Abstract

Aerosol optical properties were continuously measured with the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) compact Raman lidar over Beijing, China, from 15 to 31 December 2007. The results indicated that in a moderate pollution episode, the averaged aerosol extinction below 1km height was 0.39±0.15km1 and the lidar ratio was 60.8±13.5sr; in heavy pollution episode, they were 1.97±0.91km1 and 43.7±8.3sr; in an Asian dust episode, they were 0.33±0.11km1 and 38.3±9.8sr. The total depolarization ratio was mostly below 10% in the pollution episode, whereas it was larger than 20% in the Asian dust episode. The distinct characteristics of aerosol optical properties in moderate and heavy pollution episodes were attributed to the difference in air mass trajectory and the ambient atmospheric conditions such as relative humidity.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Liu and J. Diamond, “China's environment in a globalizing world,” Nature 435, 1179-1186 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter and LIDAR ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Matthias, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, R. Eixmann, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, and X. Wang, “Vertical aerosol distribution over Europe: statistical analysis of Raman lidar data from 10 European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) stations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D18201 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linné, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Mona, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, and G. Pappalardo, “Saharan dust intrusions in the Mediterranean area: Three years of Raman lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16203(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, “Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4059(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, and J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar 1. Seasonal cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28567-28575 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, and G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar 2. Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577-28595 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. H. Brasseur, and W. F. Feltz, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37-50 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Hu, and Y. Zhang, “Particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio profiling with Raman lidar in south and north China,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6302-6308 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, M. Nishikawa, A. Shimizu, I. Matsui, X. Dong, Y. Chen, and H. Quan, “Record heavy Asian dust in Beijing in 2002: observations and model analysis of recent events,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1640 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Sassen, “The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848-1866 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Murayama, H. Okamoto, N. Kaneyasu, H. Kamataki, and K. Miura, “Application of lidar depolarization measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer: effects of dust and sea-salt particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31781-31792(1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, “High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, China, observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L13815 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4248 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, “Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 46002003.
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511-514 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, and J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the India aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963-966 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. X. Xu, J. Gao, D. W. Dockery, and Y. Chen, “Air pollution and daily mortality in residential areas of Beijing, China,” Arch. Environ. Health 49, 216-222 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. R. Draxler and G. D. Rolph, “Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT),” obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Air Resources Laboratory via http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready/hysplit4.html (2007).
  24. C. J. Walcek, “Effects of wind shear on pollution dispersion,” Atmos. Environ. 36, 511-517 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Dan, G. Zhuang, X. Li, H. Tao, and Y. Zhuang, “The characteristics of carbonaceous species and their sources in PM2.5 in Beijing,” Atmos. Environ. 38, 3443-3452 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. I. N. Tang, “Chemical and size effects of hygroscopic aerosols on light scattering coefficients,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19245-19250 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  27. N. Murayama, “Dust cloud “Kosa” from the East Asian dust storms in 1982-1988 as observed by the GMS satellite,” Meteorol. Satell. Cent. Tech. Note 17, 1-8 (1998).
  28. The NSMC, NOAA-17 satellite image was produced by the National Satellite Meteorological Center (NSMC) of China Meteorological Administration and was found at the website of the China dust storm monitoring network, http://www.duststorm.com.cn, 2007.
  29. C. Cattrall, J. Reagan, K. Thome, and O. Dubovik, “Variability of aerosol and spectral lidar and backscatter and extinction ratios of key aerosol types derived from selected Aerosol Robotic Network locations,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S11(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, and T. Murayama, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Asian dust observed with high-spectral-resolution lidar and Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2760-2767(2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. T. Murayama, “Optical properties of Asian dust aerosol lofted over Tokyo observed by Raman lidar,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmospheric and Earth Science, L.R.Bissonnette, G.Roy, and G.Vallée, eds. (Defence R&D Canada, Québec, Canada, 2002), pp. 331-334.
  32. Y. M. Noh, Y. J. Kim, B. C. Choi, T. and Murayama, “Aerosol lidar ratio characteristics measured by a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system at Anmyeon island, Korea,” Atmos. Res. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2007.03.006 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  33. B. Tatarov, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and A. Shimizu, “Two-year-observations of optical properties of the tropospheric aerosol and clouds by a high-spectral-resolution lidar over Tsukuba, Japan,” in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 23rd International Laser Radar Conference (publisher, 2006), pp. 451-454.
  34. T. Murayama and M. Sekiguchi, “Intercomparison of aerosol optical properties observed by lidar, Sun/sky photometers and surface in situ measurements during Asian dust event in Tokyo, Japan,” in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference (publisher, 2008), pp. 943-946.
  35. N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, I. Uno, K. Asai, T. Endoh, and T. Nakajima, “Observation of dust and anthropogenic aerosol plumes in the Northwest Pacific with a two-wavelength polarization lidar on board the research vessel Mirai,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1901 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  36. Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, M. Yamada, A. Matsuki, D. Trochkine, Y. S. Kim, D. Zhang, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, M. Nagatani, H. Nakata, Z. Shen, G. Li, and B. Chen, “Importance of dust particles in the free troposphere over the Taklamakan Desert: electron microscopic experiments of particles collected with a balloonborne particle impactor at Dunhuang, China,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8644 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  37. A. Papayannis, H. Q. Zhang, V. Amiridis, H. B. Ju, G. Chourdakis, G. Georgoussis, C. Pérez, H. B. Chen, P. Goloub, R. E. Mamouri, S. Kazadzis, D. Paronis, G. Tsaknakis, and J. M. Baldasano, “Extraordinary dust event over Beijing, China, during April 2006: lidar, sun photometric, satellite observations and model validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07806 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  38. A. Ansmann, “Ground-truth aerosols lidar observations: can the Klett solutions obtained from ground and space be equal for the same aerosol case?,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3367-3371 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

