Abstract

We present theoretical analysis and experimental verification of the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of a common-path interferometer-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Based on fully integrated all-fiber implementation of a common-path time-domain OCT system, we derived the SNR of the system including the effect of beat noise, which turns out to be twice as large as the excess noise term. We verified the theoretical SNR through a series of experiments, utilizing both controlled phantom and biological samples such as a rat brain with tumor and a frog retina. The results showed that the source power and the reference reflectivity can be easily controlled to optimize the SNR of OCT imaging. We have also analyzed the effect of the fiber delays and the offset in the fiber autocorrelator of the common-path OCT system on the overall SNR.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2007

Y. Cheng and K. V. Larin, “In vivo two- and three-dimensional imaging of artificial and real fingerprints with optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1634-1636 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, Z. Ding, J. Meng, L. Wu, Z. He, T. Wu, and M. Chen, “Common path endoscopic optical coherence tomography with outside path length compensation,” Proc. SPIE 6826, 68261S (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Sharma and J. U. Kang, “Common-path optical coherence tomography with side-viewing bare fiber probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113102(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, R. Michaely, T. Lasser, and S. C. Sekhar, “Complex ambiguity-free Fourier domain optical coherence tomography through transverse scanning,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3453-3455 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hofer, B. Povazay, and B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, F. Hlawatsch, and W. Drexler, “Signal post processing in frequency domain OCT and OCM using a filter bank approach,” Proc. SPIE 6443, 64430O (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Flueraru, H. Kumazaki, S. Sherif, S. Chang, and Y. Mao, “Quadrature Mach-Zehnder interferometer with application in optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A 9, L5-L8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 340-344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. C. Haskell, D. Liao, A. E. Pivonka, T. L. Bell, B. R. Haberle, B. M. Hoeling, and D. C. Petersen, “Role of beat noise in limiting the sensitivity of optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2747-2755(2006).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Myaing, D. J. MacDonald, and X. Li, “Fiber-optic scanning two-photon fluorescence endoscope,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1076-1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Stein, H. Ishikawa, R. Hariprasad, G. Wollstein, R. J. Noecker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “A new quality assessment parameter for optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90, 186-190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Gossage, C. M. Smith, E. M. Kanter, L. P. Hariri, A. L. Stone, J. J. Rodriguez, S. K. Williams, and J. K. Barton, “Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1563-1575 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xi, D. Marks, S. Schlachter, W. Luo, and S. A. Boppart, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of biofilm development using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

U. Sharma, N. M. Fried, and J. U. Kang, “All-fiber Fizeau optical coherence tomography: sensitivity optimization and system analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11799-805(2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshino, M. R. Ali, and B. C. Sarker, “Performance analysis of low-coherence interferometry, taking into consideration optical beat noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 328-335 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, R. S. Tucker, X. Yi, W. Shieh, and J. S. Evans, “Uncorrelated beat noise measurement for optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring,” Opt. Commun. 4, 971-972 (2005).

2004

P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, “Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express. 12, 3532-3542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography--principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, M. Kempe, B. Zimmermann, H. Reitsamer, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Imaging brain morphology with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 187-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Vakhtin, D. J. Kane, W. R. Wood, and K. A. Peterson, “Common-path interferometer for frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6953-6958 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

2000

1999

M. E. Brezinski and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: high-resolution imaging in nontransparent tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 1185-1192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205-1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82, 128-133 (1999).
[PubMed]

A. M. Rollins and J. A. Izatt, “Optimal interferometer designs for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1484-1486 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. Takada, “Noise in optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1098-1108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Z. Kam, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional microscopy in thick biological samples: a fresh approach for adjusting focus and correcting spherical aberration,” Bioimaging 5, 40-49 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Biopsy in Human Urologic Tissue Using Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Urol. 157, 1915-1919 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811-1813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikon, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, and N. D. Gladkova, “In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa,” Opt. Express. 1, 432-440 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Forward-imaging instruments for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1618-1620 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1993

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971

Agard, D. A.

