Abstract

The surface-leaving radiance model developed in Part I [Appl. Opt. 47, 3701 (2008)] is validated against an exhaustive set of Fourier transform spectrometer field observations acquired at sea. Unlike prior limited studies, these data include varying all-sky atmospheric conditions (clear, cloudy, and dusty), with regional samples from the tropics, mid-latitudes, and high latitudes. Our analyses show the model to have reduced bias over standard models at emission angles 45°.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

2006 (5)

C. Bourlier, “Unpolarized emissivity with shadow and multiple reflections from random rough surfaces with the geometric optics approximation: application to Gaussian sea surfaces in the infrared band,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6241-6254 (2006).
[PubMed]

K. Masuda, “Infrared sea surface emissivity including multiple reflection effect for isotropic Gaussian slope distribution model,” Remote Sens. Environ. 103, 488-496 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Nalli, P. Clemente-Colón, P. J. Minnett, M. Szczodrak, V. Morris, E. Joseph, M. D. Goldberg, C. Barnet, W. W. Wolf, A. Jessup, R. Branch, R. O. Knuteson, and W. F. Feltz, “Ship-based measurements for infrared sensor validation during Aerosol and Ocean Science Expedition 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S04 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Morris, P. Clemente-Colón, N. R. Nalli, E. Joseph, R. A. Armstrong, Y. Detrés, M. D. Goldberg, P. J. Minnett, and R. Lumpkin, “Measuring trans-Atlantic aerosol transport from Africa,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 565-571(2006).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Rutledge, G. L. Schuster, T. P. Charlock, F. M. Denn, W. L. Smith, Jr., B. E. Fabbri, J. J. Madigan, Jr., and R. J. Knapp, “Offshore radiation observations for climate research at the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment: a new 'laboratory' for retrieval algorithm testing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 87, 1211-1222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

C. Bourlier, “Unpolarized infrared emissivity with shadow from anisotropic rough sea surfaces with non-Gaussian statistics,” App. Opt. 44, 4335-4349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Hanafin and P. J. Minnett, “Measurements of the infrared emissivity of a wind-roughened sea surface,” Appl. Opt. 44, 398-411 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Newman, J. A. Smith, M. D. Glew, S. M. Rogers, and J. P. Taylor, “Temperature and salinity dependence of sea surface emissivity in the thermal infrared,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131, 2539-2557 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Ignatov, J. Sapper, I. Laszlo, N. R. Nalli, and K. B. Kidwell, “Operational aerosol observations (AEROBS) from AVHRR/3 onboard NOAA-KLM satellites,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 21, 3-26 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

C. C. Borel, “ARTEMISS-an algorithm to retrieve temperature and emissivity from hyper-spectral thermal image data,” unclassified report LA-UR-027907 (Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2003), presented at 28th Annual GOMACTech Conference, 31 March 31 2003 to 3 April 2003, Hyperspectral Imaging Session.

W. W. McMillan, R. Hoff, L. Strow, J. Comer, K. Lightner, E. Maddy, K. McCann, M. McCourt, and K. Rutledge, “ABOVE: The BBAERI AIRS Ocean Validation Experiment,” in Optical Remote Sensing, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper OTuA2, pp. 46-48.

B. G. Henderson, J. Theiler, and P. Villeneuve, “The polarized emissivity of a wind-roughened sea surface: a Monte Carlo model,” Remote Sens. Environ. 88, 453-467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. Ebuchi and S. Kizu, “Probability distribution of surface wave slope derived using sun glitter images from geostationary meteorological satellite and surface vector winds from scatterometers,” J. Oceanography 58, 477-486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

N. R. Nalli, W. L. Smith, and B. Huang, “Quasi-specular model for calculating the reflection of atmospheric emitted infrared radiation from a rough water surface,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1343-1353 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, and O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI): a high-accuracy, sea-going infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 18, 994-1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

C. J. Merchant, A. R. Harris, M. J. Murray, and A. M. Závody, “Toward the elimination of bias in satellite retrievals of sea surface temperature, 1, Theory, modeling and interalgorithm comparison,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 23565-23578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

X. Wu and W. L. Smith, “Emissivity of rough sea surface for 8-13 ?m: modeling and validation,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1-11 (1997).

D. E. Freund, R. I. Joseph, D. J. Donohue, and K. T. Constantikes, “Numerical computations of rough sea surface emissivity using the interaction probability density,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1836-1849 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Post, C. W. Fairall, J. B. Snider, Y. Han, A. B. White, W. L. Ecklund, K. M. Weickmann, P. K. Quinn, D. I. Cooper, S. M. Sekelsky, R. E. McIntosh, P. Minnett, and R. O. Knuteson, “The Combined Sensor Program: an air-sea science mission in the central and western Pacific Ocean,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78 (12), 2797-2815 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

J. E. Bertie and Z. Lan, “Infrared intensities of liquids. XX. The intensity of the OH stretching band of liquid water revisited and the best current values of the optical constants of H2O (l) at 25C between 15,000 and 1 cm?1,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 1047-1057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, and W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41-51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Watts, M. Allen, and T. Nightingale, “Sea surface emission and reflection for radiometric measurements made with the along-track scanning radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 13, 126-141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, and J. L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15761-15785 (1992).

