Abstract

We measured transient photoinduced birefringence (δn) in various azobenzene dye films by pumping with a nanosecond pulse at 532nm and probing at 633nm. The switch-on times for the photoinduced birefringence range from nanoseconds to milliseconds and are systematically related with the lowest optical transition energies for those films. Moreover, our results suggest that the transient photoinduced birefringence measurement is a convenient way to determine the relative energies of ππ* and nπ* states in azo-based materials.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev. 102, 4139-4176 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P.-A. Blanche, P. C. Lemaire, M. Dumont, and M. Fischer, “Photoinduced orientation of azo dye in various polymer matrices,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1349-1351 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Tamai and H. Miyasaka, “Ultrafast dynamics of photochromic systems,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1875-1890 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, R. E. Hester, and J. N. Moore, “Femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13338-13341 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, P. Foggi, F. V. R. Neuwahl, S. Umapathy, R. E. Hester, and J. N. Moore, “Femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene: dependence on excitation wavelength,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 68-74 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Natansohn, P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, and S. Xie, “Azo polymers for reversible optical storage. 1. Poly [4'-[[2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]ethylamino]-4-nitroazobenzene],” Macromol. 25, 2268-2273 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Barada, T. Fukuda, H. Dumimura, J. K. Kim, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Polarization recording in photoinduced chiral material for optical storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3928-3932 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Wang, Y. Huang, Z. Liu, F. Zhao, W. Lin, J. Wang, and Z. Liang, “Ultrafast photoinduced anisotropy and optical switching in azobenzene sidechain polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3394-3396 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Thomas, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, M. Yamamoto, K. Cammack, K. Matsumoto, G. A. Walker, S. Barlow, B. Kippelen, G. Meredith, S. R. Marder, and N. Peyghambarian, “Bistriarylamine polymer-based composites for photorefractive applications,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2032-2036 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Poprawa-Smoluch, J. Baggerman, H. Zhang, H. P. A. Maas, L. De Cola, and A. M. Brouwer, “Photoisomerization of Disperse Red 1 studied with transient absorption spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 11926-11937 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Schmidt, C. Sobotta, S. Malkmus, S. Laimgruber, M. Braun, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond fluorescence and absorption dynamics of an azobenzene with a strong push-pull substitution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 4399-4404 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Hagiri, N. Ichinose, C. Zhao, H. Horiuchi, H. Hiratsuka, and T. Nakayama, “Sub-picosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of a push-pull type p,p'-substituted trans-azobenzene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 391, 297-301 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Irie, “Diarylethenes for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1685-1716 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. Barada, T. Fukuda, H. Dumimura, J. K. Kim, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Polarization recording in photoinduced chiral material for optical storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3928-3932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Poprawa-Smoluch, J. Baggerman, H. Zhang, H. P. A. Maas, L. De Cola, and A. M. Brouwer, “Photoisomerization of Disperse Red 1 studied with transient absorption spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 11926-11937 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

B. Schmidt, C. Sobotta, S. Malkmus, S. Laimgruber, M. Braun, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond fluorescence and absorption dynamics of an azobenzene with a strong push-pull substitution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 4399-4404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Hagiri, N. Ichinose, C. Zhao, H. Horiuchi, H. Hiratsuka, and T. Nakayama, “Sub-picosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of a push-pull type p,p'-substituted trans-azobenzene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 391, 297-301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, M. Yamamoto, K. Cammack, K. Matsumoto, G. A. Walker, S. Barlow, B. Kippelen, G. Meredith, S. R. Marder, and N. Peyghambarian, “Bistriarylamine polymer-based composites for photorefractive applications,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2032-2036 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. Wang, Y. Huang, Z. Liu, F. Zhao, W. Lin, J. Wang, and Z. Liang, “Ultrafast photoinduced anisotropy and optical switching in azobenzene sidechain polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3394-3396 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev. 102, 4139-4176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