Y. M. Noh, Y. J. Kim, B. C. Choi, T. and Murayama, “Aerosol lidar ratio characteristics measured by a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system at Anmyeon island, Korea,” Atmos. Res. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2007.03.006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, H. Q. Zhang, V. Amiridis, H. B. Ju, G. Chourdakis, G. Georgoussis, C. Pérez, H. B. Chen, P. Goloub, R. E. Mamouri, S. Kazadzis, D. Paronis, G. Tsaknakis, and J. M. Baldasano, “Extraordinary dust event over Beijing, China, during April 2006: lidar, sun photometric, satellite observations and model validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Hu, and Y. Zhang, “Particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio profiling with Raman lidar in south and north China,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6302-6308 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

A. Ansmann, “Ground-truth aerosols lidar observations: can the Klett solutions obtained from ground and space be equal for the same aerosol case?,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3367-3371 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mona, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, and G. Pappalardo, “Saharan dust intrusions in the Mediterranean area: Three years of Raman lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16203(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

J. Liu and J. Diamond, “China's environment in a globalizing world,” Nature 435, 1179-1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, “High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, China, observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L13815 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Cattrall, J. Reagan, K. Thome, and O. Dubovik, “Variability of aerosol and spectral lidar and backscatter and extinction ratios of key aerosol types derived from selected Aerosol Robotic Network locations,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S11(2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201(2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

M. Dan, G. Zhuang, X. Li, H. Tao, and Y. Zhuang, “The characteristics of carbonaceous species and their sources in PM2.5 in Beijing,” Atmos. Environ. 38, 3443-3452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Matthias, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, R. Eixmann, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, and X. Wang, “Vertical aerosol distribution over Europe: statistical analysis of Raman lidar data from 10 European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) stations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D18201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linné, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, “Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4059(2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, M. Nishikawa, A. Shimizu, I. Matsui, X. Dong, Y. Chen, and H. Quan, “Record heavy Asian dust in Beijing in 2002: observations and model analysis of recent events,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, “Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 46002003.
[CrossRef]

Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, M. Yamada, A. Matsuki, D. Trochkine, Y. S. Kim, D. Zhang, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, M. Nagatani, H. Nakata, Z. Shen, G. Li, and B. Chen, “Importance of dust particles in the free troposphere over the Taklamakan Desert: electron microscopic experiments of particles collected with a balloonborne particle impactor at Dunhuang, China,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8644 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (6)

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511-514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, and T. Murayama, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Asian dust observed with high-spectral-resolution lidar and Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2760-2767(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, I. Uno, K. Asai, T. Endoh, and T. Nakajima, “Observation of dust and anthropogenic aerosol plumes in the Northwest Pacific with a two-wavelength polarization lidar on board the research vessel Mirai,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Walcek, “Effects of wind shear on pollution dispersion,” Atmos. Environ. 36, 511-517 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. H. Brasseur, and W. F. Feltz, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37-50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, and J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar 1. Seasonal cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28567-28575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, and G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar 2. Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577-28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, and J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the India aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963-966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Murayama, H. Okamoto, N. Kaneyasu, H. Kamataki, and K. Miura, “Application of lidar depolarization measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer: effects of dust and sea-salt particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31781-31792(1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

N. Murayama, “Dust cloud “Kosa” from the East Asian dust storms in 1982-1988 as observed by the GMS satellite,” Meteorol. Satell. Cent. Tech. Note 17, 1-8 (1998).

1996 (1)

I. N. Tang, “Chemical and size effects of hygroscopic aerosols on light scattering coefficients,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19245-19250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

X. Xu, J. Gao, D. W. Dockery, and Y. Chen, “Air pollution and daily mortality in residential areas of Beijing, China,” Arch. Environ. Health 49, 216-222 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter and LIDAR ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. Sassen, “The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848-1866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Abo, M.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Althausen, D.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Hu, and Y. Zhang, “Particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio profiling with Raman lidar in south and north China,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6302-6308 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, “High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, China, observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L13815 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201(2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, “Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 46002003.
[CrossRef]

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, “Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4059(2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, and G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar 2. Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577-28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, and J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar 1. Seasonal cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28567-28575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, and J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the India aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963-966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Amiridis, V.

A. Papayannis, H. Q. Zhang, V. Amiridis, H. B. Ju, G. Chourdakis, G. Georgoussis, C. Pérez, H. B. Chen, P. Goloub, R. E. Mamouri, S. Kazadzis, D. Paronis, G. Tsaknakis, and J. M. Baldasano, “Extraordinary dust event over Beijing, China, during April 2006: lidar, sun photometric, satellite observations and model validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Amodeo, A.

L. Mona, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, and G. Pappalardo, “Saharan dust intrusions in the Mediterranean area: Three years of Raman lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16203(2006).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Hu, and Y. Zhang, “Particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio profiling with Raman lidar in south and north China,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6302-6308 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, “Ground-truth aerosols lidar observations: can the Klett solutions obtained from ground and space be equal for the same aerosol case?,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3367-3371 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, “High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, China, observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L13815 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201(2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linné, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, “Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4059(2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, “Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 46002003.
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511-514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, and G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar 2. Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577-28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, and J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar 1. Seasonal cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28567-28575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, and J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the India aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963-966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter and LIDAR ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, K.

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arao, K.

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Asai, K.

N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, I. Uno, K. Asai, T. Endoh, and T. Nakajima, “Observation of dust and anthropogenic aerosol plumes in the Northwest Pacific with a two-wavelength polarization lidar on board the research vessel Mirai,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baldasano, J. M.

