Abstract

This work discusses the experimental determination of the optical constants (refractive index) of DC-magnetron-sputtered boron carbide films in the 30770eV photon energy range. Transmittance measurements of three boron carbide films with thicknesses of 54.2, 79.0, and 112.5nm were performed for this purpose. These are believed to be the first published experimental data for the refractive index of boron carbide films in the photon energy range above 160eV and for the near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure regions around the boron K (188eV), carbon K (284.2eV), and oxygen K (543.1eV) absorption edges. The density, composition, surface chemistry, and morphology of the films were also investigated using Rutherford backscattering, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and extreme ultraviolet reflectance measurements.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. M. Blumenstock and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Ion-beam-deposited boron carbide coatings for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5962-5963 (1994).
  2. G. M. Blumenstock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, and M. L. Ginter, “Extreme ultraviolet optical properties of ion-beam-deposited boron carbide thin films,” Proc. SPIE 2515, 558-564 (1995).
  3. S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, “Soft x-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050O (2007).
  5. C. Tarrio, R. N. Watts, T. B. Lucatorto, J. M. Slaughter, and C. M. Falco, “Optical constants of in situ-deposited films of important extreme-ultraviolet multilayer mirror materials,” Appl. Opt. 374100-4104 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Optical properties of hot-pressed B4C in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1537-1540 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. J. Jia, J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, T. A. Callcott, and R. C. C. Perera, “Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy in 100-1000 eV region at the ALS,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 509-512 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Jimenez, D. G. J. Sutherland, T. van Buuren, J. A. Carlisle, L. J. Terminello, and F. J. Himpsel, “Photoemission and x-ray absorption study of boron carbide and its surface thermal stability,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 13167-13174 (1998).
  9. R. Soufli, R. M. Hudyma, E. Spiller, E. M. Gullikson, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, C. C. Walton, and J. S. Taylor, “Sub-diffraction-limited multilayer coatings for the 0.3 numerical aperture micro-exposure tool for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3736-3746 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, and J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283-16288 (1994).
  11. R. Soufli and E. M. Gullikson, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of molybdenum in the range 60 to 930 eV for optical constant determination,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1713-1719(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M.-L. Wu, J. D. Kiely, T. Klemmer, Y.-T. Hsia, and K. Howard, “Process-property relationship of boron carbide thin films by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 449, 120-124(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Hu, L. Steihl, and W. Rafaniello, T. Fawcett, D. D. Hawn, J. G. Marshall, S. J. Roseveld, C. L. Putzig, J. H. Blackson, W. Cermignani, and M. G. Robinson, “Structures and properties of disordered boron carbide coatings generated by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 332, 80-86 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. I. Chiang, H. Holleck, and O. Meyer, “Properties of RF sputtered B4C thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 91, 692-695 (1994).
  15. C. I. Chiang, O. Meyer, and R. M. C. da Silva, “The modification of mechanical properties and adhesion of boron carbide sputtered films by ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 117, 408-414 (1996).
  16. E. Pascual, E. Martinez, J. Esteve, and A. Lousa, “Boron carbide thin films deposited by tuned-substrate RF magnetron sputtering,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 8, 402-405 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Yang, W.-Z. Li, and H.-D. Li, “Synthesis of boron carbide films by ion beam sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 128-129, 329-333 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Ronning, D. Schwen, S. Eyhusen, U. Vetter, and H. Hofsäss, “Ion beam synthesis of boron carbide thin films,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 158-159, 382-387 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. J. Pan, J. Sun, H. Ling, N. Xu, Z. F. Zing, and J. D. Wu, “Preparation of thin films of carbon-based compounds,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 218, 297-304 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265-272 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 363-373 (2001).
  22. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmittance, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993); database currently maintained by E. M. Gullikson, X-Ray Interactions With Matter, http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants/.
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Stöhr, NEXAFS Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, 1992).
  24. M. Altarelli, D. L. Dexter, H. M. Nussenzveig, and D. Y. Smith, “Superconvergence and sum rules for the optical constants,” Phys. Rev. B 64502-4509 (1972).