M. Irie, “Diarylethenes for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1685-1716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Tamai and H. Miyasaka, “Ultrafast dynamics of photochromic systems,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1875-1890 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, H.-M. Keller, G. Marowsky, S. Hvilsted, N. C. R. Holme, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Time-resolved investigation of photoinduced birefringence in azobenzene side-chain polyester films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5548-5551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, P. Foggi, F. V. R. Neuwahl, S. Umapathy, R. E. Hester, and J. N. Moore, “Femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene: dependence on excitation wavelength,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 68-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, R. E. Hester, and J. N. Moore, “Femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13338-13341 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Natansohn, P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, and S. Xie, “Azo polymers for reversible optical storage. 1. Poly [4'-[[2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]ethylamino]-4-nitroazobenzene],” Macromol. 25, 2268-2273 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Baggerman, J.

M. Poprawa-Smoluch, J. Baggerman, H. Zhang, H. P. A. Maas, L. De Cola, and A. M. Brouwer, “Photoisomerization of Disperse Red 1 studied with transient absorption spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 11926-11937 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barada, D.

D. Barada, T. Fukuda, H. Dumimura, J. K. Kim, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Polarization recording in photoinduced chiral material for optical storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3928-3932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, S.

J. Thomas, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, M. Yamamoto, K. Cammack, K. Matsumoto, G. A. Walker, S. Barlow, B. Kippelen, G. Meredith, S. R. Marder, and N. Peyghambarian, “Bistriarylamine polymer-based composites for photorefractive applications,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2032-2036 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blanche, P.-A.

Braun, M.

B. Schmidt, C. Sobotta, S. Malkmus, S. Laimgruber, M. Braun, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond fluorescence and absorption dynamics of an azobenzene with a strong push-pull substitution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 4399-4404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brouwer, A. M.

M. Poprawa-Smoluch, J. Baggerman, H. Zhang, H. P. A. Maas, L. De Cola, and A. M. Brouwer, “Photoisomerization of Disperse Red 1 studied with transient absorption spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 11926-11937 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cammack, K.

J. Thomas, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, M. Yamamoto, K. Cammack, K. Matsumoto, G. A. Walker, S. Barlow, B. Kippelen, G. Meredith, S. R. Marder, and N. Peyghambarian, “Bistriarylamine polymer-based composites for photorefractive applications,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2032-2036 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Cola, L.

M. Poprawa-Smoluch, J. Baggerman, H. Zhang, H. P. A. Maas, L. De Cola, and A. M. Brouwer, “Photoisomerization of Disperse Red 1 studied with transient absorption spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 11926-11937 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dumimura, H.

D. Barada, T. Fukuda, H. Dumimura, J. K. Kim, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Polarization recording in photoinduced chiral material for optical storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3928-3932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, M.

Fischer, M.

Foggi, P.

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, P. Foggi, F. V. R. Neuwahl, S. Umapathy, R. E. Hester, and J. N. Moore, “Femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene: dependence on excitation wavelength,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 68-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fuentes-Hernandez, C.

J. Thomas, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, M. Yamamoto, K. Cammack, K. Matsumoto, G. A. Walker, S. Barlow, B. Kippelen, G. Meredith, S. R. Marder, and N. Peyghambarian, “Bistriarylamine polymer-based composites for photorefractive applications,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2032-2036 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, T.

D. Barada, T. Fukuda, H. Dumimura, J. K. Kim, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Polarization recording in photoinduced chiral material for optical storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3928-3932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gilch, P.

B. Schmidt, C. Sobotta, S. Malkmus, S. Laimgruber, M. Braun, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond fluorescence and absorption dynamics of an azobenzene with a strong push-pull substitution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 4399-4404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gosselin, J.

A. Natansohn, P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, and S. Xie, “Azo polymers for reversible optical storage. 1. Poly [4'-[[2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]ethylamino]-4-nitroazobenzene],” Macromol. 25, 2268-2273 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hagiri, M.

