Abstract

A Sagnac interferometer with a section of a polarization maintaining side-hole fiber for multiparameter measurement is proposed. The sensor was experimentally demonstrated to be sensitive to torsion, temperature, and longitudinal strain, simultaneously. The birefringence in the investigated side-hole fiber is induced simultaneously by the elliptical shape of a germanium-doped core and by field overlap with the air holes surrounding the core. The latter effect is purely geometrical and causes high chromatic dispersion of the group birefringence in the long wavelength range, which results in a different period of spectral interference fringes. A different wavelength response is obtained for each interference fringe peak when the fiber is subjected to torsion, temperature, or longitudinal strain. A matrix equation for simultaneous measurement of the three parameters—torsion, temperature, and longitudinal strain—is also proposed.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. Wallace, “A frequency-modulated continuous wave birefringent fibre-optic strain sensor based on a Sagnac ring configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218-224 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De La Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Bo, Z. Qida, L. Feng, G. Tuan, X. Lifang, L. Shuhong, and G. Hong, “Liquid-level sensor with a high-birefringence-fiber loop mirror,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7767-7771 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Liu, B. Liu, X. Feng, W. Zhang, G. Zhou, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensors,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2382-2390(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Chung, J. Kim, B-A. Yu, and B. Lee, “A Fiber Bragg grating sensor demodulation technique using a polarization maintaining fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1343-1345 (2001).
  7. O. Frazão, L. M Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2407-2409 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 2027-2029 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D-H. Kim and J. Kang, “Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with reduced temperature sensitivity,” Opt. Express 12, 4490-4495 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Yang, C-L. Zhao, Q. Peng, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, “FBG sensor interrogation with high temperature insensitivity by using a HiBi-PCF Sagnac loop filter,” Opt. Commun. 250, 63-68(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonics crystal fiber based on Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113-1-151113-3 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Temperature-independent strain sensor based on a Hi-Bi photonic crystal fibre loop mirror,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1453-1455 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and P. Roy, “Curvature sensor using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with two asymmetric hole regions in a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2520-2523 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. Seung Moon, B. H. Kim, A. Lin, G. Sun, Y.-G. Han, W.-T. Han, and Y. Chung, “The temperature sensitivity of Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining side-hole fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 7962-7967 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J, Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2652-2658 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Wojcik, B. Janoszczyk, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, W. Spytek, A. Walewski, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Experimental investigation of the effect of protective coatings on temperature sensitivity of side-hole optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 3189, pp. 38-43 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598-609 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonics crystal fiber based on Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113-1-151113-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Temperature-independent strain sensor based on a Hi-Bi photonic crystal fibre loop mirror,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1453-1455 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Seung Moon, B. H. Kim, A. Lin, G. Sun, Y.-G. Han, W.-T. Han, and Y. Chung, “The temperature sensitivity of Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining side-hole fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 7962-7967 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 2027-2029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

O. Frazão, L. M Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2407-2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Bo, Z. Qida, L. Feng, G. Tuan, X. Lifang, L. Shuhong, and G. Hong, “Liquid-level sensor with a high-birefringence-fiber loop mirror,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7767-7771 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

D-H. Kim and J. Kang, “Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with reduced temperature sensitivity,” Opt. Express 12, 4490-4495 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2001

S. Chung, J. Kim, B-A. Yu, and B. Lee, “A Fiber Bragg grating sensor demodulation technique using a polarization maintaining fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1343-1345 (2001).

1999

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. Wallace, “A frequency-modulated continuous wave birefringent fibre-optic strain sensor based on a Sagnac ring configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Possibilities of application of the side-hole circular core fiber in monitoring of high pressures,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 47, 805-808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. Wojcik, B. Janoszczyk, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, W. Spytek, A. Walewski, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Experimental investigation of the effect of protective coatings on temperature sensitivity of side-hole optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 3189, pp. 38-43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598-609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De La Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991

1988

D. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217-1224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

Baptista, J. M.

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and P. Roy, “Curvature sensor using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with two asymmetric hole regions in a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2520-2523 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Temperature-independent strain sensor based on a Hi-Bi photonic crystal fibre loop mirror,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1453-1455 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, L. M Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2407-2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berghmans, F.

Bo, D.

Bock, W. J.

E. Chmielewska, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Measurement of pressure and temperature sensitivities of a Bragg grating imprinted in a highly birefringent side-hole fiber,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6284-6291 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Possibilities of application of the side-hole circular core fiber in monitoring of high pressures,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 47, 805-808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Wojcik, B. Janoszczyk, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, W. Spytek, A. Walewski, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Experimental investigation of the effect of protective coatings on temperature sensitivity of side-hole optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 3189, pp. 38-43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, M.

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. Wallace, “A frequency-modulated continuous wave birefringent fibre-optic strain sensor based on a Sagnac ring configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Charasse, M. N.

Chmielewska, E.

Chung, S.

S. Chung, J. Kim, B-A. Yu, and B. Lee, “A Fiber Bragg grating sensor demodulation technique using a polarization maintaining fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1343-1345 (2001).

