Abstract

Over the past several years, hyperspectral sensor technology has evolved to the point where real-time processing for operational applications is achievable. Algorithms supporting such sensors must be fully automated and robust. Our approach, for target detection applications, is to select signatures from a target reflectance library database and project them to the at-sensor and collection-specific radiance domain using the weather forecast or radiosonde data. This enables platform-based detection immediately following data acquisition without the need for further atmospheric compensation. One advantage of this method for reflective hyperspectral sensors is the ability to predict the radiance signatures of targets under multiple illumination conditions. A three-phase approach is implemented, where the library generation and data acquisition phases provide the necessary input for the automated detection phase. In addition to employing the target detector itself, this final phase includes a series of automated filters, adaptive thresholding, and confidence assignments to extract the optimal information from the detection scores for each spectral class. Our prototype software is applied to 50 reflective hyperspectral datacubes to measure detection performance over a range of targets, backgrounds, and environmental conditions.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2006

A. Banerjee, P. Burlina, and C. P. Diehl, “A support vector method for anomaly detection in hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 2282-2291 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. P. Stevenson, R. O'Connor, W. B. Kendall, A. D. Stocker, W. E. Schaff, D. Alexa, J. A. Salvador, M. T. Eismann, K. J. Barnard, and J. C. Kershenstein, “Design and performance of the Civil Air Patrol ARCHER Hyperspectral Processing System,” Proc. SPIE 5806, 731-742 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. G. Manolakis and G. A. Shaw, “Detection algorithms for hyperspectral imaging applications,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 19, 29-43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Thai and G. E. Healey, “Invariant subpixel material detection in hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 599-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Kraut, L. L. Scharf, and L. T. McWhorter, “Adaptive subspace detectors,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 49, 1-16 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Simi, E. M. Winter, M. J. Schlangen, and A. B. Hill, “On-board processing for COMPASS,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 137-142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Simi, E. M. Winter, M. M. Williams, and D. C. Driscoll, “Compact Airborne Spectral Sensor (COMPASS),” Proc. SPIE 4381, 129-136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

C. M. Stellman, G. G. Hazel, F. Bucholtz, J. V. Michalowicz, A. D. Stocker, and W. E. Schaff, “Real time hyperspectral target detection and cuing,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1928-1935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd Jr., H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176-183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. S. Spisz, Y. Fang, R. H. Reeves, C. K. Seymour, I. N. Bankman, and J. H. Hoh, “Automated sizing of DNA fragments in atomic force microscope images,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 36, 667-672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. A. Hackwell, D. W. Warren, R. P. Bongiovi, S. J. Hansel, T. L. Hayhurst, D. L. Mabry, M. G. Sivjee, and J. W. Skinner, “LWIR/MWIR imaging hyperspectral sensor for airborne and ground-based remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 2819, 102-107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. W. Basedow, D. C. Carmer, and M. E. Anderson, “HYDICE system: implementation and performance,” Proc. SPIE 2480, 258-267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

G. Vane, R. O. Green, T. G. Chrien, H. T. Enmark, E. G. Hansen, and W. M. Porter, “The Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 127-143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Acharya, P. K.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd Jr., H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176-183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, G. W. Felde, M. L. Hoke, A. J. Ratkowski, J. H. Chetwynd, J. A. Gardner, S. M. Adler-Golden, M. W. Matthew, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, D. Miller, and P. Lewis, “FLAASH, a MODTRAN4-based atmospheric correction algorithm, its application and validation,” in 2002 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 3, pp. 1414-1418.

Adler-Golden, S. M.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd Jr., H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176-183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, G. W. Felde, M. L. Hoke, A. J. Ratkowski, J. H. Chetwynd, J. A. Gardner, S. M. Adler-Golden, M. W. Matthew, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, D. Miller, and P. Lewis, “FLAASH, a MODTRAN4-based atmospheric correction algorithm, its application and validation,” in 2002 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 3, pp. 1414-1418.

Alexa, D.

B. P. Stevenson, R. O'Connor, W. B. Kendall, A. D. Stocker, W. E. Schaff, D. Alexa, J. A. Salvador, M. T. Eismann, K. J. Barnard, and J. C. Kershenstein, “Design and performance of the Civil Air Patrol ARCHER Hyperspectral Processing System,” Proc. SPIE 5806, 731-742 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd Jr., H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176-183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, G. W. Felde, M. L. Hoke, A. J. Ratkowski, J. H. Chetwynd, J. A. Gardner, S. M. Adler-Golden, M. W. Matthew, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, D. Miller, and P. Lewis, “FLAASH, a MODTRAN4-based atmospheric correction algorithm, its application and validation,” in 2002 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 3, pp. 1414-1418.

