Abstract

We introduce a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor for adaptive optics that enables dynamic control of the spatial sampling of an incoming wavefront using a segmented mirror microelectrical mechanical systems (MEMS) device. Unlike a conventional lenslet array, subapertures are defined by either segments or groups of segments of a mirror array, with the ability to change spatial pupil sampling arbitrarily by redefining the segment grouping. Control over the spatial sampling of the wavefront allows for the minimization of wavefront reconstruction error for different intensities of guide source and different atmospheric conditions, which in turn maximizes an adaptive optics system’s delivered Strehl ratio. Requirements for the MEMS devices needed in this Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor are also presented.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Putnam, M. Snyder, T. Stalcup, and R. Angel, “Manufacture and use of a Shack-Hartmann sensor with a multifaceted prism for simultaneous sensing of multiple wavefronts,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1138-1145 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Colucci, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Wittman, R. Angel, A. Ghez, and B. McLeod, “A reflective Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor for adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 106, 1104-1110 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford U. Press, 1998).
  4. R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, “PALM-3000: visible-light AO on the 5.1 Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Dekany, “Exoearth study with TMT,” Proc. SPIE 5382, 12-20 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Gavel, R. Dekany, C. Max, P. Wizinowich, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, C. Lockwood, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “Concept for the Keck next-generation adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701567 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. R. P. Angel, “Ground-based imaging of extrasolar planets using adaptive optics,” Nature 368, 203-207 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. G. Basden, C. A. Haniff, and C. D. Mackay, “Photon counting strategies with low-light-level CCDs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 345, 985-991 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabud, P.-Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72-81(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Baranec, “High-order wavefront sensing system for PALM-3000,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155M (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Rha, D. Volez, and M. Giles, “Reconfigurable Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Opt. Eng. 43, 251-256 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Zhao, N. Bai, X. Li, L. Ong, Z. Fang, and A. Asundi, “Efficient implementation of a spatial light modulator as a diffractive optical microlens array in a digital Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Appl. Opt. 45, 90-94 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. Baranec, B. J. Bauman, and M. Lloyd Hart, “Concept for a laser guide beacon Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor with dynamically steered subapertures,” Opt. Lett. 30, 693-695(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. J. Bauman, Optical design for Extremely Large Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, 2003).
  17. J. Andrews, S. W. Teare, S. R. Restiano, T. Martinez, C. Wilcox, and D. Wick, “A high speed reflective wave front sensor using a novel MEM device,” in 2007 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-6.
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. C. Roberts and L. W. Bradford, “Measurements of mesospheric sodium abundance above the Hawaiian Islands,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 787-792 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Kenworthy, P. Hinz, R. Angel, A. Heinze, and S. Sivanandam, “Whack-a-speckle: focal plane wavefront sensing in theory and practice with a deformable secondary mirror and 5 micron camera,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723K (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, “Extreme adaptive optics imaging with a clear and well-corrected off-axis telescope subaperture,” Astrophys. J. 658, 1386-1391(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Dagel, W. Cowan, O. Spahn, G. Grossetete, A. Griñe, M. Shaw, P. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke mems deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectomech. Syst. 15, 572-583 (2006).
  23. B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

2008 (3)

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, C. Max, P. Wizinowich, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, C. Lockwood, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “Concept for the Keck next-generation adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Baranec, “High-order wavefront sensing system for PALM-3000,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155M (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

L. C. Roberts and L. W. Bradford, “Measurements of mesospheric sodium abundance above the Hawaiian Islands,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 787-792 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, “Extreme adaptive optics imaging with a clear and well-corrected off-axis telescope subaperture,” Astrophys. J. 658, 1386-1391(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

D. Dagel, W. Cowan, O. Spahn, G. Grossetete, A. Griñe, M. Shaw, P. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke mems deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectomech. Syst. 15, 572-583 (2006).

