Abstract

We propose a thermally actuated tunable grating for measuring the beam profile of a CO2 laser. The grooves of a transmissive grating are filled with a liquid whose refractive index depends on temperature. A visible laser as a probe and a CO2 laser as a heat source are illuminated on the grating. The CO2 laser is absorbed, and depending on its beam profile, a temperature profile is induced on the grating. The refractive index of the heated liquid is changed, resulting in a change of efficiency of the grating for the probe laser. By using the 1st orders of diffraction in a 4f imaging system, the beam profile of the CO2 laser is imaged onto a CCD camera by the probe laser.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. P. Herzig, Micro-Optics, Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis, 1998).
  2. N. F. Borrelli, Microoptics Technology, 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2005).
  3. J. Castracane, M. A. Gutin, and O. N. Gutin, “Micromechanically controlled diffraction: a new tool for spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 3951, 36-45 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. I. Trisnadi, C. B. Carlisle, and R. Monteverde, “Overview and applications of Grating Light Valve based optical write engines for high-speed digital imaging,” presented at Photonics West2004--Micromachining and Microfabrication Symposium, San Jose, California, USA, 26 January 2004.
  5. J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588-2590 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. W. Wong, Y. Jeon, G. Barbastathis, and S.-G. Kim, “Analog tunable gratings driven by thin-film piezoelectric micro electro mechanical actuators,” Appl. Opt. 42, 621-626 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. E. Sene, J. W. Grantham, V. M. Bright, and J. H. Comtois, “Development and characterization of micromechanical gratings for optical modulation,” in Proceedings of the Ninth Annual International IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1996), pp. 222-227.
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Yokouchi, Y. Suzaki, K. Nakagawa, M. Yamauchi, M. Kimura, Y. Mizutani, S. Kimura, and E. Seiki, “Thermal tuning of mechanically induced long-period fiber grating,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5024-5028 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. D. Mellin and G. P. Nordin, “Limits of scalar diffraction theory and an iterative angular spectrum algorithm for finite aperture diffractive optical element design,” Opt. Express 8, 705-722 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. T. Amm and R. W. Corrigan, “Grating light valve technology: update and novel applications,” presented at the Society for Information Display Symposium, Anaheim, California, USA, 19 May 1998.
  11. J. R. Adleman, H. A. Eggert, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, “Holographic grating formation in a colloidal suspension of silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 31, 447-449 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Camacho-Lopez and M. J. Damzen, “Self-starting Nd:YAG holographic laser oscillator with a thermal grating,” Opt. Lett. 24, 753-755 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. J. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC Press, 2003).
  14. J. F. Ready, LIA Handbook of Laser Material Processing (Magnolia, 2001).

2006

2005

2003

2001

2000

J. Castracane, M. A. Gutin, and O. N. Gutin, “Micromechanically controlled diffraction: a new tool for spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 3951, 36-45 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1995

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588-2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adleman, J. R.

Amm, D. T.

D. T. Amm and R. W. Corrigan, “Grating light valve technology: update and novel applications,” presented at the Society for Information Display Symposium, Anaheim, California, USA, 19 May 1998.

Barbastathis, G.

Borrelli, N. F.

N. F. Borrelli, Microoptics Technology, 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2005).

Bos, P. J.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588-2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bright, V. M.

D. E. Sene, J. W. Grantham, V. M. Bright, and J. H. Comtois, “Development and characterization of micromechanical gratings for optical modulation,” in Proceedings of the Ninth Annual International IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1996), pp. 222-227.
[CrossRef]

Buse, K.

Camacho-Lopez, S.

Carlisle, C. B.

J. I. Trisnadi, C. B. Carlisle, and R. Monteverde, “Overview and applications of Grating Light Valve based optical write engines for high-speed digital imaging,” presented at Photonics West2004--Micromachining and Microfabrication Symposium, San Jose, California, USA, 26 January 2004.

Castracane, J.

J. Castracane, M. A. Gutin, and O. N. Gutin, “Micromechanically controlled diffraction: a new tool for spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 3951, 36-45 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588-2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Comtois, J. H.

D. E. Sene, J. W. Grantham, V. M. Bright, and J. H. Comtois, “Development and characterization of micromechanical gratings for optical modulation,” in Proceedings of the Ninth Annual International IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1996), pp. 222-227.
[CrossRef]

Corrigan, R. W.

D. T. Amm and R. W. Corrigan, “Grating light valve technology: update and novel applications,” presented at the Society for Information Display Symposium, Anaheim, California, USA, 19 May 1998.

Damzen, M. J.

Eggert, H. A.

Grantham, J. W.

D. E. Sene, J. W. Grantham, V. M. Bright, and J. H. Comtois, “Development and characterization of micromechanical gratings for optical modulation,” in Proceedings of the Ninth Annual International IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1996), pp. 222-227.
[CrossRef]

Gutin, M. A.

J. Castracane, M. A. Gutin, and O. N. Gutin, “Micromechanically controlled diffraction: a new tool for spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 3951, 36-45 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gutin, O. N.

J. Castracane, M. A. Gutin, and O. N. Gutin, “Micromechanically controlled diffraction: a new tool for spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 3951, 36-45 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

H. P. Herzig, Micro-Optics, Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis, 1998).

Jeon, Y.

Johnson, D. L.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588-2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-G.

Kimura, M.

Kimura, S.

Mellin, S. D.

Mizutani, Y.