M. Hagiri, N. Ichinose, C. Zhao, H. Horiuchi, H. Hiratsuka, and T. Nakayama, “Sub-picosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of a push-pull type p,p'-substituted trans-azobenzene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 391, 297-301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hegelich, M.

R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, H.-M. Keller, G. Marowsky, S. Hvilsted, N. C. R. Holme, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Time-resolved investigation of photoinduced birefringence in azobenzene side-chain polyester films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5548-5551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hester, R. E.

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, P. Foggi, F. V. R. Neuwahl, S. Umapathy, R. E. Hester, and J. N. Moore, “Femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene: dependence on excitation wavelength,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 68-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, R. E. Hester, and J. N. Moore, “Femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13338-13341 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hildebrandt, R.

R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, H.-M. Keller, G. Marowsky, S. Hvilsted, N. C. R. Holme, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Time-resolved investigation of photoinduced birefringence in azobenzene side-chain polyester films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5548-5551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hiratsuka, H.

M. Hagiri, N. Ichinose, C. Zhao, H. Horiuchi, H. Hiratsuka, and T. Nakayama, “Sub-picosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of a push-pull type p,p'-substituted trans-azobenzene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 391, 297-301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holme, N. C. R.

R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, H.-M. Keller, G. Marowsky, S. Hvilsted, N. C. R. Holme, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Time-resolved investigation of photoinduced birefringence in azobenzene side-chain polyester films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5548-5551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Horiuchi, H.

M. Hagiri, N. Ichinose, C. Zhao, H. Horiuchi, H. Hiratsuka, and T. Nakayama, “Sub-picosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of a push-pull type p,p'-substituted trans-azobenzene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 391, 297-301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

H. Wang, Y. Huang, Z. Liu, F. Zhao, W. Lin, J. Wang, and Z. Liang, “Ultrafast photoinduced anisotropy and optical switching in azobenzene sidechain polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3394-3396 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hvilsted, S.

P. S. Ramanujam, M. Petersen, and S. Hvilsted, “Instant holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3227-3229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, H.-M. Keller, G. Marowsky, S. Hvilsted, N. C. R. Holme, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Time-resolved investigation of photoinduced birefringence in azobenzene side-chain polyester films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5548-5551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ichinose, N.

M. Hagiri, N. Ichinose, C. Zhao, H. Horiuchi, H. Hiratsuka, and T. Nakayama, “Sub-picosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of a push-pull type p,p'-substituted trans-azobenzene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 391, 297-301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Irie, M.

M. Irie, “Diarylethenes for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1685-1716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

D. Barada, T. Fukuda, H. Dumimura, J. K. Kim, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Polarization recording in photoinduced chiral material for optical storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3928-3932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keller, H.-M.

R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, H.-M. Keller, G. Marowsky, S. Hvilsted, N. C. R. Holme, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Time-resolved investigation of photoinduced birefringence in azobenzene side-chain polyester films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5548-5551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

D. Barada, T. Fukuda, H. Dumimura, J. K. Kim, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Polarization recording in photoinduced chiral material for optical storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3928-3932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kippelen, B.

J. Thomas, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, M. Yamamoto, K. Cammack, K. Matsumoto, G. A. Walker, S. Barlow, B. Kippelen, G. Meredith, S. R. Marder, and N. Peyghambarian, “Bistriarylamine polymer-based composites for photorefractive applications,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2032-2036 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laimgruber, S.

B. Schmidt, C. Sobotta, S. Malkmus, S. Laimgruber, M. Braun, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond fluorescence and absorption dynamics of an azobenzene with a strong push-pull substitution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 4399-4404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lednev, I. K.

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, P. Foggi, F. V. R. Neuwahl, S. Umapathy, R. E. Hester, and J. N. Moore, “Femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene: dependence on excitation wavelength,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 68-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, R. E. Hester, and J. N. Moore, “Femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13338-13341 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. C.