Anderson, M. E.

R. W. Basedow, D. C. Carmer, and M. E. Anderson, “HYDICE system: implementation and performance,” Proc. SPIE 2480, 258-267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, A.

A. Banerjee, P. Burlina, and C. P. Diehl, “A support vector method for anomaly detection in hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 2282-2291 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bankman, I. N.

T. S. Spisz, Y. Fang, R. H. Reeves, C. K. Seymour, I. N. Bankman, and J. H. Hoh, “Automated sizing of DNA fragments in atomic force microscope images,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 36, 667-672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, K. J.

B. P. Stevenson, R. O'Connor, W. B. Kendall, A. D. Stocker, W. E. Schaff, D. Alexa, J. A. Salvador, M. T. Eismann, K. J. Barnard, and J. C. Kershenstein, “Design and performance of the Civil Air Patrol ARCHER Hyperspectral Processing System,” Proc. SPIE 5806, 731-742 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Basedow, R. W.

R. W. Basedow, D. C. Carmer, and M. E. Anderson, “HYDICE system: implementation and performance,” Proc. SPIE 2480, 258-267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Berk, A.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd Jr., H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176-183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, G. W. Felde, M. L. Hoke, A. J. Ratkowski, J. H. Chetwynd, J. A. Gardner, S. M. Adler-Golden, M. W. Matthew, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, D. Miller, and P. Lewis, “FLAASH, a MODTRAN4-based atmospheric correction algorithm, its application and validation,” in 2002 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 3, pp. 1414-1418.

Bernstein, L. S.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd Jr., H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176-183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, G. W. Felde, M. L. Hoke, A. J. Ratkowski, J. H. Chetwynd, J. A. Gardner, S. M. Adler-Golden, M. W. Matthew, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, D. Miller, and P. Lewis, “FLAASH, a MODTRAN4-based atmospheric correction algorithm, its application and validation,” in 2002 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 3, pp. 1414-1418.

Bongiovi, R. P.

J. A. Hackwell, D. W. Warren, R. P. Bongiovi, S. J. Hansel, T. L. Hayhurst, D. L. Mabry, M. G. Sivjee, and J. W. Skinner, “LWIR/MWIR imaging hyperspectral sensor for airborne and ground-based remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 2819, 102-107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bruyere, C.

J. Dudhia, D. O. Gill, K. W. Manning, W. Wang, and C. Bruyere, “PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Modeling System tutorial class notes and user's guide (MM5 Modeling System Version 3),” University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/mm5/documents/tutorial-v3-notes.html(2005).

Bucholtz, F.

C. M. Stellman, G. G. Hazel, F. Bucholtz, J. V. Michalowicz, A. D. Stocker, and W. E. Schaff, “Real time hyperspectral target detection and cuing,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1928-1935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burlina, P.

A. Banerjee, P. Burlina, and C. P. Diehl, “A support vector method for anomaly detection in hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 2282-2291 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carmer, D. C.

R. W. Basedow, D. C. Carmer, and M. E. Anderson, “HYDICE system: implementation and performance,” Proc. SPIE 2480, 258-267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd Jr., H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176-183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, G. W. Felde, M. L. Hoke, A. J. Ratkowski, J. H. Chetwynd, J. A. Gardner, S. M. Adler-Golden, M. W. Matthew, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, D. Miller, and P. Lewis, “FLAASH, a MODTRAN4-based atmospheric correction algorithm, its application and validation,” in 2002 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 3, pp. 1414-1418.

Chrien, T. G.

G. Vane, R. O. Green, T. G. Chrien, H. T. Enmark, E. G. Hansen, and W. M. Porter, “The Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 127-143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cooley, T.

T. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, G. W. Felde, M. L. Hoke, A. J. Ratkowski, J. H. Chetwynd, J. A. Gardner, S. M. Adler-Golden, M. W. Matthew, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, D. Miller, and P. Lewis, “FLAASH, a MODTRAN4-based atmospheric correction algorithm, its application and validation,” in 2002 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 3, pp. 1414-1418.

Diehl, C. P.