1989 (1)

1988 (2)

1981 (1)

D. J. Segelstein, “The complex refractive index of water,” Master's thesis (University of Missouri-Kansas City, 1981).

1975 (1)

H. D. Downing and D. Williams, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656-1661 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1969 (1)

1966 (1)

L. Pontier and C. Dechambenoy, “Determination des constantes optiques de leau liquide entre 1 et 40 microns. Application au calcul de son pouvoir reflecteur et de son emissivite,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 633-641 (1966).

1955 (1)

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Some problems in optical oceanography,” J. Mar. Res. 14, 63-78 (1955).

1954 (1)

McMillan, W. W.

W. W. McMillan, R. Hoff, L. Strow, J. Comer, K. Lightner, E. Maddy, K. McCann, M. McCourt, and K. Rutledge, “ABOVE: The BBAERI AIRS Ocean Validation Experiment,” in Optical Remote Sensing, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper OTuA2, pp. 46-48.

Abraham, E.

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

Allen, M.

P. Watts, M. Allen, and T. Nightingale, “Sea surface emission and reflection for radiometric measurements made with the along-track scanning radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 13, 126-141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Archer, S. D.

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

Arimoto, R.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, R. A.

V. Morris, P. Clemente-Colón, N. R. Nalli, E. Joseph, R. A. Armstrong, Y. Detrés, M. D. Goldberg, P. J. Minnett, and R. Lumpkin, “Measuring trans-Atlantic aerosol transport from Africa,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 565-571(2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnet, C.

N. R. Nalli, P. Clemente-Colón, P. J. Minnett, M. Szczodrak, V. Morris, E. Joseph, M. D. Goldberg, C. Barnet, W. W. Wolf, A. Jessup, R. Branch, R. O. Knuteson, and W. F. Feltz, “Ship-based measurements for infrared sensor validation during Aerosol and Ocean Science Expedition 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S04 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bates, T. S.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bertie, J. E.

Best, F. A.

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, and O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI): a high-accuracy, sea-going infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 18, 994-1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Borel, C. C.

C. C. Borel, “ARTEMISS-an algorithm to retrieve temperature and emissivity from hyper-spectral thermal image data,” unclassified report LA-UR-027907 (Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2003), presented at 28th Annual GOMACTech Conference, 31 March 31 2003 to 3 April 2003, Hyperspectral Imaging Session.

Bourlier, C.

Branch, R.

N. R. Nalli, P. Clemente-Colón, P. J. Minnett, M. Szczodrak, V. Morris, E. Joseph, M. D. Goldberg, C. Barnet, W. W. Wolf, A. Jessup, R. Branch, R. O. Knuteson, and W. F. Feltz, “Ship-based measurements for infrared sensor validation during Aerosol and Ocean Science Expedition 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S04 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brechtel, F. J.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, and W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41-51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, and W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41-51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, and O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI): a high-accuracy, sea-going infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 18, 994-1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Buijs, H.

Cahill, T. A.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Caillault, K.

Cainey, J.

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

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J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
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J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
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N. R. Nalli, P. Clemente-Colón, P. J. Minnett, M. Szczodrak, V. Morris, E. Joseph, M. D. Goldberg, C. Barnet, W. W. Wolf, A. Jessup, R. Branch, R. O. Knuteson, and W. F. Feltz, “Ship-based measurements for infrared sensor validation during Aerosol and Ocean Science Expedition 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S04 (2006).
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V. Morris, P. Clemente-Colón, N. R. Nalli, E. Joseph, R. A. Armstrong, Y. Detrés, M. D. Goldberg, P. J. Minnett, and R. Lumpkin, “Measuring trans-Atlantic aerosol transport from Africa,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 565-571(2006).
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S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, and J. L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15761-15785 (1992).

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W. W. McMillan, R. Hoff, L. Strow, J. Comer, K. Lightner, E. Maddy, K. McCann, M. McCourt, and K. Rutledge, “ABOVE: The BBAERI AIRS Ocean Validation Experiment,” in Optical Remote Sensing, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper OTuA2, pp. 46-48.

Conant, W. C.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
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C. K. Rutledge, G. L. Schuster, T. P. Charlock, F. M. Denn, W. L. Smith, Jr., B. E. Fabbri, J. J. Madigan, Jr., and R. J. Knapp, “Offshore radiation observations for climate research at the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment: a new 'laboratory' for retrieval algorithm testing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 87, 1211-1222 (2006).
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Detrés, Y.

V. Morris, P. Clemente-Colón, N. R. Nalli, E. Joseph, R. A. Armstrong, Y. Detrés, M. D. Goldberg, P. J. Minnett, and R. Lumpkin, “Measuring trans-Atlantic aerosol transport from Africa,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 565-571(2006).
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J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
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N. Ebuchi and S. Kizu, “Probability distribution of surface wave slope derived using sun glitter images from geostationary meteorological satellite and surface vector winds from scatterometers,” J. Oceanography 58, 477-486 (2002).
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Ecklund, W. L.

M. J. Post, C. W. Fairall, J. B. Snider, Y. Han, A. B. White, W. L. Ecklund, K. M. Weickmann, P. K. Quinn, D. I. Cooper, S. M. Sekelsky, R. E. McIntosh, P. Minnett, and R. O. Knuteson, “The Combined Sensor Program: an air-sea science mission in the central and western Pacific Ocean,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78 (12), 2797-2815 (1997).
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Ellwood, M.

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

Fabbri, B. E.

C. K. Rutledge, G. L. Schuster, T. P. Charlock, F. M. Denn, W. L. Smith, Jr., B. E. Fabbri, J. J. Madigan, Jr., and R. J. Knapp, “Offshore radiation observations for climate research at the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment: a new 'laboratory' for retrieval algorithm testing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 87, 1211-1222 (2006).
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Fairall, C. W.