Chung, Y.

G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 2027-2029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Seung Moon, B. H. Kim, A. Lin, G. Sun, Y.-G. Han, W.-T. Han, and Y. Chung, “The temperature sensitivity of Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining side-hole fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 7962-7967 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culshaw, B.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598-609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dabkiewicz, Ph.

De La Rosa, E.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De La Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Demokan, M. S.

C-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonics crystal fiber based on Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113-1-151113-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, B. Liu, X. Feng, W. Zhang, G. Zhou, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensors,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2382-2390(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, L.

Feng, X.

Frazão, O.

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and P. Roy, “Curvature sensor using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with two asymmetric hole regions in a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2520-2523 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Temperature-independent strain sensor based on a Hi-Bi photonic crystal fibre loop mirror,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1453-1455 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, L. M Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2407-2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, W.-T.

Han, Y.-G.

Holmes-Smith, A. S.

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. Wallace, “A frequency-modulated continuous wave birefringent fibre-optic strain sensor based on a Sagnac ring configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, G.

Janoszczyk, B.

J. Wojcik, B. Janoszczyk, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, W. Spytek, A. Walewski, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Experimental investigation of the effect of protective coatings on temperature sensitivity of side-hole optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 3189, pp. 38-43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

C-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598-609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kai, G.

Kang, J.

Kim, B. H.

Kim, D-H.

Kim, J.

S. Chung, J. Kim, B-A. Yu, and B. Lee, “A Fiber Bragg grating sensor demodulation technique using a polarization maintaining fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1343-1345 (2001).

Klimek, J.

Konstantaki, M.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598-609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Le Pesant, J. P.

Lee, B.

S. Chung, J. Kim, B-A. Yu, and B. Lee, “A Fiber Bragg grating sensor demodulation technique using a polarization maintaining fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1343-1345 (2001).

Lifang, X.

Lin, A.

Liu, B.

Liu, Y.

Lu, C.

X. Yang, C-L. Zhao, Q. Peng, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, “FBG sensor interrogation with high temperature insensitivity by using a HiBi-PCF Sagnac loop filter,” Opt. Commun. 250, 63-68(2005).
[CrossRef]

C-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Makara, M.

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J, Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2652-2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wojcik, B. Janoszczyk, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, W. Spytek, A. Walewski, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Experimental investigation of the effect of protective coatings on temperature sensitivity of side-hole optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 3189, pp. 38-43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marques, L. M

O. Frazão, L. M Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2407-2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martynkien, T.

Mergo, P.

J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Possibilities of application of the side-hole circular core fiber in monitoring of high pressures,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 47, 805-808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michie, W. C.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598-609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Monzon, D.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De La Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moon, D. S.

G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 2027-2029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moon, D. Seung

Mortimore, D.

D. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217-1224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nasilowski, T.

Okamoto, K.

Olszewski, J.

Peng, Q.

X. Yang, C-L. Zhao, Q. Peng, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, “FBG sensor interrogation with high temperature insensitivity by using a HiBi-PCF Sagnac loop filter,” Opt. Commun. 250, 63-68(2005).
[CrossRef]

Poturaj, K.

J. Wojcik, B. Janoszczyk, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, W. Spytek, A. Walewski, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Experimental investigation of the effect of protective coatings on temperature sensitivity of side-hole optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 3189, pp. 38-43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Qida, Z.

Roy, P.

Santos, J. L.

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and P. Roy, “Curvature sensor using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with two asymmetric hole regions in a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2520-2523 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Temperature-independent strain sensor based on a Hi-Bi photonic crystal fibre loop mirror,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1453-1455 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, L. M Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2407-2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Santos, S.

O. Frazão, L. M Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2407-2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shuhong, L.

Shum, P.

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonics crystal fiber based on Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113-1-151113-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spytek, W.

J. Wojcik, B. Janoszczyk, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, W. Spytek, A. Walewski, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Experimental investigation of the effect of protective coatings on temperature sensitivity of side-hole optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 3189, pp. 38-43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Starodumov, A. N.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De La Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Statkiewicz, G.

Sun, G.

D. Seung Moon, B. H. Kim, A. Lin, G. Sun, Y.-G. Han, W.-T. Han, and Y. Chung, “The temperature sensitivity of Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining side-hole fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 7962-7967 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 2027-2029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Szpulak, M.

Tam, H. Y.

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonics crystal fiber based on Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113-1-151113-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

Thursby, G.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598-609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tuan, G.

Turpin, M.

Ulrich, R.

Urbanczyk, W.

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J, Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2652-2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Chmielewska, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Measurement of pressure and temperature sensitivities of a Bragg grating imprinted in a highly birefringent side-hole fiber,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6284-6291 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Possibilities of application of the side-hole circular core fiber in monitoring of high pressures,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 47, 805-808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Wojcik, B. Janoszczyk, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, W. Spytek, A. Walewski, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Experimental investigation of the effect of protective coatings on temperature sensitivity of side-hole optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 3189, pp. 38-43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walewski, A.