A. Banerjee, P. Burlina, and C. P. Diehl, “A support vector method for anomaly detection in hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 2282-2291 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dothe, H.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd Jr., H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176-183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, D. C.

C. G. Simi, E. M. Winter, M. M. Williams, and D. C. Driscoll, “Compact Airborne Spectral Sensor (COMPASS),” Proc. SPIE 4381, 129-136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dudhia, J.

J. Dudhia, D. O. Gill, K. W. Manning, W. Wang, and C. Bruyere, “PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Modeling System tutorial class notes and user's guide (MM5 Modeling System Version 3),” University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/mm5/documents/tutorial-v3-notes.html(2005).

Eismann, M. T.

B. P. Stevenson, R. O'Connor, W. B. Kendall, A. D. Stocker, W. E. Schaff, D. Alexa, J. A. Salvador, M. T. Eismann, K. J. Barnard, and J. C. Kershenstein, “Design and performance of the Civil Air Patrol ARCHER Hyperspectral Processing System,” Proc. SPIE 5806, 731-742 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Enmark, H. T.

G. Vane, R. O. Green, T. G. Chrien, H. T. Enmark, E. G. Hansen, and W. M. Porter, “The Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 127-143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y.

T. S. Spisz, Y. Fang, R. H. Reeves, C. K. Seymour, I. N. Bankman, and J. H. Hoh, “Automated sizing of DNA fragments in atomic force microscope images,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 36, 667-672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Felde, G. W.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd Jr., H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176-183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, G. W. Felde, M. L. Hoke, A. J. Ratkowski, J. H. Chetwynd, J. A. Gardner, S. M. Adler-Golden, M. W. Matthew, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, D. Miller, and P. Lewis, “FLAASH, a MODTRAN4-based atmospheric correction algorithm, its application and validation,” in 2002 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 3, pp. 1414-1418.

Gardner, J. A.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd Jr., H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176-183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, G. W. Felde, M. L. Hoke, A. J. Ratkowski, J. H. Chetwynd, J. A. Gardner, S. M. Adler-Golden, M. W. Matthew, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, D. Miller, and P. Lewis, “FLAASH, a MODTRAN4-based atmospheric correction algorithm, its application and validation,” in 2002 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 3, pp. 1414-1418.

Gill, D. O.

J. Dudhia, D. O. Gill, K. W. Manning, W. Wang, and C. Bruyere, “PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Modeling System tutorial class notes and user's guide (MM5 Modeling System Version 3),” University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/mm5/documents/tutorial-v3-notes.html(2005).

Green, R. O.

G. Vane, R. O. Green, T. G. Chrien, H. T. Enmark, E. G. Hansen, and W. M. Porter, “The Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 127-143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hackwell, J. A.

J. A. Hackwell, D. W. Warren, R. P. Bongiovi, S. J. Hansel, T. L. Hayhurst, D. L. Mabry, M. G. Sivjee, and J. W. Skinner, “LWIR/MWIR imaging hyperspectral sensor for airborne and ground-based remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 2819, 102-107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hansel, S. J.

J. A. Hackwell, D. W. Warren, R. P. Bongiovi, S. J. Hansel, T. L. Hayhurst, D. L. Mabry, M. G. Sivjee, and J. W. Skinner, “LWIR/MWIR imaging hyperspectral sensor for airborne and ground-based remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 2819, 102-107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, E. G.

G. Vane, R. O. Green, T. G. Chrien, H. T. Enmark, E. G. Hansen, and W. M. Porter, “The Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 127-143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hayhurst, T. L.

J. A. Hackwell, D. W. Warren, R. P. Bongiovi, S. J. Hansel, T. L. Hayhurst, D. L. Mabry, M. G. Sivjee, and J. W. Skinner, “LWIR/MWIR imaging hyperspectral sensor for airborne and ground-based remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 2819, 102-107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hazel, G. G.

C. M. Stellman, G. G. Hazel, F. Bucholtz, J. V. Michalowicz, A. D. Stocker, and W. E. Schaff, “Real time hyperspectral target detection and cuing,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1928-1935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Healey, G. E.

B. Thai and G. E. Healey, “Invariant subpixel material detection in hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 599-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hill, A. B.

C. G. Simi, E. M. Winter, M. J. Schlangen, and A. B. Hill, “On-board processing for COMPASS,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 137-142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hoh, J. H.