Z. Kam, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional microscopy in thick biological samples: a fresh approach for adjusting focus and correcting spherical aberration,” Bioimaging 5, 40-49 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre, A. D.

P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, “Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express. 12, 3532-3542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Piyawattanmetha, L. Fan, S. Hsu, M. Fujino, M. C. Wu, P. R. Herz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Two-dimensional endoscopic MEMS scanner for high resolution optical coherence tomography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CWS2.

Ali, M. R.

Barton, J. K.

K. W. Gossage, C. M. Smith, E. M. Kanter, L. P. Hariri, A. L. Stone, J. J. Rodriguez, S. K. Williams, and J. K. Barton, “Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1563-1575 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, T. L.

Bizheva, K.

K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, M. Kempe, B. Zimmermann, H. Reitsamer, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Imaging brain morphology with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 187-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, R. F.

Boppart, S. A.

C. Xi, D. Marks, S. Schlachter, W. Luo, and S. A. Boppart, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of biofilm development using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82, 128-133 (1999).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Biopsy in Human Urologic Tissue Using Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Urol. 157, 1915-1919 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Forward-imaging instruments for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1618-1620 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Rapid acquisition of in vivo biological images by use of optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1408-1410 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M. E.

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82, 128-133 (1999).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: high-resolution imaging in nontransparent tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 1185-1192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Forward-imaging instruments for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1618-1620 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Biopsy in Human Urologic Tissue Using Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Urol. 157, 1915-1919 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S.

C. Flueraru, H. Kumazaki, S. Sherif, S. Chang, and Y. Mao, “Quadrature Mach-Zehnder interferometer with application in optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A 9, L5-L8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

Y. Yang, Z. Ding, J. Meng, L. Wu, Z. He, T. Wu, and M. Chen, “Common path endoscopic optical coherence tomography with outside path length compensation,” Proc. SPIE 6826, 68261S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, R. S. Tucker, X. Yi, W. Shieh, and J. S. Evans, “Uncorrelated beat noise measurement for optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring,” Opt. Commun. 4, 971-972 (2005).

Chen, Y.

P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, “Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express. 12, 3532-3542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Piyawattanmetha, L. Fan, S. Hsu, M. Fujino, M. C. Wu, P. R. Herz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Two-dimensional endoscopic MEMS scanner for high resolution optical coherence tomography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CWS2.

Cheng, Y.

Y. Cheng and K. V. Larin, “In vivo two- and three-dimensional imaging of artificial and real fingerprints with optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1634-1636 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chudoba, C.

Chung-chai, C.

C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 340-344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Z.

Y. Yang, Z. Ding, J. Meng, L. Wu, Z. He, T. Wu, and M. Chen, “Common path endoscopic optical coherence tomography with outside path length compensation,” Proc. SPIE 6826, 68261S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

B. Hofer, B. Povazay, and B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, F. Hlawatsch, and W. Drexler, “Signal post processing in frequency domain OCT and OCM using a filter bank approach,” Proc. SPIE 6443, 64430O (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, M. Kempe, B. Zimmermann, H. Reitsamer, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Imaging brain morphology with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 187-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography--principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J. S.

W. Chen, R. S. Tucker, X. Yi, W. Shieh, and J. S. Evans, “Uncorrelated beat noise measurement for optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring,” Opt. Commun. 4, 971-972 (2005).

Fan, L.

W. Piyawattanmetha, L. Fan, S. Hsu, M. Fujino, M. C. Wu, P. R. Herz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Two-dimensional endoscopic MEMS scanner for high resolution optical coherence tomography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CWS2.

Feldchtein, F. I.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikon, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, and N. D. Gladkova, “In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa,” Opt. Express. 1, 432-440 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography--principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, M. Kempe, B. Zimmermann, H. Reitsamer, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Imaging brain morphology with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 187-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, A.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flueraru, C.

