Abstract

We have developed a foreoptics module that converts the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera generation II (SHARC-II) camera at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory into a sensitive imaging polarimeter at wavelengths of 350 and 450μm. We refer to this module as “SHARP.” SHARP splits the incident radiation into two orthogonally polarized beams that are then reimaged onto opposite ends of the 32×12 pixel detector array in SHARC-II. A rotating half-wave plate is used just upstream from the polarization-splitting optics. The effect of SHARP is to convert SHARC-II into a dual-beam 12×12 pixel polarimeter. A novel feature of SHARP's design is the use of a crossed grid in a submillimeter polarimeter. Here we describe the detailed optical design of SHARP and present results of tests carried out during our first few observing runs. At 350μm, the beam size (9 arc sec), throughput (75%), and instrumental polarization (<1%) are all very close to our design goals.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  4. D. A. Schleuning, C. D. Dowell, R. H. Hildebrand, S. R. Platt, and G. Novak, "HERTZ, A submillimeter polarimeter," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 307-318 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. R. H. Hildebrand, J. L. Dotson, C. D. Dowell, G. Novak, D. A. Schleuning, and J. E. Vaillancourt, "Hertz: an imaging polarimeter," Proc. SPIE 3357, 289-296 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. H. Hildebrand, J. A. Davidson, J. L. Dotson, C. D. Dowell, G. Novak, and J. E. Vaillancourt, "A primer on far-infrared polarimetry," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1215-1235 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  26. H. Li, M. Attard, C. D. Dowell, R. H. Hildebrand, M. Houde, L. Kirby, G. Novak, and J. Vaillancourt, "SHARP: the SHARC-II polarimeter for CSO," Proc. SPIE 6275, 62751H (2006).
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  29. M. Attard, M. Houde, and G. Novak, "The removal of artificially generated polarization in SHARP maps," submitted to Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  32. T. Renbarger, L. J. Dotson, and G. Novak, "Measurement of submillimeter polarization induced by oblique reflection from aluminum alloy," Appl. Opt. 37, 28, 6643-6646 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

D. P. Marrone, J. M. Moran, J.-H. Zhao, and R. Rao, "An unambiguous detection of Faraday rotation in Sagittarius A*," Astrophys. J. 654, 57-60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Page, G. Hinshaw, E. Komatsu, M. R. Nolta, D. N. Spergel, C. L. Bennett, C. Barnes, R. Bean, O. Doré, J. Dunkley, M. Halpern, R. S. Hill, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. S. Meyer, N. Odegard, H. V. Peiris, G. S. Tucker, L. Verde, J. L. Weiland, E. Wollack, and E. L. Wright, "Three-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: polarization analysis," Astrophys. J. , Suppl. Serv. 170, 335-376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. Li, M. Attard, C. D. Dowell, R. H. Hildebrand, M. Houde, L. Kirby, G. Novak, and J. Vaillancourt, "SHARP: the SHARC-II polarimeter for CSO," Proc. SPIE 6275, 62751H (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, P. G. Calisse, D. T. Chuss, G. S. Griffin, M. Krejny, R. F. Loewenstein, M. G. Newcomb, and G. Novak, "Results of SPARO 2003: mapping magnetic fields in giant molecular clouds," Astrophys. J. 648, 340-354 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C. D. Dowell, C. A. Allen, R. S. Babu, M. M. Freund, M. Gardner, J. Groseth, M. D. Jhabvala, A. Kovacs, D. C. Lis, S. H. Moseley, Jr., T. G. Phillips, R. F. Silverberg, G. M. Voellmer, and H. Yoshida, "SHARC II: a Caltech submillimeter observatory facility camera with 384 pixels," Proc. SPIE 4855, 73-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Kirby, J. A. Davidson, J. L. Dotson, C. D. Dowell, and R. H. Hildebrand, "Improved data reduction for far-infrared/submillimeter polarimetry," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac 117, 991-995 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