T. S. Spisz, Y. Fang, R. H. Reeves, C. K. Seymour, I. N. Bankman, and J. H. Hoh, “Automated sizing of DNA fragments in atomic force microscope images,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 36, 667-672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hoke, M. L.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd Jr., H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176-183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, G. W. Felde, M. L. Hoke, A. J. Ratkowski, J. H. Chetwynd, J. A. Gardner, S. M. Adler-Golden, M. W. Matthew, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, D. Miller, and P. Lewis, “FLAASH, a MODTRAN4-based atmospheric correction algorithm, its application and validation,” in 2002 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 3, pp. 1414-1418.

Hume, E. E.

M. A. Kolodner, P. K. Murphy, and E. E. Hume, Jr., “Radiance library forecasting for time-critical hyperspectral target detection systems,” U.S. patent 7,043,369 (9 May 2006).

Jeong, L. S.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd Jr., H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176-183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, W. B.

B. P. Stevenson, R. O'Connor, W. B. Kendall, A. D. Stocker, W. E. Schaff, D. Alexa, J. A. Salvador, M. T. Eismann, K. J. Barnard, and J. C. Kershenstein, “Design and performance of the Civil Air Patrol ARCHER Hyperspectral Processing System,” Proc. SPIE 5806, 731-742 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kershenstein, J. C.

B. P. Stevenson, R. O'Connor, W. B. Kendall, A. D. Stocker, W. E. Schaff, D. Alexa, J. A. Salvador, M. T. Eismann, K. J. Barnard, and J. C. Kershenstein, “Design and performance of the Civil Air Patrol ARCHER Hyperspectral Processing System,” Proc. SPIE 5806, 731-742 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kolodner, M. A.

M. A. Kolodner, P. K. Murphy, and E. E. Hume, Jr., “Radiance library forecasting for time-critical hyperspectral target detection systems,” U.S. patent 7,043,369 (9 May 2006).

Kraut, S.

S. Kraut, L. L. Scharf, and L. T. McWhorter, “Adaptive subspace detectors,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 49, 1-16 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, P.

T. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, G. W. Felde, M. L. Hoke, A. J. Ratkowski, J. H. Chetwynd, J. A. Gardner, S. M. Adler-Golden, M. W. Matthew, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, D. Miller, and P. Lewis, “FLAASH, a MODTRAN4-based atmospheric correction algorithm, its application and validation,” in 2002 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 3, pp. 1414-1418.

Mabry, D. L.

J. A. Hackwell, D. W. Warren, R. P. Bongiovi, S. J. Hansel, T. L. Hayhurst, D. L. Mabry, M. G. Sivjee, and J. W. Skinner, “LWIR/MWIR imaging hyperspectral sensor for airborne and ground-based remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 2819, 102-107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Manning, K. W.

J. Dudhia, D. O. Gill, K. W. Manning, W. Wang, and C. Bruyere, “PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Modeling System tutorial class notes and user's guide (MM5 Modeling System Version 3),” University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/mm5/documents/tutorial-v3-notes.html(2005).

Manolakis, D. G.

D. G. Manolakis and G. A. Shaw, “Detection algorithms for hyperspectral imaging applications,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 19, 29-43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matthew, M. W.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd Jr., H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176-183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, G. W. Felde, M. L. Hoke, A. J. Ratkowski, J. H. Chetwynd, J. A. Gardner, S. M. Adler-Golden, M. W. Matthew, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, D. Miller, and P. Lewis, “FLAASH, a MODTRAN4-based atmospheric correction algorithm, its application and validation,” in 2002 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 3, pp. 1414-1418.

McWhorter, L. T.

S. Kraut, L. L. Scharf, and L. T. McWhorter, “Adaptive subspace detectors,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 49, 1-16 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mello, J. B.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd Jr., H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176-183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Michalowicz, J. V.

C. M. Stellman, G. G. Hazel, F. Bucholtz, J. V. Michalowicz, A. D. Stocker, and W. E. Schaff, “Real time hyperspectral target detection and cuing,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1928-1935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

T. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, G. W. Felde, M. L. Hoke, A. J. Ratkowski, J. H. Chetwynd, J. A. Gardner, S. M. Adler-Golden, M. W. Matthew, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, D. Miller, and P. Lewis, “FLAASH, a MODTRAN4-based atmospheric correction algorithm, its application and validation,” in 2002 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 3, pp. 1414-1418.

Murphy, P. K.