C. Flueraru, H. Kumazaki, S. Sherif, S. Chang, and Y. Mao, “Quadrature Mach-Zehnder interferometer with application in optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A 9, L5-L8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, S.

Fried, N. M.

U. Sharma, N. M. Fried, and J. U. Kang, “All-fiber Fizeau optical coherence tomography: sensitivity optimization and system analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11799-805(2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. M. Stein, H. Ishikawa, R. Hariprasad, G. Wollstein, R. J. Noecker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “A new quality assessment parameter for optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90, 186-190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, “Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express. 12, 3532-3542 (2004).
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I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and P. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 608-610 (2001).
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M. E. Brezinski and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: high-resolution imaging in nontransparent tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 1185-1192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82, 128-133 (1999).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811-1813 (1997).
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G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Biopsy in Human Urologic Tissue Using Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Urol. 157, 1915-1919 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Forward-imaging instruments for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1618-1620 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Rapid acquisition of in vivo biological images by use of optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1408-1410 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Piyawattanmetha, L. Fan, S. Hsu, M. Fujino, M. C. Wu, P. R. Herz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Two-dimensional endoscopic MEMS scanner for high resolution optical coherence tomography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CWS2.

Fujino, M.

W. Piyawattanmetha, L. Fan, S. Hsu, M. Fujino, M. C. Wu, P. R. Herz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Two-dimensional endoscopic MEMS scanner for high resolution optical coherence tomography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CWS2.

Gelikon, G. V.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikon, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, and N. D. Gladkova, “In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa,” Opt. Express. 1, 432-440 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, V. M.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikon, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, and N. D. Gladkova, “In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa,” Opt. Express. 1, 432-440 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghanta, R. K.

Gladkova, N. D.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikon, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, and N. D. Gladkova, “In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa,” Opt. Express. 1, 432-440 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golubovic, B.

Goodnow, J.

P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, “Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express. 12, 3532-3542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossage, K. W.

K. W. Gossage, C. M. Smith, E. M. Kanter, L. P. Hariri, A. L. Stone, J. J. Rodriguez, S. K. Williams, and J. K. Barton, “Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1563-1575 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haberle, B. R.

Hariprasad, R.

D. M. Stein, H. Ishikawa, R. Hariprasad, G. Wollstein, R. J. Noecker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “A new quality assessment parameter for optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90, 186-190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hariri, L. P.

K. W. Gossage, C. M. Smith, E. M. Kanter, L. P. Hariri, A. L. Stone, J. J. Rodriguez, S. K. Williams, and J. K. Barton, “Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1563-1575 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Haskell, R.

Haskell, R. C.

He, Z.

Y. Yang, Z. Ding, J. Meng, L. Wu, Z. He, T. Wu, and M. Chen, “Common path endoscopic optical coherence tomography with outside path length compensation,” Proc. SPIE 6826, 68261S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

B. Hofer, B. Povazay, and B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, F. Hlawatsch, and W. Drexler, “Signal post processing in frequency domain OCT and OCM using a filter bank approach,” Proc. SPIE 6443, 64430O (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, M. Kempe, B. Zimmermann, H. Reitsamer, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Imaging brain morphology with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 187-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herz, P. R.

P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, “Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express. 12, 3532-3542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Piyawattanmetha, L. Fan, S. Hsu, M. Fujino, M. C. Wu, P. R. Herz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Two-dimensional endoscopic MEMS scanner for high resolution optical coherence tomography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CWS2.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography--principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hlawatsch, F.

B. Hofer, B. Povazay, and B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, F. Hlawatsch, and W. Drexler, “Signal post processing in frequency domain OCT and OCM using a filter bank approach,” Proc. SPIE 6443, 64430O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoeling, B.

Hoeling, B. M.

Hofer, B.

B. Hofer, B. Povazay, and B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, F. Hlawatsch, and W. Drexler, “Signal post processing in frequency domain OCT and OCM using a filter bank approach,” Proc. SPIE 6443, 64430O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, M. Kempe, B. Zimmermann, H. Reitsamer, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Imaging brain morphology with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 187-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Horrigan, F. A.