M. J. Post, C. W. Fairall, J. B. Snider, Y. Han, A. B. White, W. L. Ecklund, K. M. Weickmann, P. K. Quinn, D. I. Cooper, S. M. Sekelsky, R. E. McIntosh, P. Minnett, and R. O. Knuteson, “The Combined Sensor Program: an air-sea science mission in the central and western Pacific Ocean,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78 (12), 2797-2815 (1997).
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Fauqueux, S.

Feltz, W.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, and W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41-51 (1996).
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Feltz, W. F.

N. R. Nalli, P. Clemente-Colón, P. J. Minnett, M. Szczodrak, V. Morris, E. Joseph, M. D. Goldberg, C. Barnet, W. W. Wolf, A. Jessup, R. Branch, R. O. Knuteson, and W. F. Feltz, “Ship-based measurements for infrared sensor validation during Aerosol and Ocean Science Expedition 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S04 (2006).
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Flatau, P. J.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
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Freund, D. E.

Friedman, D.

Glew, M. D.

S. M. Newman, J. A. Smith, M. D. Glew, S. M. Rogers, and J. P. Taylor, “Temperature and salinity dependence of sea surface emissivity in the thermal infrared,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131, 2539-2557 (2005).
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Goldberg, M. D.

N. R. Nalli, P. Clemente-Colón, P. J. Minnett, M. Szczodrak, V. Morris, E. Joseph, M. D. Goldberg, C. Barnet, W. W. Wolf, A. Jessup, R. Branch, R. O. Knuteson, and W. F. Feltz, “Ship-based measurements for infrared sensor validation during Aerosol and Ocean Science Expedition 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S04 (2006).
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V. Morris, P. Clemente-Colón, N. R. Nalli, E. Joseph, R. A. Armstrong, Y. Detrés, M. D. Goldberg, P. J. Minnett, and R. Lumpkin, “Measuring trans-Atlantic aerosol transport from Africa,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 565-571(2006).
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Hadfield, M.

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

Hale, G. M.

Hall, J. A.

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

Han, Y.

M. J. Post, C. W. Fairall, J. B. Snider, Y. Han, A. B. White, W. L. Ecklund, K. M. Weickmann, P. K. Quinn, D. I. Cooper, S. M. Sekelsky, R. E. McIntosh, P. Minnett, and R. O. Knuteson, “The Combined Sensor Program: an air-sea science mission in the central and western Pacific Ocean,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78 (12), 2797-2815 (1997).
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J. A. Hanafin and P. J. Minnett, “Measurements of the infrared emissivity of a wind-roughened sea surface,” Appl. Opt. 44, 398-411 (2005).
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M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

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M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

Ho, D.

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

Hoff, R.

W. W. McMillan, R. Hoff, L. Strow, J. Comer, K. Lightner, E. Maddy, K. McCann, M. McCourt, and K. Rutledge, “ABOVE: The BBAERI AIRS Ocean Validation Experiment,” in Optical Remote Sensing, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper OTuA2, pp. 46-48.

Howell, H. B.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, and W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41-51 (1996).
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H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, and L. A. Stromovsky, “Radiometric calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers: solution to a problem with the high-resolution interferometer sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3210-3218 (1988).
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Huebert, J. K. B. J.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iacono, M. J.

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, and J. L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15761-15785 (1992).

Ichioka, Y.

Ignatov, A.

A. Ignatov, J. Sapper, I. Laszlo, N. R. Nalli, and K. B. Kidwell, “Operational aerosol observations (AEROBS) from AVHRR/3 onboard NOAA-KLM satellites,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 21, 3-26 (2004).
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Itoh, K.

Jessup, A.

N. R. Nalli, P. Clemente-Colón, P. J. Minnett, M. Szczodrak, V. Morris, E. Joseph, M. D. Goldberg, C. Barnet, W. W. Wolf, A. Jessup, R. Branch, R. O. Knuteson, and W. F. Feltz, “Ship-based measurements for infrared sensor validation during Aerosol and Ocean Science Expedition 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S04 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jones, G.

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

Joseph, E.

N. R. Nalli, P. Clemente-Colón, P. J. Minnett, M. Szczodrak, V. Morris, E. Joseph, M. D. Goldberg, C. Barnet, W. W. Wolf, A. Jessup, R. Branch, R. O. Knuteson, and W. F. Feltz, “Ship-based measurements for infrared sensor validation during Aerosol and Ocean Science Expedition 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S04 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Morris, P. Clemente-Colón, N. R. Nalli, E. Joseph, R. A. Armstrong, Y. Detrés, M. D. Goldberg, P. J. Minnett, and R. Lumpkin, “Measuring trans-Atlantic aerosol transport from Africa,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 565-571(2006).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, R. I.

Kidwell, K. B.

A. Ignatov, J. Sapper, I. Laszlo, N. R. Nalli, and K. B. Kidwell, “Operational aerosol observations (AEROBS) from AVHRR/3 onboard NOAA-KLM satellites,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 21, 3-26 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kizu, S.

N. Ebuchi and S. Kizu, “Probability distribution of surface wave slope derived using sun glitter images from geostationary meteorological satellite and surface vector winds from scatterometers,” J. Oceanography 58, 477-486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knapp, R. J.