M. A. Kolodner, P. K. Murphy, and E. E. Hume, Jr., “Radiance library forecasting for time-critical hyperspectral target detection systems,” U.S. patent 7,043,369 (9 May 2006).

O'Connor, R.

B. P. Stevenson, R. O'Connor, W. B. Kendall, A. D. Stocker, W. E. Schaff, D. Alexa, J. A. Salvador, M. T. Eismann, K. J. Barnard, and J. C. Kershenstein, “Design and performance of the Civil Air Patrol ARCHER Hyperspectral Processing System,” Proc. SPIE 5806, 731-742 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Porter, W. M.

G. Vane, R. O. Green, T. G. Chrien, H. T. Enmark, E. G. Hansen, and W. M. Porter, “The Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 127-143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pukall, B.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd Jr., H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176-183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ratkowski, A. J.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd Jr., H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176-183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, G. W. Felde, M. L. Hoke, A. J. Ratkowski, J. H. Chetwynd, J. A. Gardner, S. M. Adler-Golden, M. W. Matthew, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, D. Miller, and P. Lewis, “FLAASH, a MODTRAN4-based atmospheric correction algorithm, its application and validation,” in 2002 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 3, pp. 1414-1418.

Reeves, R. H.

T. S. Spisz, Y. Fang, R. H. Reeves, C. K. Seymour, I. N. Bankman, and J. H. Hoh, “Automated sizing of DNA fragments in atomic force microscope images,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 36, 667-672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richtsmeier, S. C.

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd Jr., H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176-183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Salvador, J. A.

B. P. Stevenson, R. O'Connor, W. B. Kendall, A. D. Stocker, W. E. Schaff, D. Alexa, J. A. Salvador, M. T. Eismann, K. J. Barnard, and J. C. Kershenstein, “Design and performance of the Civil Air Patrol ARCHER Hyperspectral Processing System,” Proc. SPIE 5806, 731-742 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W. E.

B. P. Stevenson, R. O'Connor, W. B. Kendall, A. D. Stocker, W. E. Schaff, D. Alexa, J. A. Salvador, M. T. Eismann, K. J. Barnard, and J. C. Kershenstein, “Design and performance of the Civil Air Patrol ARCHER Hyperspectral Processing System,” Proc. SPIE 5806, 731-742 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Stellman, G. G. Hazel, F. Bucholtz, J. V. Michalowicz, A. D. Stocker, and W. E. Schaff, “Real time hyperspectral target detection and cuing,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1928-1935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scharf, L. L.

S. Kraut, L. L. Scharf, and L. T. McWhorter, “Adaptive subspace detectors,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 49, 1-16 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schlangen, M. J.

C. G. Simi, E. M. Winter, M. J. Schlangen, and A. B. Hill, “On-board processing for COMPASS,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 137-142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seymour, C. K.

T. S. Spisz, Y. Fang, R. H. Reeves, C. K. Seymour, I. N. Bankman, and J. H. Hoh, “Automated sizing of DNA fragments in atomic force microscope images,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 36, 667-672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, G. A.

D. G. Manolakis and G. A. Shaw, “Detection algorithms for hyperspectral imaging applications,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 19, 29-43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simi, C. G.

C. G. Simi, E. M. Winter, M. J. Schlangen, and A. B. Hill, “On-board processing for COMPASS,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 137-142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Simi, E. M. Winter, M. M. Williams, and D. C. Driscoll, “Compact Airborne Spectral Sensor (COMPASS),” Proc. SPIE 4381, 129-136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sivjee, M. G.

J. A. Hackwell, D. W. Warren, R. P. Bongiovi, S. J. Hansel, T. L. Hayhurst, D. L. Mabry, M. G. Sivjee, and J. W. Skinner, “LWIR/MWIR imaging hyperspectral sensor for airborne and ground-based remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 2819, 102-107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, J. W.

J. A. Hackwell, D. W. Warren, R. P. Bongiovi, S. J. Hansel, T. L. Hayhurst, D. L. Mabry, M. G. Sivjee, and J. W. Skinner, “LWIR/MWIR imaging hyperspectral sensor for airborne and ground-based remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 2819, 102-107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Spisz, T. S.

T. S. Spisz, Y. Fang, R. H. Reeves, C. K. Seymour, I. N. Bankman, and J. H. Hoh, “Automated sizing of DNA fragments in atomic force microscope images,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 36, 667-672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stellman, C. M.