G. Novak, D. T. Chuss, J. A. Davidson, J. L. Dotson, C. D. Dowell, R. H. Hildebrand, M. Houde, L. Kirby, M. Krejny, A. Lazarian, H.-B. Li, S. H. Moseley, J. E. Vaillancourt, and F. Yusef-Zadeh, "A polarimetry module for CSO/SHARC-II," Proc. SPIE 5498, 278-289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Benoît, P. Ade, A. Amblard, R. Ansari, É. Aubourg, S. Bargot, J. G. Bartlett, J.-Ph. Bernard, R. S. Bhatia, A. Blanchard, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, F. R. Bouchet, A. Bourrachot, P. Camus, F. Couchot, P. de Bernardis, J. Delabrouille, F.-X. Désert, O. Doré, M. Douspis, L. Dumoulin, X. Dupac, P. Filliatre, P. Fosalba, K. Ganga, F. Gannaway, B. Gautier, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, L. Guglielmi, J.-Ch. Hamilton, S. Hanany, S. Henrot-Versillé, J. Kaplan, G. Lagache, J.-M. Lamarre, A. E. Lange, J. F. Macías-Pérez, K. Madet, B. Maffei, Ch. Magneville, D. P. Marrone, S. Masi, F. Mayet, A. Murphy, F. Naraghi, F. Nati, G. Patanchon, G. Perrin, M. Piat, N. Ponthieu, S. Prunet, J.-L. Puget, C. Renault, C. Rosset, D. Santos, A. Starobinsky, I. Strukov, R. V. Sudiwala, R. Teyssier, M. Tristram, C. Tucker, J.-C. Vanel, D. Vibert, E. Wakui, and D. Yvon, "First detection of polarization of the submillimetre diffuse galactic dust emission by Archeops," Astron. Astrophys. 424, 571-582 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Renbarger, D. T. Chuss, J. L. Dotson, G. S. Griffin, J. L. Hanna, R. F. Loewenstein, P. S. Malhotra, J. L. Marshall, G. Novak, and R. J. Pernic, "Early results from SPARO: instrument characterization and polarimetry of NGC 6334," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 415-424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

G. Novak, D. T. Chuss, T. Renbarger, G. S. Griffin, M. G. Newcomb, J. B. Peterson, R. F. Loewenstein, D. Pernic, and J. L. Dotson, "First results from the submillimeter polarimeter for Antarctic remote observations: evidence of large-scale toroidal magnetic fields in the galactic center," Astrophys. J. 583, 83-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Greaves, W. S. Holland, T. Jenness, A. Chrysostomou, D. S. Berry, A. G. Murray, M. Tamura, E. I. Robson, P. A. R. Ade, R. Nartallo, J. A. Stevens, M. Momose, J.-I. Morino, G. Moriarty-Schieven, F. Gannaway, and C. V. Haynes, "A submillimeter imaging polarimeter at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 340, 353-361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. M. Kovac, E. M. Leitch, C. Pryke, J. E. Carlstrom, N. W. Halverson, and W. L. Holzapfel, "Detection of polarization in the cosmic microwave background using DASI," Nature 420, 772-787 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

R. H. Hildebrand, J. A. Davidson, J. L. Dotson, C. D. Dowell, G. Novak, and J. E. Vaillancourt, "A primer on far-infrared polarimetry," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1215-1235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Astronomical Society of the Pacific, "Erratum," 112, 1621 (2000).