C. K. Rutledge, G. L. Schuster, T. P. Charlock, F. M. Denn, W. L. Smith, Jr., B. E. Fabbri, J. J. Madigan, Jr., and R. J. Knapp, “Offshore radiation observations for climate research at the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment: a new 'laboratory' for retrieval algorithm testing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 87, 1211-1222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Knuteson, R. O.

N. R. Nalli, P. Clemente-Colón, P. J. Minnett, M. Szczodrak, V. Morris, E. Joseph, M. D. Goldberg, C. Barnet, W. W. Wolf, A. Jessup, R. Branch, R. O. Knuteson, and W. F. Feltz, “Ship-based measurements for infrared sensor validation during Aerosol and Ocean Science Expedition 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S04 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, and O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI): a high-accuracy, sea-going infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 18, 994-1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Post, C. W. Fairall, J. B. Snider, Y. Han, A. B. White, W. L. Ecklund, K. M. Weickmann, P. K. Quinn, D. I. Cooper, S. M. Sekelsky, R. E. McIntosh, P. Minnett, and R. O. Knuteson, “The Combined Sensor Program: an air-sea science mission in the central and western Pacific Ocean,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78 (12), 2797-2815 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, and W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41-51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuparinen, J.

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

Labarre, L.

Lan, Z.

LaPorte, D. D.

Laszlo, I.

A. Ignatov, J. Sapper, I. Laszlo, N. R. Nalli, and K. B. Kidwell, “Operational aerosol observations (AEROBS) from AVHRR/3 onboard NOAA-KLM satellites,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 21, 3-26 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Law, C. S.

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

Lightner, K.

W. W. McMillan, R. Hoff, L. Strow, J. Comer, K. Lightner, E. Maddy, K. McCann, M. McCourt, and K. Rutledge, “ABOVE: The BBAERI AIRS Ocean Validation Experiment,” in Optical Remote Sensing, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper OTuA2, pp. 46-48.

Lumpkin, R.

V. Morris, P. Clemente-Colón, N. R. Nalli, E. Joseph, R. A. Armstrong, Y. Detrés, M. D. Goldberg, P. J. Minnett, and R. Lumpkin, “Measuring trans-Atlantic aerosol transport from Africa,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 565-571(2006).
[CrossRef]

Macaskill, B.

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

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M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

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M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

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W. W. McMillan, R. Hoff, L. Strow, J. Comer, K. Lightner, E. Maddy, K. McCann, M. McCourt, and K. Rutledge, “ABOVE: The BBAERI AIRS Ocean Validation Experiment,” in Optical Remote Sensing, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper OTuA2, pp. 46-48.

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M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

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M. J. Post, C. W. Fairall, J. B. Snider, Y. Han, A. B. White, W. L. Ecklund, K. M. Weickmann, P. K. Quinn, D. I. Cooper, S. M. Sekelsky, R. E. McIntosh, P. Minnett, and R. O. Knuteson, “The Combined Sensor Program: an air-sea science mission in the central and western Pacific Ocean,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78 (12), 2797-2815 (1997).
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W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, and W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41-51 (1996).
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M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

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W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, and W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41-51 (1996).
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M. J. Post, C. W. Fairall, J. B. Snider, Y. Han, A. B. White, W. L. Ecklund, K. M. Weickmann, P. K. Quinn, D. I. Cooper, S. M. Sekelsky, R. E. McIntosh, P. Minnett, and R. O. Knuteson, “The Combined Sensor Program: an air-sea science mission in the central and western Pacific Ocean,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78 (12), 2797-2815 (1997).
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Minnett, P. J.

V. Morris, P. Clemente-Colón, N. R. Nalli, E. Joseph, R. A. Armstrong, Y. Detrés, M. D. Goldberg, P. J. Minnett, and R. Lumpkin, “Measuring trans-Atlantic aerosol transport from Africa,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 565-571(2006).
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N. R. Nalli, P. Clemente-Colón, P. J. Minnett, M. Szczodrak, V. Morris, E. Joseph, M. D. Goldberg, C. Barnet, W. W. Wolf, A. Jessup, R. Branch, R. O. Knuteson, and W. F. Feltz, “Ship-based measurements for infrared sensor validation during Aerosol and Ocean Science Expedition 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S04 (2006).
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N. R. Nalli, P. Clemente-Colón, P. J. Minnett, M. Szczodrak, V. Morris, E. Joseph, M. D. Goldberg, C. Barnet, W. W. Wolf, A. Jessup, R. Branch, R. O. Knuteson, and W. F. Feltz, “Ship-based measurements for infrared sensor validation during Aerosol and Ocean Science Expedition 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S04 (2006).
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Murray, M. J.

C. J. Merchant, A. R. Harris, M. J. Murray, and A. M. Závody, “Toward the elimination of bias in satellite retrievals of sea surface temperature, 1, Theory, modeling and interalgorithm comparison,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 23565-23578 (1999).
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V. Morris, P. Clemente-Colón, N. R. Nalli, E. Joseph, R. A. Armstrong, Y. Detrés, M. D. Goldberg, P. J. Minnett, and R. Lumpkin, “Measuring trans-Atlantic aerosol transport from Africa,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 565-571(2006).
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N. R. Nalli, P. J. Minnett, and P. van Delst, “Emissivity and reflection model for calculating unpolarized isotropic water surface-leaving radiance in the infrared. I: Theoretical development and calculations,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3701-3721 (2008).