2007 (3)

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, “Soft x-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050O (2007).

R. Soufli, R. M. Hudyma, E. Spiller, E. M. Gullikson, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, C. C. Walton, and J. S. Taylor, “Sub-diffraction-limited multilayer coatings for the 0.3 numerical aperture micro-exposure tool for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3736-3746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M.-L. Wu, J. D. Kiely, T. Klemmer, Y.-T. Hsia, and K. Howard, “Process-property relationship of boron carbide thin films by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 449, 120-124(2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. J. Pan, J. Sun, H. Ling, N. Xu, Z. F. Zing, and J. D. Wu, “Preparation of thin films of carbon-based compounds,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 218, 297-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. Ronning, D. Schwen, S. Eyhusen, U. Vetter, and H. Hofsäss, “Ion beam synthesis of boron carbide thin films,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 158-159, 382-387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 363-373 (2001).

2000 (2)

H.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Yang, W.-Z. Li, and H.-D. Li, “Synthesis of boron carbide films by ion beam sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 128-129, 329-333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Optical properties of hot-pressed B4C in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1537-1540 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

E. Pascual, E. Martinez, J. Esteve, and A. Lousa, “Boron carbide thin films deposited by tuned-substrate RF magnetron sputtering,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 8, 402-405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

T. Hu, L. Steihl, and W. Rafaniello, T. Fawcett, D. D. Hawn, J. G. Marshall, S. J. Roseveld, C. L. Putzig, J. H. Blackson, W. Cermignani, and M. G. Robinson, “Structures and properties of disordered boron carbide coatings generated by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 332, 80-86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Jimenez, D. G. J. Sutherland, T. van Buuren, J. A. Carlisle, L. J. Terminello, and F. J. Himpsel, “Photoemission and x-ray absorption study of boron carbide and its surface thermal stability,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 13167-13174 (1998).

R. Soufli and E. M. Gullikson, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of molybdenum in the range 60 to 930 eV for optical constant determination,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1713-1719(1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Tarrio, R. N. Watts, T. B. Lucatorto, J. M. Slaughter, and C. M. Falco, “Optical constants of in situ-deposited films of important extreme-ultraviolet multilayer mirror materials,” Appl. Opt. 374100-4104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265-272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

J. J. Jia, J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, T. A. Callcott, and R. C. C. Perera, “Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy in 100-1000 eV region at the ALS,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 509-512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Chiang, O. Meyer, and R. M. C. da Silva, “The modification of mechanical properties and adhesion of boron carbide sputtered films by ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 117, 408-414 (1996).

1995 (1)

G. M. Blumenstock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, and M. L. Ginter, “Extreme ultraviolet optical properties of ion-beam-deposited boron carbide thin films,” Proc. SPIE 2515, 558-564 (1995).

1994 (3)

G. M. Blumenstock and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Ion-beam-deposited boron carbide coatings for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5962-5963 (1994).

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, and J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283-16288 (1994).

C. I. Chiang, H. Holleck, and O. Meyer, “Properties of RF sputtered B4C thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 91, 692-695 (1994).

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmittance, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993); database currently maintained by E. M. Gullikson, X-Ray Interactions With Matter, http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants/.
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. Stöhr, NEXAFS Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, 1992).

1972 (1)

M. Altarelli, D. L. Dexter, H. M. Nussenzveig, and D. Y. Smith, “Superconvergence and sum rules for the optical constants,” Phys. Rev. B 64502-4509 (1972).

Altarelli, M.

M. Altarelli, D. L. Dexter, H. M. Nussenzveig, and D. Y. Smith, “Superconvergence and sum rules for the optical constants,” Phys. Rev. B 64502-4509 (1972).

Baker, S. L.

R. Soufli, R. M. Hudyma, E. Spiller, E. M. Gullikson, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, C. C. Walton, and J. S. Taylor, “Sub-diffraction-limited multilayer coatings for the 0.3 numerical aperture micro-exposure tool for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3736-3746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bergh, M.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bionta, R. M.