J. L. Dotson, J. A. Davidson, C. D. Dowell, D. A. Schleuning, and R. H. Hildebrand, "Far-infrared polarimetry of galactic clouds from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory," Astrophys. J. , Suppl. Ser. 128, 335-370 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

W. S. Holland, E. I. Robson, W. K. Gear, C. R. Cunningham, J. F. Lightfoot, T. Jenness, R. J. Ivison, J. A. Stevens, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, W. D. Duncan, J. A. Murphy, and D. A. Naylor, "SCUBA: a common-user submillimetre camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 659-672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Tamura, J. H. Hough, J. S. Greaves, J.-I. Morino, A. Chrysostomou, W. S. Holland, and M. Momose, "First detection of submillimeter polarization from T Tauri Stars," Astrophys. J. 525, 832-836 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

J. M. Moran, "Submillimeter array," Proc. SPIE 3357, 208-219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Dowell, R. H. Hildebrand, D. A. Schleuning, J. E. Vaillancourt, J. L. Dotson, G. Novak, T. Renbarger, and M. Houde, "Submillimeter array polarimetry with hertz," Astrophys. J. 504, 589-599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Hildebrand, J. L. Dotson, C. D. Dowell, G. Novak, D. A. Schleuning, and J. E. Vaillancourt, "Hertz: an imaging polarimeter," Proc. SPIE 3357, 289-296 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Renbarger, L. J. Dotson, and G. Novak, "Measurement of submillimeter polarization induced by oblique reflection from aluminum alloy," Appl. Opt. 37, 28, 6643-6646 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. A. Schleuning, C. D. Dowell, R. H. Hildebrand, S. R. Platt, and G. Novak, "HERTZ, A submillimeter polarimeter," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 307-318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. M. Payne, J. W. Lamb, J. G. Cochran, and N. J. Bailey, "A new generation of SIS receivers for millimeter-wave radio astronomy," Proc. IEEE 82, 811-823 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. G. Murray, A. M. Flett, G. Murray, and P. A. R. Ade, "High efficiency half-wave plates for submillimetre polarimetry," Infrared Phys. 33, 113-125 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. R. Platt, R. H. Hildebrand, R. J. Pernic, J. A. Davidson, and G. Novak, "100-micron array polarimetry from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory--instrumentation, techniques, and first results," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 103, 1193-1210 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

R. H. Hildebrand, M. Dragovan, and G. Novak, "Detection of submillimeter polarization in the Orion Nebula," Astrophys. J. 284, L51-L54 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

W. Cudlip, I. Furniss, K. J. King, and R. E. Jennings, "Far infrared polarimetry of W51A and M42," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 200, 1169-1173 (1982).

1953 (1)

E. J. Ruze, "The effect of aperture errors on the antenna radiation pattern," Nuovo Cimento Suppl. 9, 364-380 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

A. Benoît, P. Ade, A. Amblard, R. Ansari, É. Aubourg, S. Bargot, J. G. Bartlett, J.-Ph. Bernard, R. S. Bhatia, A. Blanchard, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, F. R. Bouchet, A. Bourrachot, P. Camus, F. Couchot, P. de Bernardis, J. Delabrouille, F.-X. Désert, O. Doré, M. Douspis, L. Dumoulin, X. Dupac, P. Filliatre, P. Fosalba, K. Ganga, F. Gannaway, B. Gautier, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, L. Guglielmi, J.-Ch. Hamilton, S. Hanany, S. Henrot-Versillé, J. Kaplan, G. Lagache, J.-M. Lamarre, A. E. Lange, J. F. Macías-Pérez, K. Madet, B. Maffei, Ch. Magneville, D. P. Marrone, S. Masi, F. Mayet, A. Murphy, F. Naraghi, F. Nati, G. Patanchon, G. Perrin, M. Piat, N. Ponthieu, S. Prunet, J.-L. Puget, C. Renault, C. Rosset, D. Santos, A. Starobinsky, I. Strukov, R. V. Sudiwala, R. Teyssier, M. Tristram, C. Tucker, J.-C. Vanel, D. Vibert, E. Wakui, and D. Yvon, "First detection of polarization of the submillimetre diffuse galactic dust emission by Archeops," Astron. Astrophys. 424, 571-582 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (8)