Hsu, S.

W. Piyawattanmetha, L. Fan, S. Hsu, M. Fujino, M. C. Wu, P. R. Herz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Two-dimensional endoscopic MEMS scanner for high resolution optical coherence tomography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CWS2.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, E.

Ishikawa, H.

D. M. Stein, H. Ishikawa, R. Hariprasad, G. Wollstein, R. J. Noecker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “A new quality assessment parameter for optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90, 186-190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Kam, Z.

Z. Kam, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional microscopy in thick biological samples: a fresh approach for adjusting focus and correcting spherical aberration,” Bioimaging 5, 40-49 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

Kang, J. U.

U. Sharma and J. U. Kang, “Common-path optical coherence tomography with side-viewing bare fiber probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113102(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sharma, N. M. Fried, and J. U. Kang, “All-fiber Fizeau optical coherence tomography: sensitivity optimization and system analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11799-805(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang and A. Rodriguez, “Fourier domain common-path fiber oct with tunable reference: analysis and optimization,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD)(Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JTuA55.

J. U. Kang and U. Sharma, “Measurement of applied force on cornea based on common-path optical coherence tomography with external contact reference,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuG3.

Kannari, F.

Y. Teramura, M. Suekuni, and F. Kannari, “Two-dimensional optical coherence tomography using spectral domain interferometry,” J. Opt. A 2, 21-26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kanter, E. M.

K. W. Gossage, C. M. Smith, E. M. Kanter, L. P. Hariri, A. L. Stone, J. J. Rodriguez, S. K. Williams, and J. K. Barton, “Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1563-1575 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kempe, M.

K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, M. Kempe, B. Zimmermann, H. Reitsamer, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Imaging brain morphology with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 187-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knuttel, A.

Ko, T. H.

Koski, A.

P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, “Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express. 12, 3532-3542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumazaki, H.

C. Flueraru, H. Kumazaki, S. Sherif, S. Chang, and Y. Mao, “Quadrature Mach-Zehnder interferometer with application in optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A 9, L5-L8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuranov, R. V.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikon, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, and N. D. Gladkova, “In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa,” Opt. Express. 1, 432-440 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwong, Y. Y.

C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 340-344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lam, D. S.

C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 340-344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Larin, K. V.

Y. Cheng and K. V. Larin, “In vivo two- and three-dimensional imaging of artificial and real fingerprints with optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1634-1636 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lasser, T.

R. A. Leitgeb, R. Michaely, T. Lasser, and S. C. Sekhar, “Complex ambiguity-free Fourier domain optical coherence tomography through transverse scanning,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3453-3455 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography--principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leung, C. K.

C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 340-344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leung, D. Y.

C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 340-344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, F. C.

C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 340-344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Li, X. D.

Liao, D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, W.

C. Xi, D. Marks, S. Schlachter, W. Luo, and S. A. Boppart, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of biofilm development using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, D. J.

Mao, Y.

C. Flueraru, H. Kumazaki, S. Sherif, S. Chang, and Y. Mao, “Quadrature Mach-Zehnder interferometer with application in optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A 9, L5-L8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marks, D.

C. Xi, D. Marks, S. Schlachter, W. Luo, and S. A. Boppart, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of biofilm development using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mashimo, H.

P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, “Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express. 12, 3532-3542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matz, G.

B. Hofer, B. Povazay, and B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, F. Hlawatsch, and W. Drexler, “Signal post processing in frequency domain OCT and OCM using a filter bank approach,” Proc. SPIE 6443, 64430O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mei, M.

K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, M. Kempe, B. Zimmermann, H. Reitsamer, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Imaging brain morphology with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 187-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meng, J.

Y. Yang, Z. Ding, J. Meng, L. Wu, Z. He, T. Wu, and M. Chen, “Common path endoscopic optical coherence tomography with outside path length compensation,” Proc. SPIE 6826, 68261S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Michaely, R.