A. Papayannis, H. Q. Zhang, V. Amiridis, H. B. Ju, G. Chourdakis, G. Georgoussis, C. Pérez, H. B. Chen, P. Goloub, R. E. Mamouri, S. Kazadzis, D. Paronis, G. Tsaknakis, and J. M. Baldasano, “Extraordinary dust event over Beijing, China, during April 2006: lidar, sun photometric, satellite observations and model validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balis, D.

V. Matthias, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, R. Eixmann, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, and X. Wang, “Vertical aerosol distribution over Europe: statistical analysis of Raman lidar data from 10 European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) stations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D18201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bösenberg, J.

V. Matthias, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, R. Eixmann, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, and X. Wang, “Vertical aerosol distribution over Europe: statistical analysis of Raman lidar data from 10 European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) stations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D18201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linné, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brasseur, L. A. H.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. H. Brasseur, and W. F. Feltz, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37-50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cattrall, C.

C. Cattrall, J. Reagan, K. Thome, and O. Dubovik, “Variability of aerosol and spectral lidar and backscatter and extinction ratios of key aerosol types derived from selected Aerosol Robotic Network locations,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S11(2005).
[CrossRef]

Chaikovski, A.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linné, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, M. Yamada, A. Matsuki, D. Trochkine, Y. S. Kim, D. Zhang, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, M. Nagatani, H. Nakata, Z. Shen, G. Li, and B. Chen, “Importance of dust particles in the free troposphere over the Taklamakan Desert: electron microscopic experiments of particles collected with a balloonborne particle impactor at Dunhuang, China,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8644 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. B.

A. Papayannis, H. Q. Zhang, V. Amiridis, H. B. Ju, G. Chourdakis, G. Georgoussis, C. Pérez, H. B. Chen, P. Goloub, R. E. Mamouri, S. Kazadzis, D. Paronis, G. Tsaknakis, and J. M. Baldasano, “Extraordinary dust event over Beijing, China, during April 2006: lidar, sun photometric, satellite observations and model validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, M. Nishikawa, A. Shimizu, I. Matsui, X. Dong, Y. Chen, and H. Quan, “Record heavy Asian dust in Beijing in 2002: observations and model analysis of recent events,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, J. Gao, D. W. Dockery, and Y. Chen, “Air pollution and daily mortality in residential areas of Beijing, China,” Arch. Environ. Health 49, 216-222 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, B. C.

Y. M. Noh, Y. J. Kim, B. C. Choi, T. and Murayama, “Aerosol lidar ratio characteristics measured by a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system at Anmyeon island, Korea,” Atmos. Res. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2007.03.006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chourdakis, G.

A. Papayannis, H. Q. Zhang, V. Amiridis, H. B. Ju, G. Chourdakis, G. Georgoussis, C. Pérez, H. B. Chen, P. Goloub, R. E. Mamouri, S. Kazadzis, D. Paronis, G. Tsaknakis, and J. M. Baldasano, “Extraordinary dust event over Beijing, China, during April 2006: lidar, sun photometric, satellite observations and model validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dan, M.

M. Dan, G. Zhuang, X. Li, H. Tao, and Y. Zhuang, “The characteristics of carbonaceous species and their sources in PM2.5 in Beijing,” Atmos. Environ. 38, 3443-3452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Diamond, J.

J. Liu and J. Diamond, “China's environment in a globalizing world,” Nature 435, 1179-1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dockery, D. W.

X. Xu, J. Gao, D. W. Dockery, and Y. Chen, “Air pollution and daily mortality in residential areas of Beijing, China,” Arch. Environ. Health 49, 216-222 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, X.

N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, M. Nishikawa, A. Shimizu, I. Matsui, X. Dong, Y. Chen, and H. Quan, “Record heavy Asian dust in Beijing in 2002: observations and model analysis of recent events,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Draxler, R. R.

R. R. Draxler and G. D. Rolph, “Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT),” obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Air Resources Laboratory via http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready/hysplit4.html (2007).

Dubovik, O.

C. Cattrall, J. Reagan, K. Thome, and O. Dubovik, “Variability of aerosol and spectral lidar and backscatter and extinction ratios of key aerosol types derived from selected Aerosol Robotic Network locations,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S11(2005).
[CrossRef]

Eixmann, R.

V. Matthias, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, R. Eixmann, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, and X. Wang, “Vertical aerosol distribution over Europe: statistical analysis of Raman lidar data from 10 European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) stations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D18201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Endoh, T.

N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, I. Uno, K. Asai, T. Endoh, and T. Nakajima, “Observation of dust and anthropogenic aerosol plumes in the Northwest Pacific with a two-wavelength polarization lidar on board the research vessel Mirai,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Engelmann, R.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Hu, and Y. Zhang, “Particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio profiling with Raman lidar in south and north China,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6302-6308 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, “High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, China, observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L13815 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feltz, W. F.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. H. Brasseur, and W. F. Feltz, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37-50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R. A.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. H. Brasseur, and W. F. Feltz, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37-50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Franke, K.

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, “Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 46002003.
[CrossRef]

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, “Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4059(2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, and G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar 2. Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577-28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, and J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar 1. Seasonal cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28567-28575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, and J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the India aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963-966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Freudenthaler, V.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linné, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

X. Xu, J. Gao, D. W. Dockery, and Y. Chen, “Air pollution and daily mortality in residential areas of Beijing, China,” Arch. Environ. Health 49, 216-222 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgoussis, G.