Liang, Z.

H. Wang, Y. Huang, Z. Liu, F. Zhao, W. Lin, J. Wang, and Z. Liang, “Ultrafast photoinduced anisotropy and optical switching in azobenzene sidechain polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3394-3396 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W.

H. Wang, Y. Huang, Z. Liu, F. Zhao, W. Lin, J. Wang, and Z. Liang, “Ultrafast photoinduced anisotropy and optical switching in azobenzene sidechain polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3394-3396 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

H. Wang, Y. Huang, Z. Liu, F. Zhao, W. Lin, J. Wang, and Z. Liang, “Ultrafast photoinduced anisotropy and optical switching in azobenzene sidechain polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3394-3396 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maas, H. P. A.

M. Poprawa-Smoluch, J. Baggerman, H. Zhang, H. P. A. Maas, L. De Cola, and A. M. Brouwer, “Photoisomerization of Disperse Red 1 studied with transient absorption spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 11926-11937 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malkmus, S.

B. Schmidt, C. Sobotta, S. Malkmus, S. Laimgruber, M. Braun, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond fluorescence and absorption dynamics of an azobenzene with a strong push-pull substitution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 4399-4404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

J. Thomas, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, M. Yamamoto, K. Cammack, K. Matsumoto, G. A. Walker, S. Barlow, B. Kippelen, G. Meredith, S. R. Marder, and N. Peyghambarian, “Bistriarylamine polymer-based composites for photorefractive applications,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2032-2036 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marowsky, G.

R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, H.-M. Keller, G. Marowsky, S. Hvilsted, N. C. R. Holme, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Time-resolved investigation of photoinduced birefringence in azobenzene side-chain polyester films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5548-5551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matousek, P.

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, P. Foggi, F. V. R. Neuwahl, S. Umapathy, R. E. Hester, and J. N. Moore, “Femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene: dependence on excitation wavelength,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 68-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, K.

J. Thomas, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, M. Yamamoto, K. Cammack, K. Matsumoto, G. A. Walker, S. Barlow, B. Kippelen, G. Meredith, S. R. Marder, and N. Peyghambarian, “Bistriarylamine polymer-based composites for photorefractive applications,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2032-2036 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meredith, G.

J. Thomas, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, M. Yamamoto, K. Cammack, K. Matsumoto, G. A. Walker, S. Barlow, B. Kippelen, G. Meredith, S. R. Marder, and N. Peyghambarian, “Bistriarylamine polymer-based composites for photorefractive applications,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2032-2036 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyasaka, H.

N. Tamai and H. Miyasaka, “Ultrafast dynamics of photochromic systems,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1875-1890 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moore, J. N.

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, P. Foggi, F. V. R. Neuwahl, S. Umapathy, R. E. Hester, and J. N. Moore, “Femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene: dependence on excitation wavelength,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 68-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, R. E. Hester, and J. N. Moore, “Femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13338-13341 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, T.

M. Hagiri, N. Ichinose, C. Zhao, H. Horiuchi, H. Hiratsuka, and T. Nakayama, “Sub-picosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of a push-pull type p,p'-substituted trans-azobenzene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 391, 297-301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A.

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev. 102, 4139-4176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Natansohn, P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, and S. Xie, “Azo polymers for reversible optical storage. 1. Poly [4'-[[2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]ethylamino]-4-nitroazobenzene],” Macromol. 25, 2268-2273 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Neuwahl, F. V. R.

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, P. Foggi, F. V. R. Neuwahl, S. Umapathy, R. E. Hester, and J. N. Moore, “Femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene: dependence on excitation wavelength,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 68-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nikolova, L.

Petersen, M.