C. M. Stellman, G. G. Hazel, F. Bucholtz, J. V. Michalowicz, A. D. Stocker, and W. E. Schaff, “Real time hyperspectral target detection and cuing,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1928-1935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, B. P.

B. P. Stevenson, R. O'Connor, W. B. Kendall, A. D. Stocker, W. E. Schaff, D. Alexa, J. A. Salvador, M. T. Eismann, K. J. Barnard, and J. C. Kershenstein, “Design and performance of the Civil Air Patrol ARCHER Hyperspectral Processing System,” Proc. SPIE 5806, 731-742 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stocker, A. D.

B. P. Stevenson, R. O'Connor, W. B. Kendall, A. D. Stocker, W. E. Schaff, D. Alexa, J. A. Salvador, M. T. Eismann, K. J. Barnard, and J. C. Kershenstein, “Design and performance of the Civil Air Patrol ARCHER Hyperspectral Processing System,” Proc. SPIE 5806, 731-742 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Stellman, G. G. Hazel, F. Bucholtz, J. V. Michalowicz, A. D. Stocker, and W. E. Schaff, “Real time hyperspectral target detection and cuing,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1928-1935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thai, B.

B. Thai and G. E. Healey, “Invariant subpixel material detection in hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 599-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vane, G.

G. Vane, R. O. Green, T. G. Chrien, H. T. Enmark, E. G. Hansen, and W. M. Porter, “The Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 127-143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

J. Dudhia, D. O. Gill, K. W. Manning, W. Wang, and C. Bruyere, “PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Modeling System tutorial class notes and user's guide (MM5 Modeling System Version 3),” University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/mm5/documents/tutorial-v3-notes.html(2005).

Warren, D. W.

J. A. Hackwell, D. W. Warren, R. P. Bongiovi, S. J. Hansel, T. L. Hayhurst, D. L. Mabry, M. G. Sivjee, and J. W. Skinner, “LWIR/MWIR imaging hyperspectral sensor for airborne and ground-based remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 2819, 102-107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Williams, M. M.

C. G. Simi, E. M. Winter, M. M. Williams, and D. C. Driscoll, “Compact Airborne Spectral Sensor (COMPASS),” Proc. SPIE 4381, 129-136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Winter, E. M.

C. G. Simi, E. M. Winter, M. M. Williams, and D. C. Driscoll, “Compact Airborne Spectral Sensor (COMPASS),” Proc. SPIE 4381, 129-136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Simi, E. M. Winter, M. J. Schlangen, and A. B. Hill, “On-board processing for COMPASS,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 137-142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Signal Process. Mag.

D. G. Manolakis and G. A. Shaw, “Detection algorithms for hyperspectral imaging applications,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 19, 29-43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

B. Thai and G. E. Healey, “Invariant subpixel material detection in hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 599-608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Banerjee, P. Burlina, and C. P. Diehl, “A support vector method for anomaly detection in hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 2282-2291 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Signal Process.

S. Kraut, L. L. Scharf, and L. T. McWhorter, “Adaptive subspace detectors,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 49, 1-16 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.

T. S. Spisz, Y. Fang, R. H. Reeves, C. K. Seymour, I. N. Bankman, and J. H. Hoh, “Automated sizing of DNA fragments in atomic force microscope images,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 36, 667-672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

C. M. Stellman, G. G. Hazel, F. Bucholtz, J. V. Michalowicz, A. D. Stocker, and W. E. Schaff, “Real time hyperspectral target detection and cuing,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1928-1935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

C. G. Simi, E. M. Winter, M. J. Schlangen, and A. B. Hill, “On-board processing for COMPASS,” Proc. SPIE 4381, 137-142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Stevenson, R. O'Connor, W. B. Kendall, A. D. Stocker, W. E. Schaff, D. Alexa, J. A. Salvador, M. T. Eismann, K. J. Barnard, and J. C. Kershenstein, “Design and performance of the Civil Air Patrol ARCHER Hyperspectral Processing System,” Proc. SPIE 5806, 731-742 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Anderson, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, M. W. Matthew, L. S. Bernstein, J. H. Chetwynd Jr., H. Dothe, S. M. Adler-Golden, A. J. Ratkowski, G. W. Felde, J. A. Gardner, M. L. Hoke, S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, J. B. Mello, and L. S. Jeong, “MODTRAN4: radiative transfer modeling for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4049, 176-183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Basedow, D. C. Carmer, and M. E. Anderson, “HYDICE system: implementation and performance,” Proc. SPIE 2480, 258-267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Simi, E. M. Winter, M. M. Williams, and D. C. Driscoll, “Compact Airborne Spectral Sensor (COMPASS),” Proc. SPIE 4381, 129-136 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Hackwell, D. W. Warren, R. P. Bongiovi, S. J. Hansel, T. L. Hayhurst, D. L. Mabry, M. G. Sivjee, and J. W. Skinner, “LWIR/MWIR imaging hyperspectral sensor for airborne and ground-based remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 2819, 102-107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