A. Papayannis, H. Q. Zhang, V. Amiridis, H. B. Ju, G. Chourdakis, G. Georgoussis, C. Pérez, H. B. Chen, P. Goloub, R. E. Mamouri, S. Kazadzis, D. Paronis, G. Tsaknakis, and J. M. Baldasano, “Extraordinary dust event over Beijing, China, during April 2006: lidar, sun photometric, satellite observations and model validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goloub, P.

A. Papayannis, H. Q. Zhang, V. Amiridis, H. B. Ju, G. Chourdakis, G. Georgoussis, C. Pérez, H. B. Chen, P. Goloub, R. E. Mamouri, S. Kazadzis, D. Paronis, G. Tsaknakis, and J. M. Baldasano, “Extraordinary dust event over Beijing, China, during April 2006: lidar, sun photometric, satellite observations and model validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hagiwara, N.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

He, Q.

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, “High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, China, observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L13815 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heintzenberg, J.

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, and G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar 2. Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577-28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, and J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar 1. Seasonal cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28567-28575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, and J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the India aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963-966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, M.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Hu, and Y. Zhang, “Particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio profiling with Raman lidar in south and north China,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6302-6308 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, “High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, China, observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L13815 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iarlori, M.

V. Matthias, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, R. Eixmann, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, and X. Wang, “Vertical aerosol distribution over Europe: statistical analysis of Raman lidar data from 10 European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) stations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D18201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iokibe, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaka, Y.

Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, M. Yamada, A. Matsuki, D. Trochkine, Y. S. Kim, D. Zhang, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, M. Nagatani, H. Nakata, Z. Shen, G. Li, and B. Chen, “Importance of dust particles in the free troposphere over the Taklamakan Desert: electron microscopic experiments of particles collected with a balloonborne particle impactor at Dunhuang, China,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8644 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ju, H. B.

A. Papayannis, H. Q. Zhang, V. Amiridis, H. B. Ju, G. Chourdakis, G. Georgoussis, C. Pérez, H. B. Chen, P. Goloub, R. E. Mamouri, S. Kazadzis, D. Paronis, G. Tsaknakis, and J. M. Baldasano, “Extraordinary dust event over Beijing, China, during April 2006: lidar, sun photometric, satellite observations and model validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kagawa, N.

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kamataki, H.

T. Murayama, H. Okamoto, N. Kaneyasu, H. Kamataki, and K. Miura, “Application of lidar depolarization measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer: effects of dust and sea-salt particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31781-31792(1999).
[CrossRef]

Kaneyasu, N.

T. Murayama, H. Okamoto, N. Kaneyasu, H. Kamataki, and K. Miura, “Application of lidar depolarization measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer: effects of dust and sea-salt particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31781-31792(1999).
[CrossRef]

Kazadzis, S.

A. Papayannis, H. Q. Zhang, V. Amiridis, H. B. Ju, G. Chourdakis, G. Georgoussis, C. Pérez, H. B. Chen, P. Goloub, R. E. Mamouri, S. Kazadzis, D. Paronis, G. Tsaknakis, and J. M. Baldasano, “Extraordinary dust event over Beijing, China, during April 2006: lidar, sun photometric, satellite observations and model validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. J.

Y. M. Noh, Y. J. Kim, B. C. Choi, T. and Murayama, “Aerosol lidar ratio characteristics measured by a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system at Anmyeon island, Korea,” Atmos. Res. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2007.03.006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, M. Yamada, A. Matsuki, D. Trochkine, Y. S. Kim, D. Zhang, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, M. Nagatani, H. Nakata, Z. Shen, G. Li, and B. Chen, “Importance of dust particles in the free troposphere over the Taklamakan Desert: electron microscopic experiments of particles collected with a balloonborne particle impactor at Dunhuang, China,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8644 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koga, R.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Komguem, L.

V. Matthias, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, R. Eixmann, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, and X. Wang, “Vertical aerosol distribution over Europe: statistical analysis of Raman lidar data from 10 European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) stations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D18201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linné, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lahmann, W.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter and LIDAR ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, M. Yamada, A. Matsuki, D. Trochkine, Y. S. Kim, D. Zhang, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, M. Nagatani, H. Nakata, Z. Shen, G. Li, and B. Chen, “Importance of dust particles in the free troposphere over the Taklamakan Desert: electron microscopic experiments of particles collected with a balloonborne particle impactor at Dunhuang, China,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8644 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

M. Dan, G. Zhuang, X. Li, H. Tao, and Y. Zhuang, “The characteristics of carbonaceous species and their sources in PM2.5 in Beijing,” Atmos. Environ. 38, 3443-3452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Linné, H.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linné, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu and J. Diamond, “China's environment in a globalizing world,” Nature 435, 1179-1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, and T. Murayama, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Asian dust observed with high-spectral-resolution lidar and Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2760-2767(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mamouri, R. E.

A. Papayannis, H. Q. Zhang, V. Amiridis, H. B. Ju, G. Chourdakis, G. Georgoussis, C. Pérez, H. B. Chen, P. Goloub, R. E. Mamouri, S. Kazadzis, D. Paronis, G. Tsaknakis, and J. M. Baldasano, “Extraordinary dust event over Beijing, China, during April 2006: lidar, sun photometric, satellite observations and model validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, I.

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, M. Nishikawa, A. Shimizu, I. Matsui, X. Dong, Y. Chen, and H. Quan, “Record heavy Asian dust in Beijing in 2002: observations and model analysis of recent events,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, I. Uno, K. Asai, T. Endoh, and T. Nakajima, “Observation of dust and anthropogenic aerosol plumes in the Northwest Pacific with a two-wavelength polarization lidar on board the research vessel Mirai,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Tatarov, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and A. Shimizu, “Two-year-observations of optical properties of the tropospheric aerosol and clouds by a high-spectral-resolution lidar over Tsukuba, Japan,” in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 23rd International Laser Radar Conference (publisher, 2006), pp. 451-454.