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S. M. Newman, J. A. Smith, M. D. Glew, S. M. Rogers, and J. P. Taylor, “Temperature and salinity dependence of sea surface emissivity in the thermal infrared,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131, 2539-2557 (2005).
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Osborne, B. J.

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, and O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI): a high-accuracy, sea-going infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 18, 994-1013 (2001).
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M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

Pickmere, S.

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

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M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

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Quinn, P. K.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
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M. J. Post, C. W. Fairall, J. B. Snider, Y. Han, A. B. White, W. L. Ecklund, K. M. Weickmann, P. K. Quinn, D. I. Cooper, S. M. Sekelsky, R. E. McIntosh, P. Minnett, and R. O. Knuteson, “The Combined Sensor Program: an air-sea science mission in the central and western Pacific Ocean,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78 (12), 2797-2815 (1997).
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W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, and W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41-51 (1996).
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H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, and L. A. Stromovsky, “Radiometric calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers: solution to a problem with the high-resolution interferometer sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3210-3218 (1988).
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Rogers, S. M.

S. M. Newman, J. A. Smith, M. D. Glew, S. M. Rogers, and J. P. Taylor, “Temperature and salinity dependence of sea surface emissivity in the thermal infrared,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131, 2539-2557 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russell, L. M.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
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Russell, P. B.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
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Rutledge, C. K.

C. K. Rutledge, G. L. Schuster, T. P. Charlock, F. M. Denn, W. L. Smith, Jr., B. E. Fabbri, J. J. Madigan, Jr., and R. J. Knapp, “Offshore radiation observations for climate research at the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment: a new 'laboratory' for retrieval algorithm testing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 87, 1211-1222 (2006).
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Rutledge, K.

W. W. McMillan, R. Hoff, L. Strow, J. Comer, K. Lightner, E. Maddy, K. McCann, M. McCourt, and K. Rutledge, “ABOVE: The BBAERI AIRS Ocean Validation Experiment,” in Optical Remote Sensing, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper OTuA2, pp. 46-48.

Safi, K.

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

Sapper, J.

A. Ignatov, J. Sapper, I. Laszlo, N. R. Nalli, and K. B. Kidwell, “Operational aerosol observations (AEROBS) from AVHRR/3 onboard NOAA-KLM satellites,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 21, 3-26 (2004).
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Schuster, G. L.

C. K. Rutledge, G. L. Schuster, T. P. Charlock, F. M. Denn, W. L. Smith, Jr., B. E. Fabbri, J. J. Madigan, Jr., and R. J. Knapp, “Offshore radiation observations for climate research at the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment: a new 'laboratory' for retrieval algorithm testing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 87, 1211-1222 (2006).
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Seinfeld, J. H.

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Sekelsky, S. M.

M. J. Post, C. W. Fairall, J. B. Snider, Y. Han, A. B. White, W. L. Ecklund, K. M. Weickmann, P. K. Quinn, D. I. Cooper, S. M. Sekelsky, R. E. McIntosh, P. Minnett, and R. O. Knuteson, “The Combined Sensor Program: an air-sea science mission in the central and western Pacific Ocean,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78 (12), 2797-2815 (1997).
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Shaw, J. A.

Shimizu, A.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
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Shinozuka, Y.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
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Simoneau, P.

Smith, J. A.

S. M. Newman, J. A. Smith, M. D. Glew, S. M. Rogers, and J. P. Taylor, “Temperature and salinity dependence of sea surface emissivity in the thermal infrared,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131, 2539-2557 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M.

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

Smith, W. L.

C. K. Rutledge, G. L. Schuster, T. P. Charlock, F. M. Denn, W. L. Smith, Jr., B. E. Fabbri, J. J. Madigan, Jr., and R. J. Knapp, “Offshore radiation observations for climate research at the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment: a new 'laboratory' for retrieval algorithm testing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 87, 1211-1222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Nalli, W. L. Smith, and B. Huang, “Quasi-specular model for calculating the reflection of atmospheric emitted infrared radiation from a rough water surface,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1343-1353 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Wu and W. L. Smith, “Emissivity of rough sea surface for 8-13 ?m: modeling and validation,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1-11 (1997).

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, and W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41-51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, and L. A. Stromovsky, “Radiometric calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers: solution to a problem with the high-resolution interferometer sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3210-3218 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snider, J. B.

M. J. Post, C. W. Fairall, J. B. Snider, Y. Han, A. B. White, W. L. Ecklund, K. M. Weickmann, P. K. Quinn, D. I. Cooper, S. M. Sekelsky, R. E. McIntosh, P. Minnett, and R. O. Knuteson, “The Combined Sensor Program: an air-sea science mission in the central and western Pacific Ocean,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78 (12), 2797-2815 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Song, C. H.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, C.

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

Stromovsky, L. A.

Strow, L.

W. W. McMillan, R. Hoff, L. Strow, J. Comer, K. Lightner, E. Maddy, K. McCann, M. McCourt, and K. Rutledge, “ABOVE: The BBAERI AIRS Ocean Validation Experiment,” in Optical Remote Sensing, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper OTuA2, pp. 46-48.

Szczodrak, M.

N. R. Nalli, P. Clemente-Colón, P. J. Minnett, M. Szczodrak, V. Morris, E. Joseph, M. D. Goldberg, C. Barnet, W. W. Wolf, A. Jessup, R. Branch, R. O. Knuteson, and W. F. Feltz, “Ship-based measurements for infrared sensor validation during Aerosol and Ocean Science Expedition 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S04 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takashima, T.