Monteverde, R.

J. I. Trisnadi, C. B. Carlisle, and R. Monteverde, “Overview and applications of Grating Light Valve based optical write engines for high-speed digital imaging,” presented at Photonics West2004--Micromachining and Microfabrication Symposium, San Jose, California, USA, 26 January 2004.

Nakagawa, K.

Nordin, G. P.

Psaltis, D.

Ready, J. F.

J. F. Ready, LIA Handbook of Laser Material Processing (Magnolia, 2001).

Seiki, E.

Sene, D. E.

D. E. Sene, J. W. Grantham, V. M. Bright, and J. H. Comtois, “Development and characterization of micromechanical gratings for optical modulation,” in Proceedings of the Ninth Annual International IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1996), pp. 222-227.
[CrossRef]

Suzaki, Y.

Trisnadi, J. I.

J. I. Trisnadi, C. B. Carlisle, and R. Monteverde, “Overview and applications of Grating Light Valve based optical write engines for high-speed digital imaging,” presented at Photonics West2004--Micromachining and Microfabrication Symposium, San Jose, California, USA, 26 January 2004.

Vithana, H.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588-2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC Press, 2003).

Wong, C. W.

Yamauchi, M.

Yokouchi, T.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588-2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

J. Castracane, M. A. Gutin, and O. N. Gutin, “Micromechanically controlled diffraction: a new tool for spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 3951, 36-45 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. I. Trisnadi, C. B. Carlisle, and R. Monteverde, “Overview and applications of Grating Light Valve based optical write engines for high-speed digital imaging,” presented at Photonics West2004--Micromachining and Microfabrication Symposium, San Jose, California, USA, 26 January 2004.

H. P. Herzig, Micro-Optics, Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis, 1998).

N. F. Borrelli, Microoptics Technology, 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2005).

D. E. Sene, J. W. Grantham, V. M. Bright, and J. H. Comtois, “Development and characterization of micromechanical gratings for optical modulation,” in Proceedings of the Ninth Annual International IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1996), pp. 222-227.
[CrossRef]

D. T. Amm and R. W. Corrigan, “Grating light valve technology: update and novel applications,” presented at the Society for Information Display Symposium, Anaheim, California, USA, 19 May 1998.

M. J. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC Press, 2003).

J. F. Ready, LIA Handbook of Laser Material Processing (Magnolia, 2001).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Square-well grating with n 1 and n 2 for the refractive indices of the land and the groove. (b) Wavefront of an incoming ray immediately after passing through the grating. (c), (d), (e) Simulation results of diffraction from the grating shown in (a) for γ = 0 , γ = π / 2 , and γ = π , respectively. On the vertical axes, the maximum intensity has been normalized to unity. (f) Results of simulation of the intensity of the 1st order of diffraction versus phase difference for grating in (a).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabricated grating etched on a glass substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fabrication of the TTG device: (a) the grooves of the grating are filled with nitrobenzene and (b) a supporting glass is placed on the device.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Setup for measuring the relation between temperature and the intensity of the 1st order of diffraction in the TTG device.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffraction order intensities at different temperatures: (a)  T = 77 ° C , (b)  T = 108 ° C , and (c)  T = 140 ° C . The maximum intensity is normalized to unity. (d) Experimental result of the intensity of the 1st order of diffraction versus temperature. The maximum intensity is normalized to unity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulation results of temperature distribution over the surface of the supporting glass, which is irradiated by a Gaussian laser beam. Plot 1 is the intensity profile of the laser. Plots 2 and 3 are the temperature profile at the surface of the supporting glass for pulse lengths of 0.1 and 1 s immediately after the pulse, respectively. As seen in these plots, by shortening the irradiation times, the temperature profile will be very similar to the intensity profile of the laser. Plot 4 is the temperature profile on the other side of the supporting glass right next to the grating. In this simulation, it is assumed that all the power is absorbed at the surface of the supporting glass and heat is distributed due to heat conduction. For comparison, all profiles have been normalized to unity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Setup used for measurement of the temperature profile of the CO 2 laser.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Image produced on the CCD camera. (b) 3D diagram of (a).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Image produced on the CCD camera with the setup in Fig. 7. In this experiment, the temperature at the center is about 100 ° C . Note that in this measurement, the temperature range was between 25 ° C   and 100 ° C .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured intensity distribution of the diffraction of 658 nm diode laser at (a)  T = 108 ° C and (b)  T = 77 ° C when the CO 2 laser is off, using the setup shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Corrected intensity profile of the CO 2 laser beam shown in Fig. 8b. Note that the errors discussed in Section 5E, 5F are counted here.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

φ 1 = 2 π ( n 1 ) λ d , φ 2 = 2 π ( n 2 ) λ d , Δ φ = φ 1 φ 2 = 2 π ( n 1 n 2 ) λ d .
I = I max sin 2 ( Δ φ 2 ) .
k ρ c 2 T ( r , t ) + 1 ρ c S ( r , t ) = T ( r , t ) t ,
T ( r , z , t ) = r 0 2 k α π 0 t q ( t t ) exp ( z 2 4 α t r 2 4 α t + r 0 2 ) d t t ( 4 α t + r 0 2 ) ,
Δ θ m λ Δ d d 2 ,
I = sin 2 ( π 2 * 31 ( T 77 ) ) .
T = 77 + 2 * 31 π sin 1 ( I ) .

Metrics