P. S. Ramanujam, M. Petersen, and S. Hvilsted, “Instant holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3227-3229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

J. Thomas, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, M. Yamamoto, K. Cammack, K. Matsumoto, G. A. Walker, S. Barlow, B. Kippelen, G. Meredith, S. R. Marder, and N. Peyghambarian, “Bistriarylamine polymer-based composites for photorefractive applications,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2032-2036 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poprawa-Smoluch, M.

M. Poprawa-Smoluch, J. Baggerman, H. Zhang, H. P. A. Maas, L. De Cola, and A. M. Brouwer, “Photoisomerization of Disperse Red 1 studied with transient absorption spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 11926-11937 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, P. S.

P. S. Ramanujam, M. Petersen, and S. Hvilsted, “Instant holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3227-3229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, H.-M. Keller, G. Marowsky, S. Hvilsted, N. C. R. Holme, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Time-resolved investigation of photoinduced birefringence in azobenzene side-chain polyester films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5548-5551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P.

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev. 102, 4139-4176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Natansohn, P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, and S. Xie, “Azo polymers for reversible optical storage. 1. Poly [4'-[[2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]ethylamino]-4-nitroazobenzene],” Macromol. 25, 2268-2273 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

B. Schmidt, C. Sobotta, S. Malkmus, S. Laimgruber, M. Braun, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond fluorescence and absorption dynamics of an azobenzene with a strong push-pull substitution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 4399-4404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sobotta, C.

B. Schmidt, C. Sobotta, S. Malkmus, S. Laimgruber, M. Braun, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond fluorescence and absorption dynamics of an azobenzene with a strong push-pull substitution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 4399-4404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tamai, N.

N. Tamai and H. Miyasaka, “Ultrafast dynamics of photochromic systems,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1875-1890 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J.

J. Thomas, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, M. Yamamoto, K. Cammack, K. Matsumoto, G. A. Walker, S. Barlow, B. Kippelen, G. Meredith, S. R. Marder, and N. Peyghambarian, “Bistriarylamine polymer-based composites for photorefractive applications,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2032-2036 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Todorov, T.

Tomova, N.

Towrie, M.

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, P. Foggi, F. V. R. Neuwahl, S. Umapathy, R. E. Hester, and J. N. Moore, “Femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene: dependence on excitation wavelength,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 68-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Umapathy, S.

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, P. Foggi, F. V. R. Neuwahl, S. Umapathy, R. E. Hester, and J. N. Moore, “Femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene: dependence on excitation wavelength,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 68-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walker, G. A.

J. Thomas, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, M. Yamamoto, K. Cammack, K. Matsumoto, G. A. Walker, S. Barlow, B. Kippelen, G. Meredith, S. R. Marder, and N. Peyghambarian, “Bistriarylamine polymer-based composites for photorefractive applications,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2032-2036 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, Y. Huang, Z. Liu, F. Zhao, W. Lin, J. Wang, and Z. Liang, “Ultrafast photoinduced anisotropy and optical switching in azobenzene sidechain polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3394-3396 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

H. Wang, Y. Huang, Z. Liu, F. Zhao, W. Lin, J. Wang, and Z. Liang, “Ultrafast photoinduced anisotropy and optical switching in azobenzene sidechain polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3394-3396 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xie, S.

A. Natansohn, P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, and S. Xie, “Azo polymers for reversible optical storage. 1. Poly [4'-[[2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]ethylamino]-4-nitroazobenzene],” Macromol. 25, 2268-2273 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

J. Thomas, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, M. Yamamoto, K. Cammack, K. Matsumoto, G. A. Walker, S. Barlow, B. Kippelen, G. Meredith, S. R. Marder, and N. Peyghambarian, “Bistriarylamine polymer-based composites for photorefractive applications,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2032-2036 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yatagai, T.

D. Barada, T. Fukuda, H. Dumimura, J. K. Kim, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Polarization recording in photoinduced chiral material for optical storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3928-3932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ye, T.-Q.