L. Page, G. Hinshaw, E. Komatsu, M. R. Nolta, D. N. Spergel, C. L. Bennett, C. Barnes, R. Bean, O. Doré, J. Dunkley, M. Halpern, R. S. Hill, N. Jarosik, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. S. Meyer, N. Odegard, H. V. Peiris, G. S. Tucker, L. Verde, J. L. Weiland, E. Wollack, and E. L. Wright, "Three-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) observations: polarization analysis," Astrophys. J. , Suppl. Serv. 170, 335-376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Dowell, R. H. Hildebrand, D. A. Schleuning, J. E. Vaillancourt, J. L. Dotson, G. Novak, T. Renbarger, and M. Houde, "Submillimeter array polarimetry with hertz," Astrophys. J. 504, 589-599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Dotson, J. A. Davidson, C. D. Dowell, D. A. Schleuning, and R. H. Hildebrand, "Far-infrared polarimetry of galactic clouds from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory," Astrophys. J. , Suppl. Ser. 128, 335-370 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Hildebrand, M. Dragovan, and G. Novak, "Detection of submillimeter polarization in the Orion Nebula," Astrophys. J. 284, L51-L54 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Tamura, J. H. Hough, J. S. Greaves, J.-I. Morino, A. Chrysostomou, W. S. Holland, and M. Momose, "First detection of submillimeter polarization from T Tauri Stars," Astrophys. J. 525, 832-836 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Marrone, J. M. Moran, J.-H. Zhao, and R. Rao, "An unambiguous detection of Faraday rotation in Sagittarius A*," Astrophys. J. 654, 57-60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Novak, D. T. Chuss, T. Renbarger, G. S. Griffin, M. G. Newcomb, J. B. Peterson, R. F. Loewenstein, D. Pernic, and J. L. Dotson, "First results from the submillimeter polarimeter for Antarctic remote observations: evidence of large-scale toroidal magnetic fields in the galactic center," Astrophys. J. 583, 83-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, P. G. Calisse, D. T. Chuss, G. S. Griffin, M. Krejny, R. F. Loewenstein, M. G. Newcomb, and G. Novak, "Results of SPARO 2003: mapping magnetic fields in giant molecular clouds," Astrophys. J. 648, 340-354 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. (1)

A. G. Murray, A. M. Flett, G. Murray, and P. A. R. Ade, "High efficiency half-wave plates for submillimetre polarimetry," Infrared Phys. 33, 113-125 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (3)

W. Cudlip, I. Furniss, K. J. King, and R. E. Jennings, "Far infrared polarimetry of W51A and M42," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 200, 1169-1173 (1982).

J. S. Greaves, W. S. Holland, T. Jenness, A. Chrysostomou, D. S. Berry, A. G. Murray, M. Tamura, E. I. Robson, P. A. R. Ade, R. Nartallo, J. A. Stevens, M. Momose, J.-I. Morino, G. Moriarty-Schieven, F. Gannaway, and C. V. Haynes, "A submillimeter imaging polarimeter at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 340, 353-361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Holland, E. I. Robson, W. K. Gear, C. R. Cunningham, J. F. Lightfoot, T. Jenness, R. J. Ivison, J. A. Stevens, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, W. D. Duncan, J. A. Murphy, and D. A. Naylor, "SCUBA: a common-user submillimetre camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 659-672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. M. Kovac, E. M. Leitch, C. Pryke, J. E. Carlstrom, N. W. Halverson, and W. L. Holzapfel, "Detection of polarization in the cosmic microwave background using DASI," Nature 420, 772-787 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuovo Cimento Suppl. (1)

E. J. Ruze, "The effect of aperture errors on the antenna radiation pattern," Nuovo Cimento Suppl. 9, 364-380 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