Matsuki, A.

Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, M. Yamada, A. Matsuki, D. Trochkine, Y. S. Kim, D. Zhang, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, M. Nagatani, H. Nakata, Z. Shen, G. Li, and B. Chen, “Importance of dust particles in the free troposphere over the Taklamakan Desert: electron microscopic experiments of particles collected with a balloonborne particle impactor at Dunhuang, China,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8644 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matthias, V.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linné, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Matthias, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, R. Eixmann, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, and X. Wang, “Vertical aerosol distribution over Europe: statistical analysis of Raman lidar data from 10 European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) stations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D18201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mattis, I.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201(2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linné, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Matthias, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, R. Eixmann, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, and X. Wang, “Vertical aerosol distribution over Europe: statistical analysis of Raman lidar data from 10 European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) stations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D18201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Michaelis, W.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter and LIDAR ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

T. Murayama, H. Okamoto, N. Kaneyasu, H. Kamataki, and K. Miura, “Application of lidar depolarization measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer: effects of dust and sea-salt particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31781-31792(1999).
[CrossRef]

Mona, L.

L. Mona, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, and G. Pappalardo, “Saharan dust intrusions in the Mediterranean area: Three years of Raman lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16203(2006).
[CrossRef]

Müller, D.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Hu, and Y. Zhang, “Particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio profiling with Raman lidar in south and north China,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6302-6308 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201(2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, “Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 46002003.
[CrossRef]

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, “Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4059(2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, and J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar 1. Seasonal cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28567-28575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, and G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar 2. Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577-28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, and J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the India aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963-966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murayama, N.

N. Murayama, “Dust cloud “Kosa” from the East Asian dust storms in 1982-1988 as observed by the GMS satellite,” Meteorol. Satell. Cent. Tech. Note 17, 1-8 (1998).

Murayama, T.

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, and T. Murayama, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Asian dust observed with high-spectral-resolution lidar and Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2760-2767(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, H. Okamoto, N. Kaneyasu, H. Kamataki, and K. Miura, “Application of lidar depolarization measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer: effects of dust and sea-salt particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31781-31792(1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, “Optical properties of Asian dust aerosol lofted over Tokyo observed by Raman lidar,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmospheric and Earth Science, L.R.Bissonnette, G.Roy, and G.Vallée, eds. (Defence R&D Canada, Québec, Canada, 2002), pp. 331-334.

T. Murayama and M. Sekiguchi, “Intercomparison of aerosol optical properties observed by lidar, Sun/sky photometers and surface in situ measurements during Asian dust event in Tokyo, Japan,” in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference (publisher, 2008), pp. 943-946.

Murayama, T. and

Y. M. Noh, Y. J. Kim, B. C. Choi, T. and Murayama, “Aerosol lidar ratio characteristics measured by a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system at Anmyeon island, Korea,” Atmos. Res. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2007.03.006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nagatani, M.

Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, M. Yamada, A. Matsuki, D. Trochkine, Y. S. Kim, D. Zhang, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, M. Nagatani, H. Nakata, Z. Shen, G. Li, and B. Chen, “Importance of dust particles in the free troposphere over the Taklamakan Desert: electron microscopic experiments of particles collected with a balloonborne particle impactor at Dunhuang, China,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8644 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nagatani, T.

Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, M. Yamada, A. Matsuki, D. Trochkine, Y. S. Kim, D. Zhang, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, M. Nagatani, H. Nakata, Z. Shen, G. Li, and B. Chen, “Importance of dust particles in the free troposphere over the Taklamakan Desert: electron microscopic experiments of particles collected with a balloonborne particle impactor at Dunhuang, China,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8644 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, I. Uno, K. Asai, T. Endoh, and T. Nakajima, “Observation of dust and anthropogenic aerosol plumes in the Northwest Pacific with a two-wavelength polarization lidar on board the research vessel Mirai,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakata, H.

Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, M. Yamada, A. Matsuki, D. Trochkine, Y. S. Kim, D. Zhang, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, M. Nagatani, H. Nakata, Z. Shen, G. Li, and B. Chen, “Importance of dust particles in the free troposphere over the Taklamakan Desert: electron microscopic experiments of particles collected with a balloonborne particle impactor at Dunhuang, China,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8644 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishikawa, M.

N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, M. Nishikawa, A. Shimizu, I. Matsui, X. Dong, Y. Chen, and H. Quan, “Record heavy Asian dust in Beijing in 2002: observations and model analysis of recent events,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noh, Y. M.

Y. M. Noh, Y. J. Kim, B. C. Choi, T. and Murayama, “Aerosol lidar ratio characteristics measured by a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system at Anmyeon island, Korea,” Atmos. Res. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2007.03.006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, H.

T. Murayama, H. Okamoto, N. Kaneyasu, H. Kamataki, and K. Miura, “Application of lidar depolarization measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer: effects of dust and sea-salt particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31781-31792(1999).
[CrossRef]

Pandolfi, M.

L. Mona, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, and G. Pappalardo, “Saharan dust intrusions in the Mediterranean area: Three years of Raman lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16203(2006).
[CrossRef]

Papayannis, A.

A. Papayannis, H. Q. Zhang, V. Amiridis, H. B. Ju, G. Chourdakis, G. Georgoussis, C. Pérez, H. B. Chen, P. Goloub, R. E. Mamouri, S. Kazadzis, D. Paronis, G. Tsaknakis, and J. M. Baldasano, “Extraordinary dust event over Beijing, China, during April 2006: lidar, sun photometric, satellite observations and model validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Matthias, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, R. Eixmann, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, and X. Wang, “Vertical aerosol distribution over Europe: statistical analysis of Raman lidar data from 10 European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) stations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D18201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pappalardo, G.