J. Wojcik, B. Janoszczyk, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, W. Spytek, A. Walewski, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Experimental investigation of the effect of protective coatings on temperature sensitivity of side-hole optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 3189, pp. 38-43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, P. A.

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. Wallace, “A frequency-modulated continuous wave birefringent fibre-optic strain sensor based on a Sagnac ring configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wojcik, J.

J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Possibilities of application of the side-hole circular core fiber in monitoring of high pressures,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 47, 805-808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Wojcik, B. Janoszczyk, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, W. Spytek, A. Walewski, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Experimental investigation of the effect of protective coatings on temperature sensitivity of side-hole optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 3189, pp. 38-43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wójcik, J,

Xie, H. M.

Yang, X.

X. Yang, C-L. Zhao, Q. Peng, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, “FBG sensor interrogation with high temperature insensitivity by using a HiBi-PCF Sagnac loop filter,” Opt. Commun. 250, 63-68(2005).
[CrossRef]

C-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B-A.

S. Chung, J. Kim, B-A. Yu, and B. Lee, “A Fiber Bragg grating sensor demodulation technique using a polarization maintaining fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 1343-1345 (2001).

Yuan, S.

Zenteno, L. A.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De La Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Zhao, C-L.

X. Yang, C-L. Zhao, Q. Peng, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, “FBG sensor interrogation with high temperature insensitivity by using a HiBi-PCF Sagnac loop filter,” Opt. Commun. 250, 63-68(2005).
[CrossRef]

C-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, G.

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. Wallace, “A frequency-modulated continuous wave birefringent fibre-optic strain sensor based on a Sagnac ring configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Zhou, X.

X. Yang, C-L. Zhao, Q. Peng, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, “FBG sensor interrogation with high temperature insensitivity by using a HiBi-PCF Sagnac loop filter,” Opt. Commun. 250, 63-68(2005).
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X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonics crystal fiber based on Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113-1-151113-3 (2007).
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O. Frazão, L. M Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2407-2409 (2006).
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G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 2027-2029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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X. Yang, C-L. Zhao, Q. Peng, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, “FBG sensor interrogation with high temperature insensitivity by using a HiBi-PCF Sagnac loop filter,” Opt. Commun. 250, 63-68(2005).
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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of the whole cross-section of (a) the side-hole fiber and (b) the core region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral dependence of phase (B, blue dots) and group (G, black dots) modal birefringence measured in a wide spectral range. Inset figure: Comparison of the birefringence between two methods.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental setup; (b) Spectral response of the Sagnac interferometer and identification of the peaks.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Torsion response of the Sagnac interferometer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Group birefringence response of the Sagnac interferometer when subjected to torsion.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temperature response of the Sagnac interferometer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Group birefringence response of the Sagnac interferometer when subjected to temperature.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Characterization of the sensing head for (a) torsion and (b) temperature.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Sensor output as determined by Eq. (3) for variation of applied torsion at constant temperature and variation of temperature at constant torsion.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Simultaneous measurement of torsion and temperature: Top, values read for Δ λ peak 1 and Δ λ peak 4 under changing temperature and torsion. Middle and Bottom, recovered values for these parameters obtained using Eq. (3).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Longitudinal strain response of the Sagnac interfero meter.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Group birefringence response of the Sagnac interfero meter when subjected to longitudinal strain.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Characterization of the sensing head for variations of applied longitudinal strain.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Sensor output as determined by Eq. (4) for variation of applied longitudinal strain at constant temperature and temperature variation at constant strain.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Simultaneous measurement of the three parameters.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Sensitivity Coefficients for Torsion, Temperature, and Longitudinal Strain

Equations (7)

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Δ λ peak i = K T i Δ T + K τ i Δ τ ,
[ Δ T Δ τ ] = 1 D [ K τ 4 K τ 1 K T 4 K T 1 ] [ Δ λ peak 1 Δ λ peak 4 ] ,
[ Δ T Δ τ ] = 1 3 × 10 3 [ 0.08 0.06 1.97 1.44 ] [ Δ λ peak 1 Δ λ peak 4 ] ,
[ Δ T Δ ε ] = 1 1 × 10 3 [ 0.021 0.016 1.97 1.44 ] [ Δ λ peak 1 Δ λ peak 4 ] .
Δ λ peaki = K T i Δ T + K τ i Δ τ + K ε i Δ ε .
[ Δ λ peak 1 Δ λ peak 2 Δ λ peak 4 ] = [ K T 1 K τ 1 K ε 1 K T 2 K τ 2 K ε 2 K T 4 K τ 4 K ε 4 ] [ Δ T Δ τ Δ ε ] ,
[ Δ T Δ τ Δ ε ] = [ 1.44 0.06 0.016 1.55 0.07 0.017 1.97 0.08 0.021 ] 1 [ Δ λ peak 1 Δ λ peak 2 Δ λ peak 4 ] .

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