M. J. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, “Soft x-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050O (2007).

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blackson, J. H.

T. Hu, L. Steihl, and W. Rafaniello, T. Fawcett, D. D. Hawn, J. G. Marshall, S. J. Roseveld, C. L. Putzig, J. H. Blackson, W. Cermignani, and M. G. Robinson, “Structures and properties of disordered boron carbide coatings generated by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 332, 80-86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blumenstock, G. M.

G. M. Blumenstock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, and M. L. Ginter, “Extreme ultraviolet optical properties of ion-beam-deposited boron carbide thin films,” Proc. SPIE 2515, 558-564 (1995).

G. M. Blumenstock and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Ion-beam-deposited boron carbide coatings for the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5962-5963 (1994).

Caleman, C.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Callcott, T. A.

J. J. Jia, J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, T. A. Callcott, and R. C. C. Perera, “Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy in 100-1000 eV region at the ALS,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 509-512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carlisle, J. A.

J. Jimenez, D. G. J. Sutherland, T. van Buuren, J. A. Carlisle, L. J. Terminello, and F. J. Himpsel, “Photoemission and x-ray absorption study of boron carbide and its surface thermal stability,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 13167-13174 (1998).

Cermignani, W.

T. Hu, L. Steihl, and W. Rafaniello, T. Fawcett, D. D. Hawn, J. G. Marshall, S. J. Roseveld, C. L. Putzig, J. H. Blackson, W. Cermignani, and M. G. Robinson, “Structures and properties of disordered boron carbide coatings generated by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 332, 80-86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chalupský, M.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Yang, W.-Z. Li, and H.-D. Li, “Synthesis of boron carbide films by ion beam sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 128-129, 329-333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, C. I.

C. I. Chiang, O. Meyer, and R. M. C. da Silva, “The modification of mechanical properties and adhesion of boron carbide sputtered films by ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 117, 408-414 (1996).

C. I. Chiang, H. Holleck, and O. Meyer, “Properties of RF sputtered B4C thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 91, 692-695 (1994).

Cihelka, J.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, R. M. C.

C. I. Chiang, O. Meyer, and R. M. C. da Silva, “The modification of mechanical properties and adhesion of boron carbide sputtered films by ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 117, 408-414 (1996).

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmittance, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993); database currently maintained by E. M. Gullikson, X-Ray Interactions With Matter, http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants/.
[CrossRef]

Denham, P.

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, and J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283-16288 (1994).

Dexter, D. L.

M. Altarelli, D. L. Dexter, H. M. Nussenzveig, and D. Y. Smith, “Superconvergence and sum rules for the optical constants,” Phys. Rev. B 64502-4509 (1972).

Esteve, J.

E. Pascual, E. Martinez, J. Esteve, and A. Lousa, “Boron carbide thin films deposited by tuned-substrate RF magnetron sputtering,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 8, 402-405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eyhusen, S.

C. Ronning, D. Schwen, S. Eyhusen, U. Vetter, and H. Hofsäss, “Ion beam synthesis of boron carbide thin films,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 158-159, 382-387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Falco, C. M.

Fawcett, T.

T. Hu, L. Steihl, and W. Rafaniello, T. Fawcett, D. D. Hawn, J. G. Marshall, S. J. Roseveld, C. L. Putzig, J. H. Blackson, W. Cermignani, and M. G. Robinson, “Structures and properties of disordered boron carbide coatings generated by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 332, 80-86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ginter, M. L.

G. M. Blumenstock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, and M. L. Ginter, “Extreme ultraviolet optical properties of ion-beam-deposited boron carbide thin films,” Proc. SPIE 2515, 558-564 (1995).

Gullikson, E. M.

R. Soufli, R. M. Hudyma, E. Spiller, E. M. Gullikson, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, C. C. Walton, and J. S. Taylor, “Sub-diffraction-limited multilayer coatings for the 0.3 numerical aperture micro-exposure tool for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3736-3746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 363-373 (2001).