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

M. Kenworthy, P. Hinz, R. Angel, A. Heinze, and S. Sivanandam, “Whack-a-speckle: focal plane wavefront sensing in theory and practice with a deformable secondary mirror and 5 micron camera,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723K (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, “PALM-3000: visible-light AO on the 5.1 Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhao, N. Bai, X. Li, L. Ong, Z. Fang, and A. Asundi, “Efficient implementation of a spatial light modulator as a diffractive optical microlens array in a digital Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Appl. Opt. 45, 90-94 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

J. Rha, D. Volez, and M. Giles, “Reconfigurable Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Opt. Eng. 43, 251-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Dekany, “Exoearth study with TMT,” Proc. SPIE 5382, 12-20 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Putnam, M. Snyder, T. Stalcup, and R. Angel, “Manufacture and use of a Shack-Hartmann sensor with a multifaceted prism for simultaneous sensing of multiple wavefronts,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1138-1145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. G. Basden, C. A. Haniff, and C. D. Mackay, “Photon counting strategies with low-light-level CCDs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 345, 985-991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

P. Feautrier, P. Kern, R. Dorn, G. Rousset, P. Rabou, S. Laurent, J.-L. Lizon, E. Stadler, Y. Magnard, O. Rondeaux, M. Cochard, D. Rabaud, A. Delboulbe, P. Puget, and N. Hubin, “The NAOS visible wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 396-407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabud, P.-Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72-81(2000).
[CrossRef]

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

J. R. P. Angel, “Ground-based imaging of extrasolar planets using adaptive optics,” Nature 368, 203-207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Colucci, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Wittman, R. Angel, A. Ghez, and B. McLeod, “A reflective Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor for adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 106, 1104-1110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Adkins, S.

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, C. Max, P. Wizinowich, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, C. Lockwood, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “Concept for the Keck next-generation adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ageorges, N.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, J.

J. Andrews, S. W. Teare, S. R. Restiano, T. Martinez, C. Wilcox, and D. Wick, “A high speed reflective wave front sensor using a novel MEM device,” in 2007 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-6.
[CrossRef]

Angel, J. R. P.

J. R. P. Angel, “Ground-based imaging of extrasolar planets using adaptive optics,” Nature 368, 203-207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Angel, R.

M. Kenworthy, P. Hinz, R. Angel, A. Heinze, and S. Sivanandam, “Whack-a-speckle: focal plane wavefront sensing in theory and practice with a deformable secondary mirror and 5 micron camera,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723K (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Putnam, M. Snyder, T. Stalcup, and R. Angel, “Manufacture and use of a Shack-Hartmann sensor with a multifaceted prism for simultaneous sensing of multiple wavefronts,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1138-1145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Colucci, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Wittman, R. Angel, A. Ghez, and B. McLeod, “A reflective Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor for adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 106, 1104-1110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arsenault, R.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabud, P.-Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72-81(2000).
[CrossRef]

Asundi, A.

Bai, N.

Baranec, C.

Basden, A. G.

A. G. Basden, C. A. Haniff, and C. D. Mackay, “Photon counting strategies with low-light-level CCDs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 345, 985-991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bauman, B.

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, C. Max, P. Wizinowich, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, C. Lockwood, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “Concept for the Keck next-generation adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bauman, B. J.

C. Baranec, B. J. Bauman, and M. Lloyd Hart, “Concept for a laser guide beacon Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor with dynamically steered subapertures,” Opt. Lett. 30, 693-695(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Bauman, Optical design for Extremely Large Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, 2003).

Bell, J.

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, C. Max, P. Wizinowich, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, C. Lockwood, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “Concept for the Keck next-generation adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bouchez, A.

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, “PALM-3000: visible-light AO on the 5.1 Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, C.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Bradford, L. W.

L. C. Roberts and L. W. Bradford, “Measurements of mesospheric sodium abundance above the Hawaiian Islands,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 787-792 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, C.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Britton, M.

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, “PALM-3000: visible-light AO on the 5.1 Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Britton, M. C.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Browne, S.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Buchroeder, R. A.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Burruss, R.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, “Extreme adaptive optics imaging with a clear and well-corrected off-axis telescope subaperture,” Astrophys. J. 658, 1386-1391(2007).
[CrossRef]

Carel, J.-L.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Charton, J.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabud, P.-Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72-81(2000).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J.

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M. K.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Chun, M. R.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Clare, R.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Cochard, M.

P. Feautrier, P. Kern, R. Dorn, G. Rousset, P. Rabou, S. Laurent, J.-L. Lizon, E. Stadler, Y. Magnard, O. Rondeaux, M. Cochard, D. Rabaud, A. Delboulbe, P. Puget, and N. Hubin, “The NAOS visible wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 396-407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Colucci, D.

D. Colucci, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Wittman, R. Angel, A. Ghez, and B. McLeod, “A reflective Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor for adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 106, 1104-1110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Conan, R.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Cowan, W.