Mohamed, S.

C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 340-344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Myaing, M. T.

Myers, W.

Noecker, R. J.

D. M. Stein, H. Ishikawa, R. Hariprasad, G. Wollstein, R. J. Noecker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “A new quality assessment parameter for optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90, 186-190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petersen, C.

P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, “Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express. 12, 3532-3542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petersen, D.

Petersen, D. C.

Peterson, K. A.

Pitris, C.

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82, 128-133 (1999).
[PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Forward-imaging instruments for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1618-1620 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pivonka, A. E.

Piyawattanmetha, W.

W. Piyawattanmetha, L. Fan, S. Hsu, M. Fujino, M. C. Wu, P. R. Herz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Two-dimensional endoscopic MEMS scanner for high resolution optical coherence tomography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CWS2.

Povazay, B.

B. Hofer, B. Povazay, and B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, F. Hlawatsch, and W. Drexler, “Signal post processing in frequency domain OCT and OCM using a filter bank approach,” Proc. SPIE 6443, 64430O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Považay, B.

K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, M. Kempe, B. Zimmermann, H. Reitsamer, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Imaging brain morphology with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 187-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

Reitsamer, H.

K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, M. Kempe, B. Zimmermann, H. Reitsamer, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Imaging brain morphology with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 187-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, A.

J. U. Kang and A. Rodriguez, “Fourier domain common-path fiber oct with tunable reference: analysis and optimization,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD)(Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JTuA55.

Rodriguez, J. J.

K. W. Gossage, C. M. Smith, E. M. Kanter, L. P. Hariri, A. L. Stone, J. J. Rodriguez, S. K. Williams, and J. K. Barton, “Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1563-1575 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Sarker, B. C.

Sattmann, H.

K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, M. Kempe, B. Zimmermann, H. Reitsamer, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Imaging brain morphology with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 187-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schlachter, S.

C. Xi, D. Marks, S. Schlachter, W. Luo, and S. A. Boppart, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of biofilm development using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J.

P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, “Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express. 12, 3532-3542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

Schuman, J. S.

D. M. Stein, H. Ishikawa, R. Hariprasad, G. Wollstein, R. J. Noecker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “A new quality assessment parameter for optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90, 186-190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sedat, J. W.

Z. Kam, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional microscopy in thick biological samples: a fresh approach for adjusting focus and correcting spherical aberration,” Bioimaging 5, 40-49 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sekhar, S. C.

Sergeev, A. M.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikon, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, and N. D. Gladkova, “In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa,” Opt. Express. 1, 432-440 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, U.

U. Sharma and J. U. Kang, “Common-path optical coherence tomography with side-viewing bare fiber probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113102(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sharma, N. M. Fried, and J. U. Kang, “All-fiber Fizeau optical coherence tomography: sensitivity optimization and system analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11799-805(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang and U. Sharma, “Measurement of applied force on cornea based on common-path optical coherence tomography with external contact reference,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuG3.

Sherif, S.

C. Flueraru, H. Kumazaki, S. Sherif, S. Chang, and Y. Mao, “Quadrature Mach-Zehnder interferometer with application in optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A 9, L5-L8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, W.

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K. W. Gossage, C. M. Smith, E. M. Kanter, L. P. Hariri, A. L. Stone, J. J. Rodriguez, S. K. Williams, and J. K. Barton, “Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1563-1575 (2006).
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Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Biopsy in Human Urologic Tissue Using Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Urol. 157, 1915-1919 (1997).
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D. M. Stein, H. Ishikawa, R. Hariprasad, G. Wollstein, R. J. Noecker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “A new quality assessment parameter for optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90, 186-190 (2006).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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K. W. Gossage, C. M. Smith, E. M. Kanter, L. P. Hariri, A. L. Stone, J. J. Rodriguez, S. K. Williams, and J. K. Barton, “Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1563-1575 (2006).
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G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Rapid acquisition of in vivo biological images by use of optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1408-1410 (1996).
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W. Chen, R. S. Tucker, X. Yi, W. Shieh, and J. S. Evans, “Uncorrelated beat noise measurement for optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring,” Opt. Commun. 4, 971-972 (2005).