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, and Y. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 24, 313-329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Takayama, Y.

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, and Y. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 24, 313-329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. P.

S. M. Newman, J. A. Smith, M. D. Glew, S. M. Rogers, and J. P. Taylor, “Temperature and salinity dependence of sea surface emissivity in the thermal infrared,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131, 2539-2557 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Theiler, J.

B. G. Henderson, J. Theiler, and P. Villeneuve, “The polarized emissivity of a wind-roughened sea surface: a Monte Carlo model,” Remote Sens. Environ. 88, 453-467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R.

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

Uno, I.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Delst, P.

N. R. Nalli, P. J. Minnett, and P. van Delst, “Emissivity and reflection model for calculating unpolarized isotropic water surface-leaving radiance in the infrared. I: Theoretical development and calculations,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3701-3721 (2008).

Villeneuve, P.

B. G. Henderson, J. Theiler, and P. Villeneuve, “The polarized emissivity of a wind-roughened sea surface: a Monte Carlo model,” Remote Sens. Environ. 88, 453-467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vogelmann, A. M.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walkington, M.

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

Ward, B.

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

Watts, P.

P. Watts, M. Allen, and T. Nightingale, “Sea surface emission and reflection for radiometric measurements made with the along-track scanning radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 13, 126-141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weber, R. J.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weickmann, K. M.

M. J. Post, C. W. Fairall, J. B. Snider, Y. Han, A. B. White, W. L. Ecklund, K. M. Weickmann, P. K. Quinn, D. I. Cooper, S. M. Sekelsky, R. E. McIntosh, P. Minnett, and R. O. Knuteson, “The Combined Sensor Program: an air-sea science mission in the central and western Pacific Ocean,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78 (12), 2797-2815 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weng, S.

White, A. B.

M. J. Post, C. W. Fairall, J. B. Snider, Y. Han, A. B. White, W. L. Ecklund, K. M. Weickmann, P. K. Quinn, D. I. Cooper, S. M. Sekelsky, R. E. McIntosh, P. Minnett, and R. O. Knuteson, “The Combined Sensor Program: an air-sea science mission in the central and western Pacific Ocean,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78 (12), 2797-2815 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wieliczka, D. M.

Williams, D.

H. D. Downing and D. Williams, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656-1661 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, W. W.

N. R. Nalli, P. Clemente-Colón, P. J. Minnett, M. Szczodrak, V. Morris, E. Joseph, M. D. Goldberg, C. Barnet, W. W. Wolf, A. Jessup, R. Branch, R. O. Knuteson, and W. F. Feltz, “Ship-based measurements for infrared sensor validation during Aerosol and Ocean Science Expedition 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S04 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Woo, J.-H.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wright, S.

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

Wu, X.

X. Wu and W. L. Smith, “Emissivity of rough sea surface for 8-13 ?m: modeling and validation,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1-11 (1997).

Yoshimori, K.

Závody, A. M.

C. J. Merchant, A. R. Harris, M. J. Murray, and A. M. Závody, “Toward the elimination of bias in satellite retrievals of sea surface temperature, 1, Theory, modeling and interalgorithm comparison,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 23565-23578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. Y.

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ziolkowski, L.

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

Ann. Geophys. (1)

L. Pontier and C. Dechambenoy, “Determination des constantes optiques de leau liquide entre 1 et 40 microns. Application au calcul de son pouvoir reflecteur et de son emissivite,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 633-641 (1966).

App. Opt. (1)

C. Bourlier, “Unpolarized infrared emissivity with shadow from anisotropic rough sea surfaces with non-Gaussian statistics,” App. Opt. 44, 4335-4349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (11)

C. Bourlier, “Unpolarized emissivity with shadow and multiple reflections from random rough surfaces with the geometric optics approximation: application to Gaussian sea surfaces in the infrared band,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6241-6254 (2006).
[PubMed]

N. R. Nalli, W. L. Smith, and B. Huang, “Quasi-specular model for calculating the reflection of atmospheric emitted infrared radiation from a rough water surface,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1343-1353 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Caillault, S. Fauqueux, C. Bourlier, P. Simoneau, and L. Labarre, “Multiresolution optical characteristics of rough sea surface in the infrared,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5471-5481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, and L. A. Stromovsky, “Radiometric calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers: solution to a problem with the high-resolution interferometer sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3210-3218 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Hanafin and P. J. Minnett, “Measurements of the infrared emissivity of a wind-roughened sea surface,” Appl. Opt. 44, 398-411 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Nalli, P. J. Minnett, and P. van Delst, “Emissivity and reflection model for calculating unpolarized isotropic water surface-leaving radiance in the infrared. I: Theoretical development and calculations,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3701-3721 (2008).

K. Yoshimori, K. Itoh, and Y. Ichioka, “Optical characteristics of a wind-roughened water surface: a two-dimensional theory,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6236-6247 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wu and W. L. Smith, “Emissivity of rough sea surface for 8-13 ?m: modeling and validation,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1-11 (1997).