D. Dagel, W. Cowan, O. Spahn, G. Grossetete, A. Griñe, M. Shaw, P. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke mems deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectomech. Syst. 15, 572-583 (2006).

Dagel, D.

D. Dagel, W. Cowan, O. Spahn, G. Grossetete, A. Griñe, M. Shaw, P. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke mems deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectomech. Syst. 15, 572-583 (2006).

Daggert, L. G.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Davies, R.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dekany, R.

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, C. Max, P. Wizinowich, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, C. Lockwood, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “Concept for the Keck next-generation adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, “PALM-3000: visible-light AO on the 5.1 Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Dekany, “Exoearth study with TMT,” Proc. SPIE 5382, 12-20 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dekany, R. G.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Delboulbe, A.

P. Feautrier, P. Kern, R. Dorn, G. Rousset, P. Rabou, S. Laurent, J.-L. Lizon, E. Stadler, Y. Magnard, O. Rondeaux, M. Cochard, D. Rabaud, A. Delboulbe, P. Puget, and N. Hubin, “The NAOS visible wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 396-407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, R.

P. Feautrier, P. Kern, R. Dorn, G. Rousset, P. Rabou, S. Laurent, J.-L. Lizon, E. Stadler, Y. Magnard, O. Rondeaux, M. Cochard, D. Rabaud, A. Delboulbe, P. Puget, and N. Hubin, “The NAOS visible wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 396-407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eckart, A.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Elias, J. H.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Ellerbroek, B. L.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Erickson, D. A.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Fang, Z.

Feautrier, P.

P. Feautrier, P. Kern, R. Dorn, G. Rousset, P. Rabou, S. Laurent, J.-L. Lizon, E. Stadler, Y. Magnard, O. Rondeaux, M. Cochard, D. Rabaud, A. Delboulbe, P. Puget, and N. Hubin, “The NAOS visible wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 396-407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabud, P.-Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72-81(2000).
[CrossRef]

Flicker, R.

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Gappinger, R.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, “Extreme adaptive optics imaging with a clear and well-corrected off-axis telescope subaperture,” Astrophys. J. 658, 1386-1391(2007).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D.

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, C. Max, P. Wizinowich, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, C. Lockwood, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “Concept for the Keck next-generation adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D. T.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Gendron, E.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabud, P.-Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72-81(2000).
[CrossRef]

Ghez, A.

D. Colucci, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Wittman, R. Angel, A. Ghez, and B. McLeod, “A reflective Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor for adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 106, 1104-1110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gigan, P.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabud, P.-Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72-81(2000).
[CrossRef]

Giles, M.

J. Rha, D. Volez, and M. Giles, “Reconfigurable Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Opt. Eng. 43, 251-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gilles, L.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Griñe, A.

D. Dagel, W. Cowan, O. Spahn, G. Grossetete, A. Griñe, M. Shaw, P. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke mems deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectomech. Syst. 15, 572-583 (2006).

Grossetete, G.

D. Dagel, W. Cowan, O. Spahn, G. Grossetete, A. Griñe, M. Shaw, P. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke mems deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectomech. Syst. 15, 572-583 (2006).

Hackenberg, W.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haguenauer, P.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, “Extreme adaptive optics imaging with a clear and well-corrected off-axis telescope subaperture,” Astrophys. J. 658, 1386-1391(2007).
[CrossRef]

Hampton, P.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Haniff, C. A.

A. G. Basden, C. A. Haniff, and C. D. Mackay, “Photon counting strategies with low-light-level CCDs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 345, 985-991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford U. Press, 1998).

Hart, M. Lloyd

Heinze, A.

M. Kenworthy, P. Hinz, R. Angel, A. Heinze, and S. Sivanandam, “Whack-a-speckle: focal plane wavefront sensing in theory and practice with a deformable secondary mirror and 5 micron camera,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herriot, G.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Hinz, P.

M. Kenworthy, P. Hinz, R. Angel, A. Heinze, and S. Sivanandam, “Whack-a-speckle: focal plane wavefront sensing in theory and practice with a deformable secondary mirror and 5 micron camera,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holstenberg, H.-C.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N.