J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265-272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli and E. M. Gullikson, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of molybdenum in the range 60 to 930 eV for optical constant determination,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1713-1719(1998).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Jia, J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, T. A. Callcott, and R. C. C. Perera, “Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy in 100-1000 eV region at the ALS,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 509-512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, and J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283-16288 (1994).

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmittance, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993); database currently maintained by E. M. Gullikson, X-Ray Interactions With Matter, http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants/.
[CrossRef]

Hájková, V.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hau-Riege, S. P.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hawn, D. D.

T. Hu, L. Steihl, and W. Rafaniello, T. Fawcett, D. D. Hawn, J. G. Marshall, S. J. Roseveld, C. L. Putzig, J. H. Blackson, W. Cermignani, and M. G. Robinson, “Structures and properties of disordered boron carbide coatings generated by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 332, 80-86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmittance, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993); database currently maintained by E. M. Gullikson, X-Ray Interactions With Matter, http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants/.
[CrossRef]

Himpsel, F. J.

J. Jimenez, D. G. J. Sutherland, T. van Buuren, J. A. Carlisle, L. J. Terminello, and F. J. Himpsel, “Photoemission and x-ray absorption study of boron carbide and its surface thermal stability,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 13167-13174 (1998).

Hofsäss, H.

C. Ronning, D. Schwen, S. Eyhusen, U. Vetter, and H. Hofsäss, “Ion beam synthesis of boron carbide thin films,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 158-159, 382-387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holleck, H.

C. I. Chiang, H. Holleck, and O. Meyer, “Properties of RF sputtered B4C thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 91, 692-695 (1994).

Howard, K.

M.-L. Wu, J. D. Kiely, T. Klemmer, Y.-T. Hsia, and K. Howard, “Process-property relationship of boron carbide thin films by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 449, 120-124(2004).
[CrossRef]

Hsia, Y.-T.

M.-L. Wu, J. D. Kiely, T. Klemmer, Y.-T. Hsia, and K. Howard, “Process-property relationship of boron carbide thin films by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 449, 120-124(2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, T.

T. Hu, L. Steihl, and W. Rafaniello, T. Fawcett, D. D. Hawn, J. G. Marshall, S. J. Roseveld, C. L. Putzig, J. H. Blackson, W. Cermignani, and M. G. Robinson, “Structures and properties of disordered boron carbide coatings generated by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 332, 80-86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hudyma, R. M.

Jia, J. J.

J. J. Jia, J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, T. A. Callcott, and R. C. C. Perera, “Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy in 100-1000 eV region at the ALS,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 509-512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, J.

J. Jimenez, D. G. J. Sutherland, T. van Buuren, J. A. Carlisle, L. J. Terminello, and F. J. Himpsel, “Photoemission and x-ray absorption study of boron carbide and its surface thermal stability,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 13167-13174 (1998).

Juha, L.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jurek, M.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, B. B.

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 363-373 (2001).

Keski-Kuha, R. A. M.

Kiely, J. D.

M.-L. Wu, J. D. Kiely, T. Klemmer, Y.-T. Hsia, and K. Howard, “Process-property relationship of boron carbide thin films by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 449, 120-124(2004).
[CrossRef]

Klemmer, T.

M.-L. Wu, J. D. Kiely, T. Klemmer, Y.-T. Hsia, and K. Howard, “Process-property relationship of boron carbide thin films by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 449, 120-124(2004).
[CrossRef]

Krása, J.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krzywinski, J.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuba, J

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Larruquert, J. I.

Li, H.-D.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Yang, W.-Z. Li, and H.-D. Li, “Synthesis of boron carbide films by ion beam sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 128-129, 329-333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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H.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Yang, W.-Z. Li, and H.-D. Li, “Synthesis of boron carbide films by ion beam sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 128-129, 329-333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ling, H.

W. J. Pan, J. Sun, H. Ling, N. Xu, Z. F. Zing, and J. D. Wu, “Preparation of thin films of carbon-based compounds,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 218, 297-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

London, R. A.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lousa, A.