L. Mona, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, and G. Pappalardo, “Saharan dust intrusions in the Mediterranean area: Three years of Raman lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16203(2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Matthias, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, R. Eixmann, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, and X. Wang, “Vertical aerosol distribution over Europe: statistical analysis of Raman lidar data from 10 European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) stations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D18201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paronis, D.

A. Papayannis, H. Q. Zhang, V. Amiridis, H. B. Ju, G. Chourdakis, G. Georgoussis, C. Pérez, H. B. Chen, P. Goloub, R. E. Mamouri, S. Kazadzis, D. Paronis, G. Tsaknakis, and J. M. Baldasano, “Extraordinary dust event over Beijing, China, during April 2006: lidar, sun photometric, satellite observations and model validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linné, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pérez, C.

A. Papayannis, H. Q. Zhang, V. Amiridis, H. B. Ju, G. Chourdakis, G. Georgoussis, C. Pérez, H. B. Chen, P. Goloub, R. E. Mamouri, S. Kazadzis, D. Paronis, G. Tsaknakis, and J. M. Baldasano, “Extraordinary dust event over Beijing, China, during April 2006: lidar, sun photometric, satellite observations and model validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perrone, M. R.

V. Matthias, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, R. Eixmann, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, and X. Wang, “Vertical aerosol distribution over Europe: statistical analysis of Raman lidar data from 10 European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) stations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D18201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quan, H.

N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, M. Nishikawa, A. Shimizu, I. Matsui, X. Dong, Y. Chen, and H. Quan, “Record heavy Asian dust in Beijing in 2002: observations and model analysis of recent events,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J.

C. Cattrall, J. Reagan, K. Thome, and O. Dubovik, “Variability of aerosol and spectral lidar and backscatter and extinction ratios of key aerosol types derived from selected Aerosol Robotic Network locations,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S11(2005).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, M. S.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, “Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4059(2003).
[CrossRef]

Riebesell, M.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter and LIDAR ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rolph, G. D.

R. R. Draxler and G. D. Rolph, “Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT),” obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Air Resources Laboratory via http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready/hysplit4.html (2007).

Sakai, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sassen, K.

K. Sassen, “The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848-1866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, L.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linné, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scheele, R.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, “Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4059(2003).
[CrossRef]

Sekiguchi, M.

T. Murayama and M. Sekiguchi, “Intercomparison of aerosol optical properties observed by lidar, Sun/sky photometers and surface in situ measurements during Asian dust event in Tokyo, Japan,” in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference (publisher, 2008), pp. 943-946.

Shen, Z.

Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, M. Yamada, A. Matsuki, D. Trochkine, Y. S. Kim, D. Zhang, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, M. Nagatani, H. Nakata, Z. Shen, G. Li, and B. Chen, “Importance of dust particles in the free troposphere over the Taklamakan Desert: electron microscopic experiments of particles collected with a balloonborne particle impactor at Dunhuang, China,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8644 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shi, G.-Y.

Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, M. Yamada, A. Matsuki, D. Trochkine, Y. S. Kim, D. Zhang, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, M. Nagatani, H. Nakata, Z. Shen, G. Li, and B. Chen, “Importance of dust particles in the free troposphere over the Taklamakan Desert: electron microscopic experiments of particles collected with a balloonborne particle impactor at Dunhuang, China,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8644 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, M. Yamada, A. Matsuki, D. Trochkine, Y. S. Kim, D. Zhang, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, M. Nagatani, H. Nakata, Z. Shen, G. Li, and B. Chen, “Importance of dust particles in the free troposphere over the Taklamakan Desert: electron microscopic experiments of particles collected with a balloonborne particle impactor at Dunhuang, China,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8644 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, A.

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, M. Nishikawa, A. Shimizu, I. Matsui, X. Dong, Y. Chen, and H. Quan, “Record heavy Asian dust in Beijing in 2002: observations and model analysis of recent events,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, I. Uno, K. Asai, T. Endoh, and T. Nakajima, “Observation of dust and anthropogenic aerosol plumes in the Northwest Pacific with a two-wavelength polarization lidar on board the research vessel Mirai,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Tatarov, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and A. Shimizu, “Two-year-observations of optical properties of the tropospheric aerosol and clouds by a high-spectral-resolution lidar over Tsukuba, Japan,” in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 23rd International Laser Radar Conference (publisher, 2006), pp. 451-454.

Sobolewski, P.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linné, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, B. J.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stohl, A.

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201(2005).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, M. Nishikawa, A. Shimizu, I. Matsui, X. Dong, Y. Chen, and H. Quan, “Record heavy Asian dust in Beijing in 2002: observations and model analysis of recent events,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, I. Uno, K. Asai, T. Endoh, and T. Nakajima, “Observation of dust and anthropogenic aerosol plumes in the Northwest Pacific with a two-wavelength polarization lidar on board the research vessel Mirai,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, N. Sugimoto, and T. Murayama, “Extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Asian dust observed with high-spectral-resolution lidar and Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2760-2767(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Tatarov, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and A. Shimizu, “Two-year-observations of optical properties of the tropospheric aerosol and clouds by a high-spectral-resolution lidar over Tsukuba, Japan,” in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 23rd International Laser Radar Conference (publisher, 2006), pp. 451-454.

Tang, I. N.

I. N. Tang, “Chemical and size effects of hygroscopic aerosols on light scattering coefficients,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19245-19250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tao, H.

M. Dan, G. Zhuang, X. Li, H. Tao, and Y. Zhuang, “The characteristics of carbonaceous species and their sources in PM2.5 in Beijing,” Atmos. Environ. 38, 3443-3452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tatarov, B.

