Abstract

Near-field optical properties and surface plasmon effects in a silver-shell nanocylinder pair with five different dielectric holes (DHs) that interact with a transverse magnetic mode incident plane wave are simulated by use of the finite-element method, which includes the investigation of particle–particle interaction. The proposed structure exhibits a redshifted localized surface plasmon that can be tuned over an extended wavelength range by varying the dielectric constant in DHs and the thickness of the nanocylinder silver shell. The increase in the near-field intensity is attributed to a larger effective size of DH that is filled with a higher refractive medium.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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Y.-F. Chau and D. P. Tsai, “Three-dimensional analysis of silver nano-particles doping effects on super resolution near-field structure,” Opt. Commun. 269, 389-394 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Numerical investigation of the transmission enhancement through subwavelength hole array,” Opt. Commun. 274, 236-240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. Evans, D. O'Connor, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic nanoantenna arrays: a metamaterial with tuneable optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. Atkinson, W. R. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, P. Evans, and R. J. Pollard, “Anisotropic optical properties of arrays of gold nanorods embedded in alumina,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 235402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, “Enhanced transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: the role of localized waveguide resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 233901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

L. A. Sweatlock, S. A. Maier, H. A. Atwater, J. J. Penninkhof, and A. Polman, “Highly confined electromagnetic fields in arrays of strongly coupled Ag nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Ghenuche, R. Quidant, and G. Badenes, “Cumulative plasmon field enhancement in finite metal particle chains,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1882-1884 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4316-4318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Chau, T.-J. Yang, and D. P. Tsai, “Imaging properties of three dimensional aperture near-field scanning optical microscopy and optimized near-field fiber probe designs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 8115-8125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W.Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Prodan, , P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Electronic structure and optical properties of gold nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 3, 1411-1415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Jackson, S. L. Westcott, L. R. Hirsch, J. L. West, and N. J. Halas, “Controlling the surface enhanced Raman effect via the nanoshell geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-similar chain of metal nanospheres as an efficient nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. W. C. Cao, R. C. Jin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection,” Science 297, 1536-1540 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, ”Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1101-1106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783-826 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-similar chain of metal nanospheres as an efficient nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W.Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkinson, R.

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. Evans, D. O'Connor, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic nanoantenna arrays: a metamaterial with tuneable optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Atkinson, W. R. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, P. Evans, and R. J. Pollard, “Anisotropic optical properties of arrays of gold nanorods embedded in alumina,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 235402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

L. A. Sweatlock, S. A. Maier, H. A. Atwater, J. J. Penninkhof, and A. Polman, “Highly confined electromagnetic fields in arrays of strongly coupled Ag nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Badenes, G.

Bergman, D. J.

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-similar chain of metal nanospheres as an efficient nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohren, C.

C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Bryant, G. W.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W.Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, Q.

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, Y. W. C.

Y. W. C. Cao, R. C. Jin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection,” Science 297, 1536-1540 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chau, Y.-F.

Y.-F. Chau and D. P. Tsai, “Three-dimensional analysis of silver nano-particles doping effects on super resolution near-field structure,” Opt. Commun. 269, 389-394 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Chau, T.-J. Yang, and D. P. Tsai, “Imaging properties of three dimensional aperture near-field scanning optical microscopy and optimized near-field fiber probe designs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 8115-8125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Numerical investigation of the transmission enhancement through subwavelength hole array,” Opt. Commun. 274, 236-240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dickson, W.

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. Evans, D. O'Connor, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic nanoantenna arrays: a metamaterial with tuneable optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Atkinson, W. R. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, P. Evans, and R. J. Pollard, “Anisotropic optical properties of arrays of gold nanorods embedded in alumina,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 235402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, ”Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1101-1106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P.

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. Evans, D. O'Connor, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic nanoantenna arrays: a metamaterial with tuneable optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Atkinson, W. R. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, P. Evans, and R. J. Pollard, “Anisotropic optical properties of arrays of gold nanorods embedded in alumina,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 235402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

García de Abajo, F. J.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W.Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghenuche, P.

Gresho, P. M.

P. M. Gresho and R. L. Sani, Incompressible Flow and Finite Element Method (Wiley, 2000), Vols. 1 and 2.

Halas, N. J.

J. B. Jackson, S. L. Westcott, L. R. Hirsch, J. L. West, and N. J. Halas, “Controlling the surface enhanced Raman effect via the nanoshell geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Prodan, , P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Electronic structure and optical properties of gold nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 3, 1411-1415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hanarp, P.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W.Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendren, W. R.

R. Atkinson, W. R. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, P. Evans, and R. J. Pollard, “Anisotropic optical properties of arrays of gold nanorods embedded in alumina,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 235402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirsch, L. R.

J. B. Jackson, S. L. Westcott, L. R. Hirsch, J. L. West, and N. J. Halas, “Controlling the surface enhanced Raman effect via the nanoshell geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D.

C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Jackson, J. B.

J. B. Jackson, S. L. Westcott, L. R. Hirsch, J. L. West, and N. J. Halas, “Controlling the surface enhanced Raman effect via the nanoshell geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jin, R. C.