P. Feautrier, P. Kern, R. Dorn, G. Rousset, P. Rabou, S. Laurent, J.-L. Lizon, E. Stadler, Y. Magnard, O. Rondeaux, M. Cochard, D. Rabaud, A. Delboulbe, P. Puget, and N. Hubin, “The NAOS visible wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 396-407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabud, P.-Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72-81(2000).
[CrossRef]

Hunten, M. R.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Johansson, E.

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, C. Max, P. Wizinowich, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, C. Lockwood, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “Concept for the Keck next-generation adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jokiel, B.

D. Dagel, W. Cowan, O. Spahn, G. Grossetete, A. Griñe, M. Shaw, P. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke mems deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectomech. Syst. 15, 572-583 (2006).

Joyce, R. R.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Kenworthy, M.

M. Kenworthy, P. Hinz, R. Angel, A. Heinze, and S. Sivanandam, “Whack-a-speckle: focal plane wavefront sensing in theory and practice with a deformable secondary mirror and 5 micron camera,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kern, P.

P. Feautrier, P. Kern, R. Dorn, G. Rousset, P. Rabou, S. Laurent, J.-L. Lizon, E. Stadler, Y. Magnard, O. Rondeaux, M. Cochard, D. Rabaud, A. Delboulbe, P. Puget, and N. Hubin, “The NAOS visible wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 396-407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabud, P.-Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72-81(2000).
[CrossRef]

Kupke, R.

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, C. Max, P. Wizinowich, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, C. Lockwood, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “Concept for the Keck next-generation adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lacombe, F.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabud, P.-Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72-81(2000).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, S.

P. Feautrier, P. Kern, R. Dorn, G. Rousset, P. Rabou, S. Laurent, J.-L. Lizon, E. Stadler, Y. Magnard, O. Rondeaux, M. Cochard, D. Rabaud, A. Delboulbe, P. Puget, and N. Hubin, “The NAOS visible wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 396-407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Le Mignant, D.

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Liang, M.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Lizon, J.-L.

P. Feautrier, P. Kern, R. Dorn, G. Rousset, P. Rabou, S. Laurent, J.-L. Lizon, E. Stadler, Y. Magnard, O. Rondeaux, M. Cochard, D. Rabaud, A. Delboulbe, P. Puget, and N. Hubin, “The NAOS visible wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 396-407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd-Hart, M.

D. Colucci, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Wittman, R. Angel, A. Ghez, and B. McLeod, “A reflective Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor for adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 106, 1104-1110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lockwood, C.

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, C. Max, P. Wizinowich, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, C. Lockwood, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “Concept for the Keck next-generation adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B. A.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Mackay, C. D.

A. G. Basden, C. A. Haniff, and C. D. Mackay, “Photon counting strategies with low-light-level CCDs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 345, 985-991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Madec, P.-Y.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabud, P.-Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72-81(2000).
[CrossRef]

Magnard, Y.

P. Feautrier, P. Kern, R. Dorn, G. Rousset, P. Rabou, S. Laurent, J.-L. Lizon, E. Stadler, Y. Magnard, O. Rondeaux, M. Cochard, D. Rabaud, A. Delboulbe, P. Puget, and N. Hubin, “The NAOS visible wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 396-407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, T.

J. Andrews, S. W. Teare, S. R. Restiano, T. Martinez, C. Wilcox, and D. Wick, “A high speed reflective wave front sensor using a novel MEM device,” in 2007 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-6.
[CrossRef]

Max, C.

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, C. Max, P. Wizinowich, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, C. Lockwood, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “Concept for the Keck next-generation adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McGrath, E.

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McLeod, B.

D. Colucci, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Wittman, R. Angel, A. Ghez, and B. McLeod, “A reflective Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor for adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 106, 1104-1110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Medeiros, D.

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mennesson, B.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, “Extreme adaptive optics imaging with a clear and well-corrected off-axis telescope subaperture,” Astrophys. J. 658, 1386-1391(2007).
[CrossRef]

Moore, A.

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, C. Max, P. Wizinowich, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, C. Lockwood, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “Concept for the Keck next-generation adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neyman, C.

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, C. Max, P. Wizinowich, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, C. Lockwood, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “Concept for the Keck next-generation adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ong, L.

O'Sullivan, C.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ott, T.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Palomo, R.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Powell, I. P.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Puget, P.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabud, P.-Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72-81(2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Feautrier, P. Kern, R. Dorn, G. Rousset, P. Rabou, S. Laurent, J.-L. Lizon, E. Stadler, Y. Magnard, O. Rondeaux, M. Cochard, D. Rabaud, A. Delboulbe, P. Puget, and N. Hubin, “The NAOS visible wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 396-407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, N.