E. Pascual, E. Martinez, J. Esteve, and A. Lousa, “Boron carbide thin films deposited by tuned-substrate RF magnetron sputtering,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 8, 402-405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lucatorto, T. B.

Marshall, J. G.

T. Hu, L. Steihl, and W. Rafaniello, T. Fawcett, D. D. Hawn, J. G. Marshall, S. J. Roseveld, C. L. Putzig, J. H. Blackson, W. Cermignani, and M. G. Robinson, “Structures and properties of disordered boron carbide coatings generated by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 332, 80-86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, E.

E. Pascual, E. Martinez, J. Esteve, and A. Lousa, “Boron carbide thin films deposited by tuned-substrate RF magnetron sputtering,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 8, 402-405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mccarville, T. J.

M. J. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, “Soft x-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050O (2007).

McKernan, M. A.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, O.

C. I. Chiang, O. Meyer, and R. M. C. da Silva, “The modification of mechanical properties and adhesion of boron carbide sputtered films by ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 117, 408-414 (1996).

C. I. Chiang, H. Holleck, and O. Meyer, “Properties of RF sputtered B4C thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 91, 692-695 (1994).

Mrowka, S.

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 363-373 (2001).

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, and J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283-16288 (1994).

Nietubyc, R.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nussenzveig, H. M.

M. Altarelli, D. L. Dexter, H. M. Nussenzveig, and D. Y. Smith, “Superconvergence and sum rules for the optical constants,” Phys. Rev. B 64502-4509 (1972).

Pan, W. J.

W. J. Pan, J. Sun, H. Ling, N. Xu, Z. F. Zing, and J. D. Wu, “Preparation of thin films of carbon-based compounds,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 218, 297-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pascual, E.

E. Pascual, E. Martinez, J. Esteve, and A. Lousa, “Boron carbide thin films deposited by tuned-substrate RF magnetron sputtering,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 8, 402-405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pelka, J. B.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perera, R. C. C.

J. J. Jia, J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, T. A. Callcott, and R. C. C. Perera, “Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy in 100-1000 eV region at the ALS,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 509-512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pivovaroff, M. J.

M. J. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, “Soft x-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050O (2007).

Putzig, C. L.

T. Hu, L. Steihl, and W. Rafaniello, T. Fawcett, D. D. Hawn, J. G. Marshall, S. J. Roseveld, C. L. Putzig, J. H. Blackson, W. Cermignani, and M. G. Robinson, “Structures and properties of disordered boron carbide coatings generated by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 332, 80-86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rafaniello, W.

T. Hu, L. Steihl, and W. Rafaniello, T. Fawcett, D. D. Hawn, J. G. Marshall, S. J. Roseveld, C. L. Putzig, J. H. Blackson, W. Cermignani, and M. G. Robinson, “Structures and properties of disordered boron carbide coatings generated by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 332, 80-86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. C.

Robinson, , M. G.

T. Hu, L. Steihl, and W. Rafaniello, T. Fawcett, D. D. Hawn, J. G. Marshall, S. J. Roseveld, C. L. Putzig, J. H. Blackson, W. Cermignani, and M. G. Robinson, “Structures and properties of disordered boron carbide coatings generated by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 332, 80-86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ronning, C.

C. Ronning, D. Schwen, S. Eyhusen, U. Vetter, and H. Hofsäss, “Ion beam synthesis of boron carbide thin films,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 158-159, 382-387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roseveld, S. J.

T. Hu, L. Steihl, and W. Rafaniello, T. Fawcett, D. D. Hawn, J. G. Marshall, S. J. Roseveld, C. L. Putzig, J. H. Blackson, W. Cermignani, and M. G. Robinson, “Structures and properties of disordered boron carbide coatings generated by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 332, 80-86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. A.

Schwen, D.

C. Ronning, D. Schwen, S. Eyhusen, U. Vetter, and H. Hofsäss, “Ion beam synthesis of boron carbide thin films,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 158-159, 382-387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Slaughter, J. M.

