Abstract

This is a performance evaluation on the implementation of the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for background clutter measurement on automatic target recognition (ATR). In essence the background clutter evaluation problem for ATR is consistent with the deterministic parameter estimation problem. Thus, useful concepts and theories of deterministic parameter estimation can be introduced into the investigation of background clutter. In this paper, the CRLB is employed as a metric for clutter measurement. Requirements needed for this application are analyzed, and the approach for obtaining the CRLB of a scene image is produced. The flexibility of the CRLB metric is analyzed. Discussion and comparison are made on the relationship between the CRLB metric and the Sims signal-to-clutter metric. Finally, we illustrate how this metric defines the potential for false alarms by determining the correspondence level between a target and background through the application of the CRLB.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. W. Hilgers, W. P. Vockel, W. R. Reynolds, and W. Pickard, “Sensor- and detection-algorithm-based clutter metrics,” Proc. SPIE 3062, 267-277 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Ratches, C. P. Walters, R. G. Buser, and B. D. Guenther, “Aided and automatic target recognition based upon sensory inputs from image forming systems,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 19, 1004-1019(1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. L. Wilson, “Image-based contrast-to-clutter modeling of detection,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1852-1857 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. E. Schmieder and M. R. Weathersby, “Detection performance in clutter with variable resolution,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 19, 622-630 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Mahalanobis, S. R. F. Sims, and A. V. Nevel, “Signal-to-clutter measure for measuring automatic target recognition performance using complimentary eigenvalue distribution analysis,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1144-1151 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. R. F. Sims, “Signal to clutter measurement and ATR performance,” Proc. SPIE 3371, 398-403 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. R. F. Sims, “Putting ATR performance on an equal basis: the measurement of knowledge base distortion and relevant clutter,” Proc. SPIE 4050, 55-60 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. A. Phillips and S. R. F. Sims, “Signal-to-clutter measure for ATR performance comparison,” Proc. SPIE 3069, 74-81(1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. H. Chang and J. Q. Zhang, “New metrics for clutter affecting human target acquisition,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 42, 361-368 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. H. Chang and J. Q. Zhang, “New metrics for clutter affecting human target acquisition,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 42, 361-368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Mahalanobis, S. R. F. Sims, and A. V. Nevel, “Signal-to-clutter measure for measuring automatic target recognition performance using complimentary eigenvalue distribution analysis,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1144-1151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. L. Wilson, “Image-based contrast-to-clutter modeling of detection,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1852-1857 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. R. F. Sims, “Putting ATR performance on an equal basis: the measurement of knowledge base distortion and relevant clutter,” Proc. SPIE 4050, 55-60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. R. F. Sims, “Signal to clutter measurement and ATR performance,” Proc. SPIE 3371, 398-403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

M. A. Phillips and S. R. F. Sims, “Signal-to-clutter measure for ATR performance comparison,” Proc. SPIE 3069, 74-81(1997).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hilgers, W. P. Vockel, W. R. Reynolds, and W. Pickard, “Sensor- and detection-algorithm-based clutter metrics,” Proc. SPIE 3062, 267-277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Ratches, C. P. Walters, R. G. Buser, and B. D. Guenther, “Aided and automatic target recognition based upon sensory inputs from image forming systems,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 19, 1004-1019(1997).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

D. E. Schmieder and M. R. Weathersby, “Detection performance in clutter with variable resolution,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 19, 622-630 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Buser, R. G.

J. A. Ratches, C. P. Walters, R. G. Buser, and B. D. Guenther, “Aided and automatic target recognition based upon sensory inputs from image forming systems,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 19, 1004-1019(1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. H.

H. H. Chang and J. Q. Zhang, “New metrics for clutter affecting human target acquisition,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 42, 361-368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, B. D.

J. A. Ratches, C. P. Walters, R. G. Buser, and B. D. Guenther, “Aided and automatic target recognition based upon sensory inputs from image forming systems,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 19, 1004-1019(1997).
[CrossRef]

Hilgers, J. W.

J. W. Hilgers, W. P. Vockel, W. R. Reynolds, and W. Pickard, “Sensor- and detection-algorithm-based clutter metrics,” Proc. SPIE 3062, 267-277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mahalanobis, A.