N. Putnam, M. Snyder, T. Stalcup, and R. Angel, “Manufacture and use of a Shack-Hartmann sensor with a multifaceted prism for simultaneous sensing of multiple wavefronts,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1138-1145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rabaud, D.

P. Feautrier, P. Kern, R. Dorn, G. Rousset, P. Rabou, S. Laurent, J.-L. Lizon, E. Stadler, Y. Magnard, O. Rondeaux, M. Cochard, D. Rabaud, A. Delboulbe, P. Puget, and N. Hubin, “The NAOS visible wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 396-407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rabien, S.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rabou, P.

P. Feautrier, P. Kern, R. Dorn, G. Rousset, P. Rabou, S. Laurent, J.-L. Lizon, E. Stadler, Y. Magnard, O. Rondeaux, M. Cochard, D. Rabaud, A. Delboulbe, P. Puget, and N. Hubin, “The NAOS visible wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 396-407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rabud, D.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabud, P.-Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72-81(2000).
[CrossRef]

Redfern, R. M.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reinig, M.

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, C. Max, P. Wizinowich, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, C. Lockwood, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “Concept for the Keck next-generation adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Resnick, P.

D. Dagel, W. Cowan, O. Spahn, G. Grossetete, A. Griñe, M. Shaw, P. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke mems deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectomech. Syst. 15, 572-583 (2006).

Restiano, S. R.

J. Andrews, S. W. Teare, S. R. Restiano, T. Martinez, C. Wilcox, and D. Wick, “A high speed reflective wave front sensor using a novel MEM device,” in 2007 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-6.
[CrossRef]

Rha, J.

J. Rha, D. Volez, and M. Giles, “Reconfigurable Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Opt. Eng. 43, 251-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J.

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, “PALM-3000: visible-light AO on the 5.1 Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, L. C.

L. C. Roberts and L. W. Bradford, “Measurements of mesospheric sodium abundance above the Hawaiian Islands,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 787-792 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, S. C.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Rondeaux, O.

P. Feautrier, P. Kern, R. Dorn, G. Rousset, P. Rabou, S. Laurent, J.-L. Lizon, E. Stadler, Y. Magnard, O. Rondeaux, M. Cochard, D. Rabaud, A. Delboulbe, P. Puget, and N. Hubin, “The NAOS visible wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 396-407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

P. Feautrier, P. Kern, R. Dorn, G. Rousset, P. Rabou, S. Laurent, J.-L. Lizon, E. Stadler, Y. Magnard, O. Rondeaux, M. Cochard, D. Rabaud, A. Delboulbe, P. Puget, and N. Hubin, “The NAOS visible wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 396-407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabud, P.-Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72-81(2000).
[CrossRef]

Ruch, E.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Serabyn, E.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, “Extreme adaptive optics imaging with a clear and well-corrected off-axis telescope subaperture,” Astrophys. J. 658, 1386-1391(2007).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, M.

D. Dagel, W. Cowan, O. Spahn, G. Grossetete, A. Griñe, M. Shaw, P. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke mems deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectomech. Syst. 15, 572-583 (2006).

Shelton, J. C.

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, “PALM-3000: visible-light AO on the 5.1 Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sinquin, J.-C.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Sivanandam, S.

M. Kenworthy, P. Hinz, R. Angel, A. Heinze, and S. Sivanandam, “Whack-a-speckle: focal plane wavefront sensing in theory and practice with a deformable secondary mirror and 5 micron camera,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. J.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Snyder, M.

N. Putnam, M. Snyder, T. Stalcup, and R. Angel, “Manufacture and use of a Shack-Hartmann sensor with a multifaceted prism for simultaneous sensing of multiple wavefronts,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1138-1145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spahn, O.

D. Dagel, W. Cowan, O. Spahn, G. Grossetete, A. Griñe, M. Shaw, P. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke mems deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectomech. Syst. 15, 572-583 (2006).

Stadler, E.