Smith, D. Y.

M. Altarelli, D. L. Dexter, H. M. Nussenzveig, and D. Y. Smith, “Superconvergence and sum rules for the optical constants,” Phys. Rev. B 64502-4509 (1972).

Sobierajski, R.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solokowski-Tinten, K.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soufli, R.

Spiller, E.

Stefan, P. M.

M. J. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, “Soft x-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050O (2007).

Steihl, L.

T. Hu, L. Steihl, and W. Rafaniello, T. Fawcett, D. D. Hawn, J. G. Marshall, S. J. Roseveld, C. L. Putzig, J. H. Blackson, W. Cermignani, and M. G. Robinson, “Structures and properties of disordered boron carbide coatings generated by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 332, 80-86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stöhr, J.

J. Stöhr, NEXAFS Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, 1992).

Stojanovic, N.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

W. J. Pan, J. Sun, H. Ling, N. Xu, Z. F. Zing, and J. D. Wu, “Preparation of thin films of carbon-based compounds,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 218, 297-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, D. G. J.

J. Jimenez, D. G. J. Sutherland, T. van Buuren, J. A. Carlisle, L. J. Terminello, and F. J. Himpsel, “Photoemission and x-ray absorption study of boron carbide and its surface thermal stability,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 13167-13174 (1998).

Tarrio, C.

Taylor, J. S.

Terminello, L. J.

J. Jimenez, D. G. J. Sutherland, T. van Buuren, J. A. Carlisle, L. J. Terminello, and F. J. Himpsel, “Photoemission and x-ray absorption study of boron carbide and its surface thermal stability,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 13167-13174 (1998).

Tiedtke, K.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toleikis, S.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tschentscher, Th.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265-272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Jia, J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, T. A. Callcott, and R. C. C. Perera, “Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy in 100-1000 eV region at the ALS,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 509-512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, and J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283-16288 (1994).

van Buuren, T.

J. Jimenez, D. G. J. Sutherland, T. van Buuren, J. A. Carlisle, L. J. Terminello, and F. J. Himpsel, “Photoemission and x-ray absorption study of boron carbide and its surface thermal stability,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 13167-13174 (1998).

Velyhan, A.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vetter, U.

C. Ronning, D. Schwen, S. Eyhusen, U. Vetter, and H. Hofsäss, “Ion beam synthesis of boron carbide thin films,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 158-159, 382-387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wabnitz, H.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Walton, C. C.

Wang, J.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Yang, W.-Z. Li, and H.-D. Li, “Synthesis of boron carbide films by ion beam sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 128-129, 329-333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Watts, R. N.

Wu, J. D.

W. J. Pan, J. Sun, H. Ling, N. Xu, Z. F. Zing, and J. D. Wu, “Preparation of thin films of carbon-based compounds,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 218, 297-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.-L.

M.-L. Wu, J. D. Kiely, T. Klemmer, Y.-T. Hsia, and K. Howard, “Process-property relationship of boron carbide thin films by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 449, 120-124(2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, N.

W. J. Pan, J. Sun, H. Ling, N. Xu, Z. F. Zing, and J. D. Wu, “Preparation of thin films of carbon-based compounds,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 218, 297-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Yang, W.-Z. Li, and H.-D. Li, “Synthesis of boron carbide films by ion beam sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 128-129, 329-333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zastrau, U.

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zing, Z. F.