G. Vane, R. O. Green, T. G. Chrien, H. T. Enmark, E. G. Hansen, and W. M. Porter, “The Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 127-143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

“Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) user's guide,” ITT Visual Information Solutions, Boulder, Colorado, http://www.ittvis.com.

J. Dudhia, D. O. Gill, K. W. Manning, W. Wang, and C. Bruyere, “PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Modeling System tutorial class notes and user's guide (MM5 Modeling System Version 3),” University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/mm5/documents/tutorial-v3-notes.html(2005).

“Radiosonde Database Access,” Forecast Systems Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, Colorado, http://raob.fsl.noaa.gov.

T. Cooley, G. P. Anderson, G. W. Felde, M. L. Hoke, A. J. Ratkowski, J. H. Chetwynd, J. A. Gardner, S. M. Adler-Golden, M. W. Matthew, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, D. Miller, and P. Lewis, “FLAASH, a MODTRAN4-based atmospheric correction algorithm, its application and validation,” in 2002 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 3, pp. 1414-1418.

“Atmospheric Correction Now (ACORN) user's guide,” Advanced Imaging and Spectroscopy LLC, http://www.imspec.com.

“Atmospheric Correction (ATCOR) user's guide,” Geosystems Germany, http://www.geosystems.de/atcor.

M. A. Kolodner, P. K. Murphy, and E. E. Hume, Jr., “Radiance library forecasting for time-critical hyperspectral target detection systems,” U.S. patent 7,043,369 (9 May 2006).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Three phase HSI target detection system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Radiance spectra from 400 to 2400 nm of a green-painted surface under full Sun ( α = 1 ) and full shade ( α = 0 ) from a nadir-viewing HSI sensor at 10 km altitude with a 30 ° solar elevation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of adaptive thresholding, with plots of the blob number versus the threshold for four different detection scores images of a scene containing several resolved targets. The pixels in each score image are tagged based on an optimal and unique threshold, as indicated by the vertical dashed lines.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Illustration of the tag summation process for the assignment of confidences on a scene containing multiple resolved targets. In this scene, confidences are allocated to pixels based on the following number of tags: none for 0–1 tag, low for 2–4 tags, medium for 5–9 tags, and high for 10 or more tags.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Resolved target detection performance curves on HYDICE data collections over a range of backgrounds, target configurations, and altitudes. The targets are vehiclelike in shape and size. A best-fit curve over all cases is also provided. (L, M, and H = low , medium, and high confidence, respectively.)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Subpixel and resolved target detection performance curves on COMPASS data collections over dirt, short grass, and tall grass backgrounds at various altitudes. The targets are mock land mines that range in size from 15 to 30 cm across. Stoplight criteria of at least 50% P d at 1000 FA / km 2 separate very good from satisfactory performance. (L, M, and H = low , medium, and high confidence, respectively.)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Time-coincident MM5 weather nowcast and forecast profiles of temperature and relative humidity at 34 ° latitude, 68 ° longitude on 1 April 2007 at 12 UTC .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparisons of at-sensor radiance spectra at 10 km altitude for olive green paint under full Sun using the various weather profiles from Fig. 7.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Resolved Target Detection Performance on HYDICE Test Data

Tables Icon

Table 2 Subpixel and Resolved Target Detection Performance on COMPASS Test Data

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L total ( λ , r ) = L direct ( λ , r ) + L indirect ( λ , r ) + L scattered ( λ ) ,
L full-Sun = L total , L full-shade = L total L direct .
L partial = α L full-sun + ( 1 α ) L full-shade ,
L ( λ ) norm = L ( λ ) L ( λ ) T L ( λ ) = L ( λ ) L .
MF SCORE = ( L T L M ) T 1 ( X L M ) ( L T L M ) T 1 ( L T L M ) ,

Metrics