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, P. Foggi, F. V. R. Neuwahl, S. Umapathy, R. E. Hester, and J. N. Moore, “Femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene: dependence on excitation wavelength,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 68-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, R. E. Hester, and J. N. Moore, “Femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13338-13341 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

M. Poprawa-Smoluch, J. Baggerman, H. Zhang, H. P. A. Maas, L. De Cola, and A. M. Brouwer, “Photoisomerization of Disperse Red 1 studied with transient absorption spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 11926-11937 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, C.

M. Hagiri, N. Ichinose, C. Zhao, H. Horiuchi, H. Hiratsuka, and T. Nakayama, “Sub-picosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of a push-pull type p,p'-substituted trans-azobenzene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 391, 297-301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F.

H. Wang, Y. Huang, Z. Liu, F. Zhao, W. Lin, J. Wang, and Z. Liang, “Ultrafast photoinduced anisotropy and optical switching in azobenzene sidechain polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3394-3396 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zinth, W.

B. Schmidt, C. Sobotta, S. Malkmus, S. Laimgruber, M. Braun, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond fluorescence and absorption dynamics of an azobenzene with a strong push-pull substitution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 4399-4404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Thomas, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, M. Yamamoto, K. Cammack, K. Matsumoto, G. A. Walker, S. Barlow, B. Kippelen, G. Meredith, S. R. Marder, and N. Peyghambarian, “Bistriarylamine polymer-based composites for photorefractive applications,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2032-2036 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Wang, Y. Huang, Z. Liu, F. Zhao, W. Lin, J. Wang, and Z. Liang, “Ultrafast photoinduced anisotropy and optical switching in azobenzene sidechain polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3394-3396 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, M. Petersen, and S. Hvilsted, “Instant holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3227-3229 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, P. Foggi, F. V. R. Neuwahl, S. Umapathy, R. E. Hester, and J. N. Moore, “Femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene: dependence on excitation wavelength,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 68-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Hagiri, N. Ichinose, C. Zhao, H. Horiuchi, H. Hiratsuka, and T. Nakayama, “Sub-picosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of a push-pull type p,p'-substituted trans-azobenzene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 391, 297-301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (3)

M. Irie, “Diarylethenes for memories and switches,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1685-1716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev. 102, 4139-4176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tamai and H. Miyasaka, “Ultrafast dynamics of photochromic systems,” Chem. Rev. 100, 1875-1890 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, R. E. Hester, and J. N. Moore, “Femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13338-13341 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (2)

M. Poprawa-Smoluch, J. Baggerman, H. Zhang, H. P. A. Maas, L. De Cola, and A. M. Brouwer, “Photoisomerization of Disperse Red 1 studied with transient absorption spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 11926-11937 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Schmidt, C. Sobotta, S. Malkmus, S. Laimgruber, M. Braun, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond fluorescence and absorption dynamics of an azobenzene with a strong push-pull substitution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 4399-4404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Barada, T. Fukuda, H. Dumimura, J. K. Kim, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Polarization recording in photoinduced chiral material for optical storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3928-3932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Macromol. (1)

A. Natansohn, P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, and S. Xie, “Azo polymers for reversible optical storage. 1. Poly [4'-[[2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]ethylamino]-4-nitroazobenzene],” Macromol. 25, 2268-2273 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Hildebrandt, M. Hegelich, H.-M. Keller, G. Marowsky, S. Hvilsted, N. C. R. Holme, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Time-resolved investigation of photoinduced birefringence in azobenzene side-chain polyester films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5548-5551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Molecular structures of the eight azo dyes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PIB rise dynamics of DR1, SR7B, and CPND5 films; the pulse trace measured with same configuration is also included.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PIB rise dynamics of DY7 (line to guide eye) compared with DR1 with both decay dynamics given in the inset.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Linear Transmittance at 532 nm , Lowest Optical Transition Energy, Rise Time for PIB Measurements, and δ n in Various Azo Dye Films

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