Abstract

A thin and lensless two-dimensional (2D) to three-dimensional (3D) convertible display based on integral imaging using an organic light emitting diode (OLED) panel as a direct emissive light source is proposed with improved optical efficiency. A point light source array for 2D–3D convertible display is formed on the surface light source, i.e., the OLED panel. However, a blurring effect and color separation result from the finite (nonzero) size of point light sources since each point light source is generated by a pixel of the OLED panel. Simulation results for a blurring effect and color separation in terms of rays from a light source with finite size is presented. The proposed system has a thin structure and simple convertibility because it does not need any additional optical element to provide 2D–3D convertibility.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Sprengard, K. Bonrad, T. K. Daeubler, T. Frank, V. Hagemann, I. Koehler, J. Pommerehne, C. R. Ottermann, F. Voges, and B. Vingerling, “OLED devices for signage applications: a review of recent advances and remaining challenges,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 173-183 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S.-W. Wen, M.-T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, “Recent development of blue fluorescent OLED materials and devices,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 1, 90-99 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1043-1048 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. de Nicola, A. Finizio, and B. Javidi, “Full color 3-D imaging by digital holography and removal of chromatic aberrations,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 4, 97-100 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Lee, J.-H. Park, and S.-W. Min, “Three-dimensional display and information processing based on integral imaging,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Display, T. -C. Poon, ed. (Springer, 2006), Chapt. 12, pp. 333-378.
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Lee, S.-W. Min, and B. Javidi, “Theoretical analysis for three-dimensional integral imaging systems with double devices,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4856-4865 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Ren, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “Maximum viewing width integral image,” J. Electron. Imaging 14, 023019 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array,” Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Integral imaging with multiple image planes using a uniaxial crystal plate,” Opt. Express 11, 1862-1875 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Liao, M. Iwahara, T. Koike, N. Hata, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, “Scalable high-resolution integral videography autostereoscopic display with a seamless multiprojection system,” Appl. Opt. 44, 305-315 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Hain, W. Spiegel, M. Schmiedchen, T. Tschudi, and B. Javidi, “3D integral imaging using diffractive Fresnel lens arrays,” Opt. Express 13, 315-326 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” SID 2006 International Symposium, 37, book 1, 81-84 (Society for Information Display, 2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. G. H. Hiddink, S. T. de Zwart, and O. H. Willemsen, “Locally switchable 3D displays,” SID 2006 International Symposium, 37, book 2, 1142-1145 (Society for Information Display, 2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Harrold and G. J. Woodgate, “Autostereoscopic display technology for mobile 3DTV applications,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 1-12(2007).
  15. J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Choi, S.-W. Cho, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “A thin 3D-2D convertible integral imaging system using a pinhole array on a polarizer,” Opt. Express 14, 5183-5190 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S.-W. Cho, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Convertible two-dimensional-three-dimensional display using an LED array based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2852-2854 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J.-H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Resolution-enhanced three-dimensional/two-dimension convertible display based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 13, 1875-1884(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. Kim, H. Choi, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, J. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional integral display using plastic optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7149-7154 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Kim, H. Choi, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “A thin and small 3D/2D convertible display using an organic light emitting diode (OLED) panel based on integral imaging,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper DTuA5.

2008

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. de Nicola, A. Finizio, and B. Javidi, “Full color 3-D imaging by digital holography and removal of chromatic aberrations,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 4, 97-100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Harrold and G. J. Woodgate, “Autostereoscopic display technology for mobile 3DTV applications,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 1-12(2007).

Y. Kim, H. Choi, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, J. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional integral display using plastic optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7149-7154 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

2004

R. Sprengard, K. Bonrad, T. K. Daeubler, T. Frank, V. Hagemann, I. Koehler, J. Pommerehne, C. R. Ottermann, F. Voges, and B. Vingerling, “OLED devices for signage applications: a review of recent advances and remaining challenges,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 173-183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Integral imaging with multiple image planes using a uniaxial crystal plate,” Opt. Express 11, 1862-1875 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1043-1048 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Aggoun, A.

J. Ren, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “Maximum viewing width integral image,” J. Electron. Imaging 14, 023019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alfieri, D.

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. de Nicola, A. Finizio, and B. Javidi, “Full color 3-D imaging by digital holography and removal of chromatic aberrations,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 4, 97-100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bonrad, K.

R. Sprengard, K. Bonrad, T. K. Daeubler, T. Frank, V. Hagemann, I. Koehler, J. Pommerehne, C. R. Ottermann, F. Voges, and B. Vingerling, “OLED devices for signage applications: a review of recent advances and remaining challenges,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 173-183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1043-1048 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

S.-W. Wen, M.-T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, “Recent development of blue fluorescent OLED materials and devices,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 1, 90-99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-W.

Choi, H.

Choi, K. H.

H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” SID 2006 International Symposium, 37, book 1, 81-84 (Society for Information Display, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Daeubler, T. K.

R. Sprengard, K. Bonrad, T. K. Daeubler, T. Frank, V. Hagemann, I. Koehler, J. Pommerehne, C. R. Ottermann, F. Voges, and B. Vingerling, “OLED devices for signage applications: a review of recent advances and remaining challenges,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 173-183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Zwart, S. T.