Y. W. C. Cao, R. C. Jin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection,” Science 297, 1536-1540 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Käll, M.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W.Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4316-4318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamprecht, B.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-similar chain of metal nanospheres as an efficient nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

Y. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Numerical investigation of the transmission enhancement through subwavelength hole array,” Opt. Commun. 274, 236-240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

L. A. Sweatlock, S. A. Maier, H. A. Atwater, J. J. Penninkhof, and A. Polman, “Highly confined electromagnetic fields in arrays of strongly coupled Ag nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mirkin, C. A.

Y. W. C. Cao, R. C. Jin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection,” Science 297, 1536-1540 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moskovits, M.

M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783-826 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nie, S.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, ”Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1101-1106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

E. Prodan, , P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Electronic structure and optical properties of gold nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 3, 1411-1415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O'Connor, D.

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. Evans, D. O'Connor, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic nanoantenna arrays: a metamaterial with tuneable optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Penninkhof, J. J.

L. A. Sweatlock, S. A. Maier, H. A. Atwater, J. J. Penninkhof, and A. Polman, “Highly confined electromagnetic fields in arrays of strongly coupled Ag nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pollard, R.

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. Evans, D. O'Connor, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic nanoantenna arrays: a metamaterial with tuneable optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pollard, R. J.

R. Atkinson, W. R. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, P. Evans, and R. J. Pollard, “Anisotropic optical properties of arrays of gold nanorods embedded in alumina,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 235402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

L. A. Sweatlock, S. A. Maier, H. A. Atwater, J. J. Penninkhof, and A. Polman, “Highly confined electromagnetic fields in arrays of strongly coupled Ag nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prodan, E.

E. Prodan, , P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Electronic structure and optical properties of gold nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 3, 1411-1415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, “Enhanced transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: the role of localized waveguide resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 233901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quidant, R.

Rechberger, W.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Z.

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, “Enhanced transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: the role of localized waveguide resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 233901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sani, R. L.

P. M. Gresho and R. L. Sani, Incompressible Flow and Finite Element Method (Wiley, 2000), Vols. 1 and 2.

Segerink, F. B.

K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4316-4318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, D. S.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W.Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweatlock, L. A.

L. A. Sweatlock, S. A. Maier, H. A. Atwater, J. J. Penninkhof, and A. Polman, “Highly confined electromagnetic fields in arrays of strongly coupled Ag nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D. P.

Y.-F. Chau and D. P. Tsai, “Three-dimensional analysis of silver nano-particles doping effects on super resolution near-field structure,” Opt. Commun. 269, 389-394 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Chau, T.-J. Yang, and D. P. Tsai, “Imaging properties of three dimensional aperture near-field scanning optical microscopy and optimized near-field fiber probe designs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 8115-8125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van der Molen, K. L.

K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4316-4318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4316-4318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Numerical investigation of the transmission enhancement through subwavelength hole array,” Opt. Commun. 274, 236-240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

West, J. L.

J. B. Jackson, S. L. Westcott, L. R. Hirsch, J. L. West, and N. J. Halas, “Controlling the surface enhanced Raman effect via the nanoshell geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Westcott, S. L.

J. B. Jackson, S. L. Westcott, L. R. Hirsch, J. L. West, and N. J. Halas, “Controlling the surface enhanced Raman effect via the nanoshell geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wurtz, G. A.

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. Evans, D. O'Connor, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic nanoantenna arrays: a metamaterial with tuneable optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Atkinson, W. R. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, P. Evans, and R. J. Pollard, “Anisotropic optical properties of arrays of gold nanorods embedded in alumina,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 235402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T.-J.

Y.-F. Chau, T.-J. Yang, and D. P. Tsai, “Imaging properties of three dimensional aperture near-field scanning optical microscopy and optimized near-field fiber probe designs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 8115-8125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. Evans, D. O'Connor, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic nanoantenna arrays: a metamaterial with tuneable optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 115411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Atkinson, W. R. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, A. V. Zayats, P. Evans, and R. J. Pollard, “Anisotropic optical properties of arrays of gold nanorods embedded in alumina,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 235402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Numerical investigation of the transmission enhancement through subwavelength hole array,” Opt. Commun. 274, 236-240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. B. Jackson, S. L. Westcott, L. R. Hirsch, J. L. West, and N. J. Halas, “Controlling the surface enhanced Raman effect via the nanoshell geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of (a) a solid silver nanocylinder pair and (b) a silver-shell nanocylinder pair.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Near-field intensities in the gaps of cases 1 and 2 as a function of the wavelengths of TM incident light ranging from 350 to 800 nm. (b) The corresponding TM mode near-field distributions in cases 1 and 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of near-field intensity versus DH radii. The parameters are maintained as the outer radius of a silver shell nanocylinder pair r 1 = 50 nm , interparticle distance g = 30 nm , and a DH silver-shell nanocylinder pair with dielectric constants as listed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of near-field intensity versus gap width. The parameters are maintained as the outer radius of a silver-shell nanocylinder pair r 1 = 50 nm , the inner radius of a silver-shell nanocylinder pair r 2 = 50 nm , and the DH silver-shell nanocylinder pair with dielectric constants as listed.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Near-field intensity versus different refractive indices of a DH at relative peak wavelengths along the y axis (at x = 0 , shown in the Fig. 5 inset) in the range of y = [ 65 , 65 ] nm . The outer and inner radii of a silver shell nanoscylinder pair are r 1 = 50 nm and r 2 = 40 nm , respectively.

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