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G. Novak, D. T. Chuss, J. A. Davidson, J. L. Dotson, C. D. Dowell, R. H. Hildebrand, M. Houde, L. Kirby, M. Krejny, A. Lazarian, H.-B. Li, S. H. Moseley, J. E. Vaillancourt, and F. Yusef-Zadeh, "A polarimetry module for CSO/SHARC-II," Proc. SPIE 5498, 278-289 (2004).
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H. Li, M. Attard, C. D. Dowell, R. H. Hildebrand, M. Houde, L. Kirby, G. Novak, and J. Vaillancourt, "SHARP: the SHARC-II polarimeter for CSO," Proc. SPIE 6275, 62751H (2006).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic (not to scale) of SHARC-II on the Nasmyth platform, with the location of SHARP also shown. A flat mirror (M3) below the secondary deflects the incident beam into the hollow elevation bearing, producing an image of the sky within the bearing, at the Nasmyth focus. This focus is then reimaged onto the SHARC-II detectors by mirrors M4 and M5. The removable polarimetry module SHARP is located between M3 and M4.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the SHARC-II detector array, with markings that illustrate the effect of the SHARP polarization-splitting optics. When SHARP is installed the 32 × 12 detector array is effectively converted into two 12 × 12 subarrays that view the same 1   ft × 1   ft sky field in orthogonal polarizations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Unfolded version of the optical design of SHARP, in which all reflections by flat mirrors and polarizing grids are omitted. Dual paraboloidal mirrors (P1 and P2) reimage the Nasmyth focus (f). The focus of the first mirror is placed on f, and f is reimaged at f , the focus of the second paraboloid, with minimal aberration [26]. All the polarimetry components are installed after P1. The actual optical design of SHARP is illustrated in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two views of SHARP. Left: The expanding beam from the Nasmyth focus is reflected by paraboloid P1 and by a flat mirror at F1, passes through the HWP, and reaches the XG. From the XG, the horizontal polarization component propagates into the plane of the paper while the vertical component is directed toward the viewer. Right: View toward the Nasmyth focus. Vertical and horizontal components leaving the crossed grid undergo further reflections by mirrors and grids (F2v–F3v–P2v–Gv and F2h–F3h–P2h–Gh, respectively), ultimately bringing the components back together at the BC, which directs the recombined image toward the viewer. BC consists of two mirrors joined to form a roof-shaped optical surface. After reflection by the BC, the two orthogonal polarizations are displaced laterally. The left view shows this reconstituted image being directed into the relay optics by flats F4 and F5. P1 and P2h (or P2v) form a pair of crossed paraboloids [26]. SHARC-II is easily converted back to photometric mode by removing P1 and F5 (Box 4; see Fig. 5).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Modular design of SHARP. The components in each box are: Box 1–P3h∕v (cold load mirrors), Gh∕v, F4, and BC; Box 2–P2h∕v and F3h∕v; Box 3–F1, HWP, XG, and F2h∕v; and Box 4–P1 and F5.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

F1, HWP, and XG in Box 3. Box 4 was removed when this photograph was taken. F1 is the large square mirror, where the reflection of the HWP module can be seen. This reflection shows the stepping motor and the mounting positions for the two HWPs (only the 350 μ m plate was installed in this picture). The incident radiation passes through the HWP toward the XG where it is divided into two orthogonal polarization components.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SHARP observation of Uranus at 350 μ m . Since Uranus is a point source at SHARP's resolution, this represents a measurement of the beam shape and size. The observation was made in “scan mode” (see Subsection 3A.) during July 2006. The image at the lower left is from the v-subarray with the h-subarray at upper right. The black rectangle indicates the instantaneous field of view of SHARC-II and the white ovals indicate the beam FWHM values derived from two-dimensional Gaussian fits. The mean of the four FWHM values measured (two axes for each image) is 9.2 arc sec.

Equations (2)

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q = P f   cos ( 2 ϕ f ) + P M 3   cos [ 2 ( ε + δ ϕ M 3 ) ] ,
u = P f   sin ( 2 ϕ f ) + P M 3   sin [ 2 ( ε + δ ϕ M 3 ) ] .

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