G. M. Hale and M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200-?m wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555-563 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Wieliczka, S. Weng, and M. R. Querry, “Wedge shaped cell for highly absorbent liquids: infrared optical constants of water,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1714-1719 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Friedman, “Infrared characteristics of ocean water (1.5-15 ?m),” Appl. Opt. 8, 2073-2078 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (4)

C. K. Rutledge, G. L. Schuster, T. P. Charlock, F. M. Denn, W. L. Smith, Jr., B. E. Fabbri, J. J. Madigan, Jr., and R. J. Knapp, “Offshore radiation observations for climate research at the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment: a new 'laboratory' for retrieval algorithm testing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 87, 1211-1222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, and W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41-51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Post, C. W. Fairall, J. B. Snider, Y. Han, A. B. White, W. L. Ecklund, K. M. Weickmann, P. K. Quinn, D. I. Cooper, S. M. Sekelsky, R. E. McIntosh, P. Minnett, and R. O. Knuteson, “The Combined Sensor Program: an air-sea science mission in the central and western Pacific Ocean,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78 (12), 2797-2815 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Seinfeld, G. R. Carmichael, R. Arimoto, W. C. Conant, F. J. Brechtel, T. S. Bates, T. A. Cahill, A. D. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, P. J. Flatau, J. K. B. J. Huebert, K. M. Markowicz, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Russell, P. B. Russell, A. Shimizu, Y. Shinozuka, C. H. Song, Y. Tang, I. Uno, A. M. Vogelmann, R. J. Weber, J.-H. Woo, and X. Y. Zhang, “ACE-ASIA: regional climatic and atmospheric chemical effects of asian dust and pollution,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 367-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union (1)

V. Morris, P. Clemente-Colón, N. R. Nalli, E. Joseph, R. A. Armstrong, Y. Detrés, M. D. Goldberg, P. J. Minnett, and R. Lumpkin, “Measuring trans-Atlantic aerosol transport from Africa,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 565-571(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. (3)

P. Watts, M. Allen, and T. Nightingale, “Sea surface emission and reflection for radiometric measurements made with the along-track scanning radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 13, 126-141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, and O. B. Brown, “The Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI): a high-accuracy, sea-going infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 18, 994-1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ignatov, J. Sapper, I. Laszlo, N. R. Nalli, and K. B. Kidwell, “Operational aerosol observations (AEROBS) from AVHRR/3 onboard NOAA-KLM satellites,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 21, 3-26 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, and J. L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15761-15785 (1992).

N. R. Nalli, P. Clemente-Colón, P. J. Minnett, M. Szczodrak, V. Morris, E. Joseph, M. D. Goldberg, C. Barnet, W. W. Wolf, A. Jessup, R. Branch, R. O. Knuteson, and W. F. Feltz, “Ship-based measurements for infrared sensor validation during Aerosol and Ocean Science Expedition 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S04 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Merchant, A. R. Harris, M. J. Murray, and A. M. Závody, “Toward the elimination of bias in satellite retrievals of sea surface temperature, 1, Theory, modeling and interalgorithm comparison,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 23565-23578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Downing and D. Williams, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656-1661 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res. (1)

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Some problems in optical oceanography,” J. Mar. Res. 14, 63-78 (1955).

J. Oceanography (1)

N. Ebuchi and S. Kizu, “Probability distribution of surface wave slope derived using sun glitter images from geostationary meteorological satellite and surface vector winds from scatterometers,” J. Oceanography 58, 477-486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

S. M. Newman, J. A. Smith, M. D. Glew, S. M. Rogers, and J. P. Taylor, “Temperature and salinity dependence of sea surface emissivity in the thermal infrared,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131, 2539-2557 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (3)

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, and Y. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 24, 313-329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Henderson, J. Theiler, and P. Villeneuve, “The polarized emissivity of a wind-roughened sea surface: a Monte Carlo model,” Remote Sens. Environ. 88, 453-467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Masuda, “Infrared sea surface emissivity including multiple reflection effect for isotropic Gaussian slope distribution model,” Remote Sens. Environ. 103, 488-496 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

D. J. Segelstein, “The complex refractive index of water,” Master's thesis (University of Missouri-Kansas City, 1981).

M. Harvey, C. S. Law, M. Smith, J. A. Hall, E. Abraham, C. Stevens, M. Hadfield, D. Ho, B. Ward, S. D. Archer, J. Cainey, K. Currie, M. Ellwood, P. Hill, G. Jones, J. Kuparinen, B. Macaskill, W. Main, A. Marriner, J. McGregor, C. McNeil, P. J. Minnett, S. Nodder, J. Peloquin, S. Pickmere, M. Pinkerton, K. Safi, R. Thompson, M. Walkington, S. Wright, and L. Ziolkowski, “The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange Experiment (SAGE) 2004,” submitted to Deep-Sea Res. Part II.

W. W. McMillan, R. Hoff, L. Strow, J. Comer, K. Lightner, E. Maddy, K. McCann, M. McCourt, and K. Rutledge, “ABOVE: The BBAERI AIRS Ocean Validation Experiment,” in Optical Remote Sensing, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper OTuA2, pp. 46-48.