P. Feautrier, P. Kern, R. Dorn, G. Rousset, P. Rabou, S. Laurent, J.-L. Lizon, E. Stadler, Y. Magnard, O. Rondeaux, M. Cochard, D. Rabaud, A. Delboulbe, P. Puget, and N. Hubin, “The NAOS visible wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 396-407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabud, P.-Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72-81(2000).
[CrossRef]

Stalcup, T.

N. Putnam, M. Snyder, T. Stalcup, and R. Angel, “Manufacture and use of a Shack-Hartmann sensor with a multifaceted prism for simultaneous sensing of multiple wavefronts,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1138-1145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stoesz, J. A.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Teare, S. W.

J. Andrews, S. W. Teare, S. R. Restiano, T. Martinez, C. Wilcox, and D. Wick, “A high speed reflective wave front sensor using a novel MEM device,” in 2007 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-6.
[CrossRef]

Troy, M.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, “Extreme adaptive optics imaging with a clear and well-corrected off-axis telescope subaperture,” Astrophys. J. 658, 1386-1391(2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, “PALM-3000: visible-light AO on the 5.1 Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Tyler, G. A.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Velur, V.

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, C. Max, P. Wizinowich, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, C. Lockwood, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “Concept for the Keck next-generation adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, “PALM-3000: visible-light AO on the 5.1 Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Veran, J.-P.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Vogel, C. R.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Volez, D.

J. Rha, D. Volez, and M. Giles, “Reconfigurable Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Opt. Eng. 43, 251-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, K.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, “Extreme adaptive optics imaging with a clear and well-corrected off-axis telescope subaperture,” Astrophys. J. 658, 1386-1391(2007).
[CrossRef]

Wick, D.

J. Andrews, S. W. Teare, S. R. Restiano, T. Martinez, C. Wilcox, and D. Wick, “A high speed reflective wave front sensor using a novel MEM device,” in 2007 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-6.
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, C.

J. Andrews, S. W. Teare, S. R. Restiano, T. Martinez, C. Wilcox, and D. Wick, “A high speed reflective wave front sensor using a novel MEM device,” in 2007 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-6.
[CrossRef]

Wittman, D.

D. Colucci, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Wittman, R. Angel, A. Ghez, and B. McLeod, “A reflective Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor for adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 106, 1104-1110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wizinowich, P.

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, C. Max, P. Wizinowich, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, C. Lockwood, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “Concept for the Keck next-generation adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

Zhao, L.

Zins, G.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabud, P.-Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72-81(2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. J. (1)

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, “Extreme adaptive optics imaging with a clear and well-corrected off-axis telescope subaperture,” Astrophys. J. 658, 1386-1391(2007).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Astron. (1)

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

A. G. Basden, C. A. Haniff, and C. D. Mackay, “Photon counting strategies with low-light-level CCDs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 345, 985-991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. R. P. Angel, “Ground-based imaging of extrasolar planets using adaptive optics,” Nature 368, 203-207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Rha, D. Volez, and M. Giles, “Reconfigurable Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Opt. Eng. 43, 251-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (10)

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. Boyer, C. Bradley, M. C. Britton, S. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J.-L. Carel, M. K. Cho, M. R. Chun, R. Clare, R. Conan, L. G. Daggert, R. G. Dekany, J. H. Elias, D. A. Erickson, R. Flicker, D. T. Gavel, L. Gilles, P. Hampton, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, R. R. Joyce, M. Liang, B. A. Macintosh, R. Palomo, I. P. Powell, S. C. Roberts, E. Ruch, J.-C. Sinquin, M. J. Smith, J. A. Stoesz, M. Troy, G. A. Tyler, J.-P. Veran, C. R. Vogel, and Q. Yang, “A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62672I (2006).

