P. Laprat, “SiO2-Ta2O5 sputtering yields: simulated and experimental results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 95, 34-40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, N.

Y. Yamamura and N. Itoh, “Sputtering yield,” in Ion Beam Assisted Film Growth, T. Itoh, ed., Beam Modification of Materials (Elsevier, 1989), Vol. 3, pp. 59-100.

Laprat, P.

E. Vireton, P. Ganau, J. M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, A. Remillieux, and P. Laprat, “SiO2-Ta2O5 sputtering yields: simulated and experimental results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 95, 34-40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lemarquis, F.

Lequime, M.

Mackowski, J. M.

E. Vireton, P. Ganau, J. M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, A. Remillieux, and P. Laprat, “SiO2-Ta2O5 sputtering yields: simulated and experimental results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 95, 34-40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, “Layer uniformity and thickness monitoring,” in Thin-Film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (Institute of Physics, 2001), pp. 488-497.
[CrossRef]

Michel, C.

E. Vireton, P. Ganau, J. M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, A. Remillieux, and P. Laprat, “SiO2-Ta2O5 sputtering yields: simulated and experimental results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 95, 34-40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pekker, L.

L. Pekker, “Using calibration tests for adjusting target uniformity masks,” Thin Solid Films 474, 211-216(2005).
[CrossRef]

Perrone, M. R.

A. Piegari, M. R. Perrone, and M. L. Protopapa, “Ultraviolet-graded coatings for lasers: surface optical performance,” Thin Solid Films 373, 155-158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Piegari, A.

A. Piegari and J. Bulir, “Variable narrowband transmission filters with a wide rejection band for spectrometry,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3768 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Piegari, M. R. Perrone, and M. L. Protopapa, “Ultraviolet-graded coatings for lasers: surface optical performance,” Thin Solid Films 373, 155-158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Piegari, “Graded coatings,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1995), pp. 475-519.

Pinard, L.

E. Vireton, P. Ganau, J. M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, A. Remillieux, and P. Laprat, “SiO2-Ta2O5 sputtering yields: simulated and experimental results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 95, 34-40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pompa, O.

Protopapa, M. L.

A. Piegari, M. R. Perrone, and M. L. Protopapa, “Ultraviolet-graded coatings for lasers: surface optical performance,” Thin Solid Films 373, 155-158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Remillieux, A.

E. Vireton, P. Ganau, J. M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, A. Remillieux, and P. Laprat, “SiO2-Ta2O5 sputtering yields: simulated and experimental results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 95, 34-40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Semery, A.

A. Semery, “Wedge filter imaging spectrometer,” presented at the Sixth International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO 2006), Noordwijk, Nederland, 27-30 June 2006).

Villa, F.

Vireton, E.

E. Vireton, P. Ganau, J. M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, A. Remillieux, and P. Laprat, “SiO2-Ta2O5 sputtering yields: simulated and experimental results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 95, 34-40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamamura, Y.

Y. Yamamura and N. Itoh, “Sputtering yield,” in Ion Beam Assisted Film Growth, T. Itoh, ed., Beam Modification of Materials (Elsevier, 1989), Vol. 3, pp. 59-100.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

E. Vireton, P. Ganau, J. M. Mackowski, C. Michel, L. Pinard, A. Remillieux, and P. Laprat, “SiO2-Ta2O5 sputtering yields: simulated and experimental results,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 95, 34-40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spectrosc. (1)

J. P. Coates, “New microspectrometers,” Spectrosc. 15, 21-27(2000).

Thin Solid Films (2)

L. Pekker, “Using calibration tests for adjusting target uniformity masks,” Thin Solid Films 474, 211-216(2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Piegari, M. R. Perrone, and M. L. Protopapa, “Ultraviolet-graded coatings for lasers: surface optical performance,” Thin Solid Films 373, 155-158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. Semery, “Wedge filter imaging spectrometer,” presented at the Sixth International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO 2006), Noordwijk, Nederland, 27-30 June 2006).

Y. Yamamura and N. Itoh, “Sputtering yield,” in Ion Beam Assisted Film Growth, T. Itoh, ed., Beam Modification of Materials (Elsevier, 1989), Vol. 3, pp. 59-100.

H. A. Macleod, “Layer uniformity and thickness monitoring,” in Thin-Film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (Institute of Physics, 2001), pp. 488-497.
[CrossRef]

A. Piegari, “Graded coatings,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1995), pp. 475-519.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representation of the sputtering machine geometry used for the calculation and manufacturing of the linear variable filters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Definition of a static masking geometry for the deposition of linear variable filters. The mask is formed by the union of a curved one (mask 1) and a polygonal one (mask 2) so that the rotating substrate is progressively hidden during half a turn.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated uniformity of a linear variable filter deposited with a static mask and a rotating substrate. Isothickness lines are circular, the center corresponding to the rotation axis of the substrate holder.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two possible geometries for producing linear variable filters with a translation movement. (a) The translation is limited to the length of the substrate; the thickness gradient is linked with the translation speed and aligned with the movement. The result is sensitive to the deposition process uniformity. (b) The translation length must be long enough to hide the substrate behind the mask on both sides; the thickness gradient is linked to the length of the mask and perpendicular to the movement direction. In case the mask is fixed and the translation is applied to the substrate, isothickness lines are perfectly straight.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Representation of a mechanism combining a translation movement of the mask with the rotation of the substrate. The translation is induced by the rotation by the mean of an external came.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical angular deposition rate for the internal, central, and external positions of the substrate. The deposition rate is higher closer to the material target ( 0 ° ) and lower on the opposite side ( 180 ° ).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Angular deposition rate for points A, B, and C of the central line (see Fig. 5). To compensate for the angular shift existing between points A and B and, thus, to deposit the same thickness of material, the mask should be open symmetrically ( Δ θ 2 ).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Definition of a masking geometry combining a translation of the mask with the rotation of the substrate for the deposition of linear variable filters. The position of the edge of the mask can be regarded as the came shape. The rotating substrate is progressively hidden during half a turn.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated uniformity of a linear variable filter deposited with a masking mechanism combining the translation of the mask with the rotation of the substrate. Isothickness lines are almost straight, with a transverse uniformity higher than 0.998 over a 20 mm length.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mapping of the Uniformity Mismatch Between Calculated and Measured Values Obtained for a Ta 2 O 5 Single Layer Deposited on a 250 mm × 180 mm Static Substrate a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Transverse Uniformity Calculated for the Internal, Central, and External Lines for a Linear Variable Coating Manufactured Using Both a Translation and a Rotation Movement in the Masking Mechanism

Tables Icon

Table 3 Centering Wavelengths Measured on a Linear Variable Filter Manufactured using Both Translation and Rotation movements in the Masking Mechanism

Tables Icon

Table 4 Transverse Uniformity Measured on a Linear Variable Filter Manufactured Using Both Translation and Rotation Movements in the Masking Mechanism

Equations (4)

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cos θ S cos a θ T / R 2 ,
W ( r ) = e r 2 / 2 d 2 Ln ( b ) ,
r = 50 10 cos θ ,
r = 60 20 cos θ .

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