M. G. H. Hiddink, S. T. de Zwart, and O. H. Willemsen, “Locally switchable 3D displays,” SID 2006 International Symposium, 37, book 2, 1142-1145 (Society for Information Display, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Dohi, T.

Ferraro, P.

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. de Nicola, A. Finizio, and B. Javidi, “Full color 3-D imaging by digital holography and removal of chromatic aberrations,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 4, 97-100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Finizio, A.

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. de Nicola, A. Finizio, and B. Javidi, “Full color 3-D imaging by digital holography and removal of chromatic aberrations,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 4, 97-100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1043-1048 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frank, T.

R. Sprengard, K. Bonrad, T. K. Daeubler, T. Frank, V. Hagemann, I. Koehler, J. Pommerehne, C. R. Ottermann, F. Voges, and B. Vingerling, “OLED devices for signage applications: a review of recent advances and remaining challenges,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 173-183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grilli, S.

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. de Nicola, A. Finizio, and B. Javidi, “Full color 3-D imaging by digital holography and removal of chromatic aberrations,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 4, 97-100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gu, J. S.

H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” SID 2006 International Symposium, 37, book 1, 81-84 (Society for Information Display, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Hagemann, V.

R. Sprengard, K. Bonrad, T. K. Daeubler, T. Frank, V. Hagemann, I. Koehler, J. Pommerehne, C. R. Ottermann, F. Voges, and B. Vingerling, “OLED devices for signage applications: a review of recent advances and remaining challenges,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 173-183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hain, M.

Harrold, J.

J. Harrold and G. J. Woodgate, “Autostereoscopic display technology for mobile 3DTV applications,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 1-12(2007).

Hata, N.

Hiddink, M. G. H.

M. G. H. Hiddink, S. T. de Zwart, and O. H. Willemsen, “Locally switchable 3D displays,” SID 2006 International Symposium, 37, book 2, 1142-1145 (Society for Information Display, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J.

Iwahara, M.

Jang, H. W.

H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” SID 2006 International Symposium, 37, book 1, 81-84 (Society for Information Display, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

Jung, S.

Kim, B. S.

H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” SID 2006 International Symposium, 37, book 1, 81-84 (Society for Information Display, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-R.

Kim, J.

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, H. Choi, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, J. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional integral display using plastic optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7149-7154 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, J. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional integral display using plastic optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7149-7154 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Cho, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Convertible two-dimensional-three-dimensional display using an LED array based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2852-2854 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Resolution-enhanced three-dimensional/two-dimension convertible display based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 13, 1875-1884(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array,” Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “A thin and small 3D/2D convertible display using an organic light emitting diode (OLED) panel based on integral imaging,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper DTuA5.

Koehler, I.

R. Sprengard, K. Bonrad, T. K. Daeubler, T. Frank, V. Hagemann, I. Koehler, J. Pommerehne, C. R. Ottermann, F. Voges, and B. Vingerling, “OLED devices for signage applications: a review of recent advances and remaining challenges,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 173-183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koike, T.

Lee, B.

Y. Kim, H. Choi, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, J. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional integral display using plastic optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7149-7154 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Cho, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Convertible two-dimensional-three-dimensional display using an LED array based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2852-2854 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, S.-W. Cho, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “A thin 3D-2D convertible integral imaging system using a pinhole array on a polarizer,” Opt. Express 14, 5183-5190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Resolution-enhanced three-dimensional/two-dimension convertible display based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 13, 1875-1884(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array,” Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Integral imaging with multiple image planes using a uniaxial crystal plate,” Opt. Express 11, 1862-1875 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lee, S.-W. Min, and B. Javidi, “Theoretical analysis for three-dimensional integral imaging systems with double devices,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4856-4865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “A thin and small 3D/2D convertible display using an organic light emitting diode (OLED) panel based on integral imaging,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper DTuA5.

B. Lee, J.-H. Park, and S.-W. Min, “Three-dimensional display and information processing based on integral imaging,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Display, T. -C. Poon, ed. (Springer, 2006), Chapt. 12, pp. 333-378.
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. J.

H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” SID 2006 International Symposium, 37, book 1, 81-84 (Society for Information Display, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. D.

H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” SID 2006 International Symposium, 37, book 1, 81-84 (Society for Information Display, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-T.

S.-W. Wen, M.-T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, “Recent development of blue fluorescent OLED materials and devices,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 1, 90-99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-D.

Liao, H.

McCormick, M.

J. Ren, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “Maximum viewing width integral image,” J. Electron. Imaging 14, 023019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miccio, L.

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. de Nicola, A. Finizio, and B. Javidi, “Full color 3-D imaging by digital holography and removal of chromatic aberrations,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 4, 97-100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Min, S.-W.

Nam, H.

H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” SID 2006 International Symposium, 37, book 1, 81-84 (Society for Information Display, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Nicola, S. de

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. de Nicola, A. Finizio, and B. Javidi, “Full color 3-D imaging by digital holography and removal of chromatic aberrations,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 4, 97-100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ottermann, C. R.