N. Putnam, M. Snyder, T. Stalcup, and R. Angel, “Manufacture and use of a Shack-Hartmann sensor with a multifaceted prism for simultaneous sensing of multiple wavefronts,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1138-1145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kenworthy, P. Hinz, R. Angel, A. Heinze, and S. Sivanandam, “Whack-a-speckle: focal plane wavefront sensing in theory and practice with a deformable secondary mirror and 5 micron camera,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723K (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Feautrier, P. Kern, R. Dorn, G. Rousset, P. Rabou, S. Laurent, J.-L. Lizon, E. Stadler, Y. Magnard, O. Rondeaux, M. Cochard, D. Rabaud, A. Delboulbe, P. Puget, and N. Hubin, “The NAOS visible wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 396-407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, R. Arsenault, P. Kern, D. Rabud, P.-Y. Madec, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” Proc. SPIE 4007, 72-81(2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Baranec, “High-order wavefront sensing system for PALM-3000,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155M (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, “PALM-3000: visible-light AO on the 5.1 Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Dekany, “Exoearth study with TMT,” Proc. SPIE 5382, 12-20 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Wizinowich, R. Dekany, D. Gavel, C. Max, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, J. Chin, R. Flicker, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, D. Le Mignant, C. Lockwood, D. Medeiros, E. McGrath, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “W. M. Keck Observatorys next-generation adaptive optics facility,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, R. Dekany, C. Max, P. Wizinowich, S. Adkins, B. Bauman, J. Bell, E. Johansson, R. Kupke, C. Lockwood, A. Moore, C. Neyman, M. Reinig, and V. Velur, “Concept for the Keck next-generation adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (2)

L. C. Roberts and L. W. Bradford, “Measurements of mesospheric sodium abundance above the Hawaiian Islands,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 787-792 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Colucci, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Wittman, R. Angel, A. Ghez, and B. McLeod, “A reflective Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor for adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 106, 1104-1110 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford U. Press, 1998).

B. J. Bauman, Optical design for Extremely Large Telescope adaptive optics systems,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, 2003).

J. Andrews, S. W. Teare, S. R. Restiano, T. Martinez, C. Wilcox, and D. Wick, “A high speed reflective wave front sensor using a novel MEM device,” in 2007 IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-6.
[CrossRef]

D. Dagel, W. Cowan, O. Spahn, G. Grossetete, A. Griñe, M. Shaw, P. Resnick, and B. Jokiel, “Large-stroke mems deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,” J. Microelectomech. Syst. 15, 572-583 (2006).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Wavefront reconstruction error as a function of pupil sampling, s, for two different detectors, a CCD with 5 e read noise (left) and an electron-multiplying CCD with zero read noise and an excess noise factor of 2, and during excellent ( r 0 = 20 cm at λ = 500 nm , top), median ( r 0 = 15 cm , middle) and poor ( r 0 = 10 cm , bottom) seeing conditions. The vertical dotted line in each plot represents s = d tele / r 0 . The curves indicate integer magnitudes of the guide source, with m V = 7 , m V = 11 , and m V = 15 labeled explicitly. All assume a combined telescope and adaptive optics system transmission of 22 % , detector quantum efficiency of 80 % , d tele = 10 m , θ = 0 , a F = 0.28 , n pix = 2 , and τ 0 = 3 ms with a two-frame time delay.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Conceptual design of a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor using a segmented mirror array to adjust spatial pupil sampling. The array is shown with piston control of the segments. Angles are exaggerated, not to scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Configuration of subapertures (left) for a traditional Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor and (right) for a MEMS segmented mirror array with combined edge segments. The footprint of the pupil is outlined in dashed gray, and subapertures are outlined in black. The light lost in a traditional Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor is seen as the gray area.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optimal Spatial Pupil Sampling and Frame Rates a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Stroke Requirements for a Segmented Deformable Mirror a

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ wf 2 = σ fit 2 + σ me 2 + σ td 2 .
σ fit 2 = a F ( d / r 0 ) 5 / 3 ,
σ me 2 = { ( π 2 4 SNR ) 2 ( ( 3 d 2 r 0 ) 2 + ( θ d λ ) 2 ) E , for r 0 < d ( π 2 4 SNR ) 2 ( ( 3 2 ) 2 + ( θ d λ ) 2 ) E , for d < r 0 ,
SNR = n phot / sub ( n phot / sub + n pix 2 e 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
σ td 2 = ( τ s / τ 0 ) 5 / 3 ,
n phot / sub = 4 π Φ s 2 f ,
s opt = 0.529 a F 12 / 35 d tele 4 / 7 τ 0 3 / 14 Φ 3 / 14 r 0 4 / 7 n f delay 3 / 14 ,
f opt = 0.801 n f delay 1 / 14 r 0 3 / 7 Φ 3 / 14 a F 9 / 35 d tele 3 / 7 τ 0 11 / 14 ,
d d s [ σ w f 2 ] = 0 , d d f [ σ w f 2 ] = 0
f col = s d sm f tele d tele ,
f img = s d sm p d tele α m ,
ϕ = ( s 1 ) s ( n pix α ) 4 d tele d sm ,

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