W. J. Pan, J. Sun, H. Ling, N. Xu, Z. F. Zing, and J. D. Wu, “Preparation of thin films of carbon-based compounds,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 218, 297-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, and R. M. Bionta, M. A. McKernan, S. L. Baker, J. Krzywinski, R. Sobierajski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, M. Jurek, L. Juha, M. Chalupský, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, A. Velyhan, J. Krása, J. Kuba, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, Th. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, K. Solokowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, and U. Zastrau, “Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

W. J. Pan, J. Sun, H. Ling, N. Xu, Z. F. Zing, and J. D. Wu, “Preparation of thin films of carbon-based compounds,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 218, 297-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmittance, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993); database currently maintained by E. M. Gullikson, X-Ray Interactions With Matter, http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants/.
[CrossRef]

Diam. Relat. Mater. (1)

E. Pascual, E. Martinez, J. Esteve, and A. Lousa, “Boron carbide thin films deposited by tuned-substrate RF magnetron sputtering,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 8, 402-405 (1999).
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J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (2)

J. J. Jia, J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, T. A. Callcott, and R. C. C. Perera, “Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy in 100-1000 eV region at the ALS,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 509-512 (1996).
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J. H. Underwood and E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265-272 (1998).
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Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (2)

C. I. Chiang, H. Holleck, and O. Meyer, “Properties of RF sputtered B4C thin films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 91, 692-695 (1994).

C. I. Chiang, O. Meyer, and R. M. C. da Silva, “The modification of mechanical properties and adhesion of boron carbide sputtered films by ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 117, 408-414 (1996).

Phys. Rev. B (3)

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, and J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283-16288 (1994).

J. Jimenez, D. G. J. Sutherland, T. van Buuren, J. A. Carlisle, L. J. Terminello, and F. J. Himpsel, “Photoemission and x-ray absorption study of boron carbide and its surface thermal stability,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 13167-13174 (1998).

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Proc. SPIE (3)

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 363-373 (2001).

M. J. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, “Soft x-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source,” Proc. SPIE 6705, 67050O (2007).

G. M. Blumenstock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, and M. L. Ginter, “Extreme ultraviolet optical properties of ion-beam-deposited boron carbide thin films,” Proc. SPIE 2515, 558-564 (1995).

Surf. Coat. Technol. (2)

H.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Yang, W.-Z. Li, and H.-D. Li, “Synthesis of boron carbide films by ion beam sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 128-129, 329-333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Ronning, D. Schwen, S. Eyhusen, U. Vetter, and H. Hofsäss, “Ion beam synthesis of boron carbide thin films,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 158-159, 382-387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

M.-L. Wu, J. D. Kiely, T. Klemmer, Y.-T. Hsia, and K. Howard, “Process-property relationship of boron carbide thin films by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 449, 120-124(2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Hu, L. Steihl, and W. Rafaniello, T. Fawcett, D. D. Hawn, J. G. Marshall, S. J. Roseveld, C. L. Putzig, J. H. Blackson, W. Cermignani, and M. G. Robinson, “Structures and properties of disordered boron carbide coatings generated by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 332, 80-86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

EUV reflectance data are fitted to determine the thickness for each of the three boron carbide films used in the transmittance measurements. The thickness of the 112.5 nm film was also verified with SEM measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental transmittance results from three free-standing boron carbide films. The prominent features seen in the three curves correspond to the boron, carbon, and oxygen K ( 1 s ) absorption edges.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fitted curves (dashed lines) to experimental transmittance data from three boron carbide films (solid points) are shown at four photon energies.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results (solid line) are shown for the transmittance T 0 from overlayers of materials other than stoichiometric boron carbide. The dashed line is a fit to the experimental results using optical constants values for elemental boron, carbon, and oxygen from the atomic data tables [22].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Top: measured (solid line) and calculated (dashed line) values for the linear absorption coefficient α (log scale) of sputtered boron carbide. Experimental data in the energy range 6.2 30.5 eV by Blumenstock et al. [2] are also shown. Bottom: expanded plots of α (log scale) in the vicinity of the boron, carbon, and oxygen K ( 1 s ) absorption edges.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical constants δ (top) and β (bottom, log scale) for sputtered boron carbide. δ is calculated through the Kramers–Krönig relation, Eq. (3), using a composite data set of β values. The inset (top) shows an expanded plot of δ in the energy region around the boron K edge.

Equations (3)

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n = 1 δ + i β ,
T = T 0 exp ( α x ) ,
δ ( E ) = 2 π P 0 E β ( E ) E 2 E 2 d E ,

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