Ungersma, S.

Unterhuber, A.

B. Hofer, B. Povazay, and B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, F. Hlawatsch, and W. Drexler, “Signal post processing in frequency domain OCT and OCM using a filter bank approach,” Proc. SPIE 6443, 64430O (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Wang, R.

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K. W. Gossage, C. M. Smith, E. M. Kanter, L. P. Hariri, A. L. Stone, J. J. Rodriguez, S. K. Williams, and J. K. Barton, “Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1563-1575 (2006).
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Wollstein, G.

D. M. Stein, H. Ishikawa, R. Hariprasad, G. Wollstein, R. J. Noecker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “A new quality assessment parameter for optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90, 186-190 (2006).
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W. Piyawattanmetha, L. Fan, S. Hsu, M. Fujino, M. C. Wu, P. R. Herz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Two-dimensional endoscopic MEMS scanner for high resolution optical coherence tomography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CWS2.

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Y. Yang, Z. Ding, J. Meng, L. Wu, Z. He, T. Wu, and M. Chen, “Common path endoscopic optical coherence tomography with outside path length compensation,” Proc. SPIE 6826, 68261S (2007).
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W. Chen, R. S. Tucker, X. Yi, W. Shieh, and J. S. Evans, “Uncorrelated beat noise measurement for optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring,” Opt. Commun. 4, 971-972 (2005).

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C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 340-344 (2007).
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K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, M. Kempe, B. Zimmermann, H. Reitsamer, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Imaging brain morphology with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 187-191 (2003).
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Br. J. Ophthalmol.

D. M. Stein, H. Ishikawa, R. Hariprasad, G. Wollstein, R. J. Noecker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “A new quality assessment parameter for optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90, 186-190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Leung, D. W. Yick, Y. Y. Kwong, F. C. Li, D. Y. Leung, S. Mohamed, C. C. Tham, C. Chung-chai, and D. S. Lam, “Analysis of bleb morphology after trabeculectomy with Visante anterior segment optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 340-344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heart

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, “High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Heart 82, 128-133 (1999).
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M. E. Brezinski and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: high-resolution imaging in nontransparent tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 1185-1192 (1999).
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Y. Cheng and K. V. Larin, “In vivo two- and three-dimensional imaging of artificial and real fingerprints with optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1634-1636 (2007).
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C. Xi, D. Marks, S. Schlachter, W. Luo, and S. A. Boppart, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of biofilm development using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

Y. Teramura, M. Suekuni, and F. Kannari, “Two-dimensional optical coherence tomography using spectral domain interferometry,” J. Opt. A 2, 21-26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Flueraru, H. Kumazaki, S. Sherif, S. Chang, and Y. Mao, “Quadrature Mach-Zehnder interferometer with application in optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A 9, L5-L8 (2007).
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G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Biopsy in Human Urologic Tissue Using Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Urol. 157, 1915-1919 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

W. Chen, R. S. Tucker, X. Yi, W. Shieh, and J. S. Evans, “Uncorrelated beat noise measurement for optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring,” Opt. Commun. 4, 971-972 (2005).

Opt. Express

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A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikon, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, and N. D. Gladkova, “In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa,” Opt. Express. 1, 432-440 (1997).
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K. W. Gossage, C. M. Smith, E. M. Kanter, L. P. Hariri, A. L. Stone, J. J. Rodriguez, S. K. Williams, and J. K. Barton, “Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 1563-1575 (2006).
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Proc. SPIE

B. Hofer, B. Povazay, and B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, G. Matz, F. Hlawatsch, and W. Drexler, “Signal post processing in frequency domain OCT and OCM using a filter bank approach,” Proc. SPIE 6443, 64430O (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, M. Kempe, B. Zimmermann, H. Reitsamer, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, “Imaging brain morphology with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5140, 187-191 (2003).
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W. Piyawattanmetha, L. Fan, S. Hsu, M. Fujino, M. C. Wu, P. R. Herz, A. D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Two-dimensional endoscopic MEMS scanner for high resolution optical coherence tomography,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CWS2.