C. C. Borel, “ARTEMISS-an algorithm to retrieve temperature and emissivity from hyper-spectral thermal image data,” unclassified report LA-UR-027907 (Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2003), presented at 28th Annual GOMACTech Conference, 31 March 31 2003 to 3 April 2003, Hyperspectral Imaging Session.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of modeled sea surface Fresnel emissivities [16] (for the different published N ν as denoted by dashed lines) with the observed emissivities published in Hanafin and Minnett [5] (with × ± 1 σ ), plotted as functions of surface wind speed for IR wavelengths 11 and 9 μm (see Fig. 15 [5]). Model results in the top plots are based on Cox and Munk [34, 35] wave slope PDFs, whereas the bottom plots use Ebuchi and Kizu [36]. The left plots are for θ 0 = 40 ° , the right for 55 ° . “Hale–Querry–Segelstein” denotes the combination [9] of ( N ν ) from Hale and Querry [28] and ( N ν ) from Segelstein [30].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

As Fig. 1 except showing the modeled effective emissivity, calculated as ν ( θ 0 , U ¯ 10 , N ν ) 1 ρ [ Θ i e ( θ 0 , U ¯ 10 ) , N ν ] where Θ i e is given in Part I [6], Table 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

M-AERI and BBAERI retrieved skin SSTs as a function of geographic location for the eight field campaigns used in this study. For plot clarity, only 30% of the M-AERI skin SST retrievals are shown (with the exception of CSP, where the M-AERI prototype configuration sampled SST at about 30% the normal rate). Vessel cruise tracks are shown with solid black lines. The location of the BBAERI at the Chesapeake Lighthouse ( 36.9 ° N , 75.7 ° W ) is encompassed by a large circle, with colored bars within the circle showing a statistical summary of the skin SSTs. The 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles for the ABOVE 2002 and 2003 campaign are spread from west to east, and south to north, respectively. Map projection is equal area.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean (solid lines) and interquartile range (IQR; dashed lines) of daily means of SLR calc obs for the LWIR window region, expressed in apparent brightness temperature difference (K), δ T B ¯ ( ν , θ 0 ) , defined by Eq. (2) for emission angle θ 0 = 55 ° , from M-AERI during the 2004 AEROSE-I field campaign. The total number of days and M-AERI spectra used in the analysis, along with the mean wind speed and skin SST, are given in Table 2. The gray difference spectra are the result of calculations using a conventional approach outlined in Part I [6], namely, Eq. (3) (with emissivity computed from Eq. (14), after Masuda [16]), whereas the black difference spectra result from using the effective emissivity approach developed in Part I (i.e., Eqs. (7) and (8) [6]). The different panels show the results of using different sets of published optical constants. Shown in the bottom middle plot are results from Part I, Eq. (21), based on the temperature-dependent refractive indices of Newman et al. [37], with M-AERI derived daily mean T ¯ s supplying the skin SST input. All calculations utilize the Ebuchi and Kizu [36] isotropic Gaussian wave slope PDF model, and ship roll and pitch data were used to correct for the mean tilt of the vessel from Eq. (1).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

As in Fig. 4, except for the SWIR window regions during nighttime only. Note that refractive indices from Newman et al. [37] are not available at these wavenumbers. The large residuals located between 2230 and 2390 cm 1 are the result of path attenuation between the observer (M-AERI) and the sea surface in the CO 2 band not accounted for in the models.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

As in Fig. 4, except from the 2006 AMMA/AEROSE-II field campaign.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

As in Fig. 4, except from the 1999 EAT field campaign.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

As in Fig. 4, except from the 2001 ACE-Asia field campaign. Note that a mean tilt correction was not possible owing to the unavailability of ship roll and pitch data.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

As in Fig. 8, except from the 2004 SAGE field campaign.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

As in Fig. 8, except from the 2003 CASES field campaign.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

As in Fig. 4, except for emission angle θ 0 = 45 ° during the 1996 CSP field campaign. Ship roll and pitch data were used to correct for the mean tilt of the vessel from Eq. (1).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

As in Fig. 11, except for emission angle θ 0 = 55 ° .

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

As in Fig. 11, except for emission angle θ 0 = 65 ° .

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

As in Fig. 11, except for the SWIR window regions during nighttime only; note that refractive indices from Newman et al. [37] are not available at these wavenumbers. The large residuals located between 2230 and 2390 cm 1 are the result of path attenuation between the observer (M-AERI) and the sea surface in the CO 2 band not accounted for in the models.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

As in Fig. 12, except for the SWIR window regions during nighttime only.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

As in Fig. 13, except for the SWIR window regions during nighttime only.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

As in Fig. 5, except the measurements were acquired from the BBAERI at emission angle θ 0 = θ 0 = 45 ° from the COVE site ( h = 23 m ) during ABOVE 2002. The IQR of daily means are shown as dotted lines (rather than dashed) to reduce clutter about the mean results.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

As in Fig. 17, except during ABOVE 2003. Note that the IQR in the CO 2 absorption band ( 1.1 K ) is nearly symmetrical about zero, the lower quartile resulting from cases with surface layer temperature inversions passing QA.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Summary of Field Campaign Samples a

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Table 2 Campaign Mean calc obs for LWIR Microwindows (980–996, 1123 1132 cm 1 ) a

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Table 3 Campaign Mean calc obs for the SWIR Narrowband Window ( 2400 2700 cm 1 ) a

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Table 4 Statistical Summary Grouped by θ 0 and Spectral Region a

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Table 5 Statistical Summary: 95% Confidence Intervals a

Equations (3)

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θ 0 = arccos [ cos ( θ 0 θ x ) cos ( θ y ) ] ,
δ T B ¯ ( ν , θ 0 ) = B ν 1 [ R ¯ ν calc ( θ 0 ) ] B ν 1 [ R ¯ ν obs ( θ 0 ) ] ,
R ¯ ν calc ( θ 0 ) = ϵ ( θ 0 ¯ , U ¯ 10 , N ν ) B ν ( T ¯ s ) + [ 1 ϵ ( θ 0 ¯ , U ¯ 10 , N ν ) ] I ¯ ν a ( θ 0 ) ,

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