B. Tatarov, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and A. Shimizu, “Two-year-observations of optical properties of the tropospheric aerosol and clouds by a high-spectral-resolution lidar over Tsukuba, Japan,” in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 23rd International Laser Radar Conference (publisher, 2006), pp. 451-454.

Tesche, M.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Hu, and Y. Zhang, “Particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio profiling with Raman lidar in south and north China,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6302-6308 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linné, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thome, K.

C. Cattrall, J. Reagan, K. Thome, and O. Dubovik, “Variability of aerosol and spectral lidar and backscatter and extinction ratios of key aerosol types derived from selected Aerosol Robotic Network locations,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S11(2005).
[CrossRef]

Trochkine, D.

Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, M. Yamada, A. Matsuki, D. Trochkine, Y. S. Kim, D. Zhang, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, M. Nagatani, H. Nakata, Z. Shen, G. Li, and B. Chen, “Importance of dust particles in the free troposphere over the Taklamakan Desert: electron microscopic experiments of particles collected with a balloonborne particle impactor at Dunhuang, China,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8644 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsaknakis, G.

A. Papayannis, H. Q. Zhang, V. Amiridis, H. B. Ju, G. Chourdakis, G. Georgoussis, C. Pérez, H. B. Chen, P. Goloub, R. E. Mamouri, S. Kazadzis, D. Paronis, G. Tsaknakis, and J. M. Baldasano, “Extraordinary dust event over Beijing, China, during April 2006: lidar, sun photometric, satellite observations and model validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turner, D. D.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. H. Brasseur, and W. F. Feltz, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37-50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, A.

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Uno, I.

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, M. Nishikawa, A. Shimizu, I. Matsui, X. Dong, Y. Chen, and H. Quan, “Record heavy Asian dust in Beijing in 2002: observations and model analysis of recent events,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, I. Uno, K. Asai, T. Endoh, and T. Nakajima, “Observation of dust and anthropogenic aerosol plumes in the Northwest Pacific with a two-wavelength polarization lidar on board the research vessel Mirai,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, G.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linné, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Venkataraman, C.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, “Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4059(2003).
[CrossRef]

Verver, G.

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, and G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar 2. Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577-28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Voss, E.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter and LIDAR ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, F.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, “Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4059(2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, “Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 46002003.
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, and G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar 2. Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577-28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, and J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar 1. Seasonal cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28567-28575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, and J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the India aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963-966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Walcek, C. J.

C. J. Walcek, “Effects of wind shear on pollution dispersion,” Atmos. Environ. 36, 511-517 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, “High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, China, observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L13815 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201(2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linné, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511-514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, and J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the India aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963-966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter and LIDAR ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

V. Matthias, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, R. Eixmann, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, and X. Wang, “Vertical aerosol distribution over Europe: statistical analysis of Raman lidar data from 10 European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) stations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D18201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter and LIDAR ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wiegner, M.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linné, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Won, J. G.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, J. Gao, D. W. Dockery, and Y. Chen, “Air pollution and daily mortality in residential areas of Beijing, China,” Arch. Environ. Health 49, 216-222 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, M.

Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, M. Yamada, A. Matsuki, D. Trochkine, Y. S. Kim, D. Zhang, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, M. Nagatani, H. Nakata, Z. Shen, G. Li, and B. Chen, “Importance of dust particles in the free troposphere over the Taklamakan Desert: electron microscopic experiments of particles collected with a balloonborne particle impactor at Dunhuang, China,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8644 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, A.

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S. C.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, M. Yamada, A. Matsuki, D. Trochkine, Y. S. Kim, D. Zhang, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, M. Nagatani, H. Nakata, Z. Shen, G. Li, and B. Chen, “Importance of dust particles in the free troposphere over the Taklamakan Desert: electron microscopic experiments of particles collected with a balloonborne particle impactor at Dunhuang, China,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8644 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. Q.

A. Papayannis, H. Q. Zhang, V. Amiridis, H. B. Ju, G. Chourdakis, G. Georgoussis, C. Pérez, H. B. Chen, P. Goloub, R. E. Mamouri, S. Kazadzis, D. Paronis, G. Tsaknakis, and J. M. Baldasano, “Extraordinary dust event over Beijing, China, during April 2006: lidar, sun photometric, satellite observations and model validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, R. Engelmann, M. Hu, and Y. Zhang, “Particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio profiling with Raman lidar in south and north China,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6302-6308 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, “High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, China, observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L13815 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, G.

M. Dan, G. Zhuang, X. Li, H. Tao, and Y. Zhuang, “The characteristics of carbonaceous species and their sources in PM2.5 in Beijing,” Atmos. Environ. 38, 3443-3452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, Y.

M. Dan, G. Zhuang, X. Li, H. Tao, and Y. Zhuang, “The characteristics of carbonaceous species and their sources in PM2.5 in Beijing,” Atmos. Environ. 38, 3443-3452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter and LIDAR ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Environ. Health (1)

X. Xu, J. Gao, D. W. Dockery, and Y. Chen, “Air pollution and daily mortality in residential areas of Beijing, China,” Arch. Environ. Health 49, 216-222 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atmos. Environ. (2)

C. J. Walcek, “Effects of wind shear on pollution dispersion,” Atmos. Environ. 36, 511-517 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Dan, G. Zhuang, X. Li, H. Tao, and Y. Zhuang, “The characteristics of carbonaceous species and their sources in PM2.5 in Beijing,” Atmos. Environ. 38, 3443-3452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Res. (1)

Y. M. Noh, Y. J. Kim, B. C. Choi, T. and Murayama, “Aerosol lidar ratio characteristics measured by a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system at Anmyeon island, Korea,” Atmos. Res. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2007.03.006 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