R. Sprengard, K. Bonrad, T. K. Daeubler, T. Frank, V. Hagemann, I. Koehler, J. Pommerehne, C. R. Ottermann, F. Voges, and B. Vingerling, “OLED devices for signage applications: a review of recent advances and remaining challenges,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 173-183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, C. Y.

H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” SID 2006 International Symposium, 37, book 1, 81-84 (Society for Information Display, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, G.

Park, J.-H.

Pommerehne, J.

R. Sprengard, K. Bonrad, T. K. Daeubler, T. Frank, V. Hagemann, I. Koehler, J. Pommerehne, C. R. Ottermann, F. Voges, and B. Vingerling, “OLED devices for signage applications: a review of recent advances and remaining challenges,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 173-183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ren, J.

J. Ren, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “Maximum viewing width integral image,” J. Electron. Imaging 14, 023019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sakuma, I.

Schmiedchen, M.

Song, M. S.

H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” SID 2006 International Symposium, 37, book 1, 81-84 (Society for Information Display, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Spiegel, W.

Sprengard, R.

R. Sprengard, K. Bonrad, T. K. Daeubler, T. Frank, V. Hagemann, I. Koehler, J. Pommerehne, C. R. Ottermann, F. Voges, and B. Vingerling, “OLED devices for signage applications: a review of recent advances and remaining challenges,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 173-183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1043-1048 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

Vingerling, B.

R. Sprengard, K. Bonrad, T. K. Daeubler, T. Frank, V. Hagemann, I. Koehler, J. Pommerehne, C. R. Ottermann, F. Voges, and B. Vingerling, “OLED devices for signage applications: a review of recent advances and remaining challenges,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 173-183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Voges, F.

R. Sprengard, K. Bonrad, T. K. Daeubler, T. Frank, V. Hagemann, I. Koehler, J. Pommerehne, C. R. Ottermann, F. Voges, and B. Vingerling, “OLED devices for signage applications: a review of recent advances and remaining challenges,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 173-183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wen, S.-W.

S.-W. Wen, M.-T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, “Recent development of blue fluorescent OLED materials and devices,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 1, 90-99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Willemsen, O. H.

M. G. H. Hiddink, S. T. de Zwart, and O. H. Willemsen, “Locally switchable 3D displays,” SID 2006 International Symposium, 37, book 2, 1142-1145 (Society for Information Display, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Woodgate, G. J.

J. Harrold and G. J. Woodgate, “Autostereoscopic display technology for mobile 3DTV applications,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 1-12(2007).

Adv. Mater.

S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1043-1048 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Display Technol.

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. de Nicola, A. Finizio, and B. Javidi, “Full color 3-D imaging by digital holography and removal of chromatic aberrations,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 4, 97-100 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Wen, M.-T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, “Recent development of blue fluorescent OLED materials and devices,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 1, 90-99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Imaging

J. Ren, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “Maximum viewing width integral image,” J. Electron. Imaging 14, 023019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

J. Harrold and G. J. Woodgate, “Autostereoscopic display technology for mobile 3DTV applications,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 1-12(2007).

R. Sprengard, K. Bonrad, T. K. Daeubler, T. Frank, V. Hagemann, I. Koehler, J. Pommerehne, C. R. Ottermann, F. Voges, and B. Vingerling, “OLED devices for signage applications: a review of recent advances and remaining challenges,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 173-183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. Lee, J.-H. Park, and S.-W. Min, “Three-dimensional display and information processing based on integral imaging,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Display, T. -C. Poon, ed. (Springer, 2006), Chapt. 12, pp. 333-378.
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “A thin and small 3D/2D convertible display using an organic light emitting diode (OLED) panel based on integral imaging,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper DTuA5.

H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” SID 2006 International Symposium, 37, book 1, 81-84 (Society for Information Display, 2006).
[CrossRef]

M. G. H. Hiddink, S. T. de Zwart, and O. H. Willemsen, “Locally switchable 3D displays,” SID 2006 International Symposium, 37, book 2, 1142-1145 (Society for Information Display, 2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Previous methods of 2D–3D convertible display in integral imaging using (a) polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films and (b) pinhole on a polarizer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the proposed method consisting of a SLM and an OLED panel: the case of (a) 3D mode and (b) 2D mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gap adjustment between the light source array and the transmission-type display panel: (a) when point light source is covered with each elemental image region on the plane of the SLM, (b) gap g o is larger than g, (c) gap g s is smaller than g, and (d) comparison of the size of elemental image regions for the diverging angle of 60 ° .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Illustration of the blurring effect: (a) for ideally small OLED pixel and pixel pitch of SLM, (b) for larger light source than pixel pitch of SLM, and (c) for distance variance of observed 3D image.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diagram of the physical structure of an RGB OLED cell.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Color separation when the point light source with finite size comprised of RGB pixels is used.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulation results: the illustration of simulation condition and results for (a) blurring effect and (b) color separation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup: (a) diagram of the experimental setup and (b) photograph of the experimental setup.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental results: (a) 3D images observed from different viewing directions, (b) two sets of a 2D image.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

OLED panel in the (a) 2D mode and (b) 3D mode.

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