A. Mahalanobis, S. R. F. Sims, and A. V. Nevel, “Signal-to-clutter measure for measuring automatic target recognition performance using complimentary eigenvalue distribution analysis,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1144-1151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nevel, A. V.

A. Mahalanobis, S. R. F. Sims, and A. V. Nevel, “Signal-to-clutter measure for measuring automatic target recognition performance using complimentary eigenvalue distribution analysis,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1144-1151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, M. A.

M. A. Phillips and S. R. F. Sims, “Signal-to-clutter measure for ATR performance comparison,” Proc. SPIE 3069, 74-81(1997).
[CrossRef]

Pickard, W.

J. W. Hilgers, W. P. Vockel, W. R. Reynolds, and W. Pickard, “Sensor- and detection-algorithm-based clutter metrics,” Proc. SPIE 3062, 267-277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ratches, J. A.

J. A. Ratches, C. P. Walters, R. G. Buser, and B. D. Guenther, “Aided and automatic target recognition based upon sensory inputs from image forming systems,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 19, 1004-1019(1997).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, W. R.

J. W. Hilgers, W. P. Vockel, W. R. Reynolds, and W. Pickard, “Sensor- and detection-algorithm-based clutter metrics,” Proc. SPIE 3062, 267-277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmieder, D. E.

D. E. Schmieder and M. R. Weathersby, “Detection performance in clutter with variable resolution,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 19, 622-630 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sims, S. R. F.

A. Mahalanobis, S. R. F. Sims, and A. V. Nevel, “Signal-to-clutter measure for measuring automatic target recognition performance using complimentary eigenvalue distribution analysis,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1144-1151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. R. F. Sims, “Putting ATR performance on an equal basis: the measurement of knowledge base distortion and relevant clutter,” Proc. SPIE 4050, 55-60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. F. Sims, “Signal to clutter measurement and ATR performance,” Proc. SPIE 3371, 398-403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Phillips and S. R. F. Sims, “Signal-to-clutter measure for ATR performance comparison,” Proc. SPIE 3069, 74-81(1997).
[CrossRef]

Vockel, W. P.

J. W. Hilgers, W. P. Vockel, W. R. Reynolds, and W. Pickard, “Sensor- and detection-algorithm-based clutter metrics,” Proc. SPIE 3062, 267-277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walters, C. P.

J. A. Ratches, C. P. Walters, R. G. Buser, and B. D. Guenther, “Aided and automatic target recognition based upon sensory inputs from image forming systems,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 19, 1004-1019(1997).
[CrossRef]

Weathersby, M. R.

D. E. Schmieder and M. R. Weathersby, “Detection performance in clutter with variable resolution,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 19, 622-630 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. L.

D. L. Wilson, “Image-based contrast-to-clutter modeling of detection,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1852-1857 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Q.

H. H. Chang and J. Q. Zhang, “New metrics for clutter affecting human target acquisition,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 42, 361-368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. (2)

D. E. Schmieder and M. R. Weathersby, “Detection performance in clutter with variable resolution,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 19, 622-630 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Chang and J. Q. Zhang, “New metrics for clutter affecting human target acquisition,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 42, 361-368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

J. A. Ratches, C. P. Walters, R. G. Buser, and B. D. Guenther, “Aided and automatic target recognition based upon sensory inputs from image forming systems,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 19, 1004-1019(1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

D. L. Wilson, “Image-based contrast-to-clutter modeling of detection,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1852-1857 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahalanobis, S. R. F. Sims, and A. V. Nevel, “Signal-to-clutter measure for measuring automatic target recognition performance using complimentary eigenvalue distribution analysis,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1144-1151 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

S. R. F. Sims, “Signal to clutter measurement and ATR performance,” Proc. SPIE 3371, 398-403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. R. F. Sims, “Putting ATR performance on an equal basis: the measurement of knowledge base distortion and relevant clutter,” Proc. SPIE 4050, 55-60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Phillips and S. R. F. Sims, “Signal-to-clutter measure for ATR performance comparison,” Proc. SPIE 3069, 74-81(1997).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hilgers, W. P. Vockel, W. R. Reynolds, and W. Pickard, “Sensor- and detection-algorithm-based clutter metrics,” Proc. SPIE 3062, 267-277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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