K. Sassen, “The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848-1866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (5)

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, and J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the India aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963-966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, M. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Q. He, “High aerosol load over the Pearl River Delta, China, observed with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L13815 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, M. Nishikawa, A. Shimizu, I. Matsui, X. Dong, Y. Chen, and H. Quan, “Record heavy Asian dust in Beijing in 2002: observations and model analysis of recent events,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Shimizu, I. Uno, K. Asai, T. Endoh, and T. Nakajima, “Observation of dust and anthropogenic aerosol plumes in the Northwest Pacific with a two-wavelength polarization lidar on board the research vessel Mirai,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, H. Q. Zhang, V. Amiridis, H. B. Ju, G. Chourdakis, G. Georgoussis, C. Pérez, H. B. Chen, P. Goloub, R. E. Mamouri, S. Kazadzis, D. Paronis, G. Tsaknakis, and J. M. Baldasano, “Extraordinary dust event over Beijing, China, during April 2006: lidar, sun photometric, satellite observations and model validation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. H. Brasseur, and W. F. Feltz, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37-50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (15)

T. Murayama, H. Okamoto, N. Kaneyasu, H. Kamataki, and K. Miura, “Application of lidar depolarization measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer: effects of dust and sea-salt particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31781-31792(1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, “Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 46002003.
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and A. Stohl, “Raman lidar observations of aged Siberian and Canadian forest fire smoke in the free troposphere over Germany in 2003: microphysical particle characterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D17201(2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, K. Arao, I. Uno, T. Murayama, N. Kagawa, K. Aoki, A. Uchiyama, and A. Yamazaki, “Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D19S17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. J. Sohn, J. G. Won, S. C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345-18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Matthias, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, R. Eixmann, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, M. R. Perrone, and X. Wang, “Vertical aerosol distribution over Europe: statistical analysis of Raman lidar data from 10 European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) stations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D18201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linné, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Mona, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, and G. Pappalardo, “Saharan dust intrusions in the Mediterranean area: Three years of Raman lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16203(2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, “Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4059(2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, and J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar 1. Seasonal cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28567-28575 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, and G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar 2. Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577-28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, M. Yamada, A. Matsuki, D. Trochkine, Y. S. Kim, D. Zhang, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, M. Nagatani, H. Nakata, Z. Shen, G. Li, and B. Chen, “Importance of dust particles in the free troposphere over the Taklamakan Desert: electron microscopic experiments of particles collected with a balloonborne particle impactor at Dunhuang, China,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8644 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Tang, “Chemical and size effects of hygroscopic aerosols on light scattering coefficients,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19245-19250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Cattrall, J. Reagan, K. Thome, and O. Dubovik, “Variability of aerosol and spectral lidar and backscatter and extinction ratios of key aerosol types derived from selected Aerosol Robotic Network locations,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S11(2005).
[CrossRef]

Meteorol. Satell. Cent. Tech. Note (1)

N. Murayama, “Dust cloud “Kosa” from the East Asian dust storms in 1982-1988 as observed by the GMS satellite,” Meteorol. Satell. Cent. Tech. Note 17, 1-8 (1998).

Nature (1)

J. Liu and J. Diamond, “China's environment in a globalizing world,” Nature 435, 1179-1186 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

The NSMC, NOAA-17 satellite image was produced by the National Satellite Meteorological Center (NSMC) of China Meteorological Administration and was found at the website of the China dust storm monitoring network, http://www.duststorm.com.cn, 2007.

T. Murayama, “Optical properties of Asian dust aerosol lofted over Tokyo observed by Raman lidar,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmospheric and Earth Science, L.R.Bissonnette, G.Roy, and G.Vallée, eds. (Defence R&D Canada, Québec, Canada, 2002), pp. 331-334.

R. R. Draxler and G. D. Rolph, “Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT),” obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Air Resources Laboratory via http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready/hysplit4.html (2007).

B. Tatarov, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and A. Shimizu, “Two-year-observations of optical properties of the tropospheric aerosol and clouds by a high-spectral-resolution lidar over Tsukuba, Japan,” in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 23rd International Laser Radar Conference (publisher, 2006), pp. 451-454.

T. Murayama and M. Sekiguchi, “Intercomparison of aerosol optical properties observed by lidar, Sun/sky photometers and surface in situ measurements during Asian dust event in Tokyo, Japan,” in Reviewed and Revised Papers Presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference (publisher, 2008), pp. 943-946.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Daily variation of the lidar aerosol extinction coefficient α a ( 0.2 0.3 km ), surface mass concentration of PM 10 , visibility, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction during the experiment from 15 to 31 December 2007 in Beijing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Vertical profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficient α a (thick curves) and the backscatter coefficient β a (thin curves) coefficients, the lidar ratio S a (dotted curves), and the total depolarization ratio δ a (dot–dashed curves) at 532 nm in the (a) moderate pollution, (b) heavy pollution, and (c) Asian dust episodes over Beijing. Error bars for lidar ratio indicate ± 1 standard deviations due to the detection noise.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Backward trajectories calculated by the HYSPLIT model ending at Beijing on (a) 16 December in the moderate pollution episode, (b) 25 December in the heavy pollution episode, and (c) 28 December in the Asian dust episode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Frequency distributions of the aerosol extinction coefficient, the lidar ratio, and the total depolarization ratio in the 0.2 1 km height range during the moderate pollution episode (15–17 December), heavy pollution episode (18–27 December), and Asian dust episode (28–30 December) in Beijing. The derived optical parameters between 0.2 and 1 km height with errors less than 50% are shown in the figure.

Metrics