J. U. Kang and U. Sharma, “Measurement of applied force on cornea based on common-path optical coherence tomography with external contact reference,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuG3.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of common-path interferometer-based OCT.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic view of the designed probe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Envelope-detected signal from the interferometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SLED spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SNR results: (a) depending on laser output power, P 0 ( β r = 3.233 × 10 4 and β s = 2.578 × 10 6 ); (b) depending on effective reference reflectivity, β r .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sample biological images for optimized sensitivity: (a) rat brain with tumor; (b) frog retina.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Descriptions of Parameters

Equations (25)

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E tot ( t ) = E r ( t ) + E s ( t + τ s ) .
I ac ( τ ) = | G ( τ ) | ρ P r 1 P r 2 cos [ 2 π υ 0 τ ] + | G ( τ + τ s ) | ρ P r 2 P s 1 cos [ 2 π υ 0 ( τ + τ s ) ] + | G ( τ τ s ) | ρ P r 1 P r 2 cos [ 2 π υ 0 ( τ τ s ) ] .
I ac ( τ ) = | G ( τ τ s ) | ρ P r 1 P r 2 cos [ 2 π υ 0 ( τ τ s ) ] .
I dc = ρ ( P r + P s ) / 2 ,
G ( τ ) = exp [ ( π Δ υ τ 2 ln 2 ) 2 ] exp ( j 2 π υ 0 τ ) .
SNR = I ac 2 ( τ ) / σ i 2 .
I ac 2 ( τ ) = ρ 2 P r P r / 8.
σ th 2 = 4 k B T B / R L ,
σ sh 2 = 2 e I dc B ,
σ ex 2 = ( 1 + V 2 ) I dc 2 B / Δ υ ,
Δ I be 2 = 2 ( 1 + V 2 ) I 1 I 2 / Δ υ .
I 1 = I 2 = ρ ( P r + P s ) / 2.
σ be 2 = 2 ( 1 + V 2 ) I dc 2 B / Δ υ .
σ i 2 = σ th 2 + σ sh 2 + σ ex 2 + σ be 2 .
SNR be = ρ 2 P r P s / 8 4 k B T B / R L + 2 e I dc B + 3 ( 1 + V 2 ) I dc 2 B / Δ υ .
e 1 ( t ) = 1 2 M + 1 k l = M M ( 2 p k ) 1 / 2 cos [ ( ω 0 + 2 π l δ υ ) ( t + τ k ) + ϕ l ] ,
e 2 ( t ) = 1 2 M + 1 k l = M M ( 2 p k ) 1 / 2 cos [ ( ω 0 + 2 π l δ υ ) ( t + τ k + τ ) + ϕ l ] .
i = ρ ( e 1 + e 2 ) 2 .
i ( t ) i ( t + δ t ) = ρ 2 Δ υ ( 2 M ) 2 ( 2 M + 1 ) 2 ( k p k ) 2 { sinc 2 ( π Δ υ δ t ) + sinc 2 [ π Δ υ ( δ t + τ ) ] } .
i 2 ρ 2 Δ υ ( k p k ) 2 [ 1 + sinc 2 ( π Δ υ τ ) ] .
σ be 2 = B Δ υ ρ 2 ( k p k ) 2 [ 1 + sinc 2 ( π Δ υ τ ) ] .
σ be 2 = B Δ υ ρ 2 ( P r + P s ) 2 .
l c = 2 ln 2 π λ 0 2 Δ λ .
P r = P 0 β r ,
P s = P 0 β s .

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