Abstract

We present a so-called lidar and almucantar (LidAlm) algorithm that combines information provided by standard elastic backscatter lidar (i.e., calibrated attenuated backscatter coefficient profile at one or two wavelengths) and sunphotometer AERONET inversion of almucantar like measurements (i.e., column-integrated aerosol size distribution and refractive index). The purpose of the LidAlm technique is to characterize the atmospheric column by its different aerosol layers. These layers may be distinct or partially mixed, and they may contain different aerosol species (e.g., urban, desert, or biomass burning aerosols). The LidAlm synergetic technique provides the extinction and backscatter coefficient profiles, particle size distributions, and backscatter-to-extinction ratios for each aerosol layer. We present the LidAlm procedure and sensitivity studies. The applications are illustrated with examples of actual atmospheric conditions encountered in the Paris area.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

D. M. Winker, W. H. Hunt, and M. J. McGill, “Initial performance assessmentof CALIOP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L19803 (2007), doi:10.1029/2007GL030135
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

B. Hennemuth and A. Lammert, “Determination of the atmospheric boundary layer height from radiosonde and lidar backscatter,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 120, 181-200 (2006), doi:10.1007/s10546-005-9035-3.
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006619.
[CrossRef]

H. Randriamiarisoa, P. Chazette, P. Couvert, and J. Sanak, “Relative humidity impact on aerosol parameters in a Paris suburban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 1389-1407 (2006).

2005 (3)

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, “A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827-849 (2005).

C. Cattrall, J. Reagan, K. Thome, and O. Dubovik, “Variability of aerosol and spectral lidar and backscatter and extinction ratios of key aerosol types derived from selected Aerosol Robotic Network locations,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S11, (2005), doi:10.1029/2004JD005124.
[CrossRef]

P. Chazette, H. Randriamiarisoa, J. Sanak, P. Couvert, and C. Flamant, “Optical properties of urban aerosol from airborne and ground-based in situ measurements performed during the Etude et Simulation de la Qualité de l'air en Ile de France (ESQUIF) program,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D02206 (2005), doi:10.1029/2004JD004810.
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

D. Mueller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Saharan dust over a central European EARLINET-AERONET site: Combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003), doi:10.1029/2002JD002918.
[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, P. Francis, O. Dubovik, M. Glew, and B. N. Holben, “Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8471 (2003), doi:10.1029/2002JD002250.
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, H. Halflidi, H. B. Maring, A. Smirnov, D. L. Savoie, S. S. Cliff, E. A. Reid, J. M. Livingston, M. M. Meier, O. Dubovik, and S.-C. Tsay, “Comparison of size and morphological measurements of coarse mode dust particles from Africa,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8593 (2003), doi:10.1029/2002JD002485.
[CrossRef]

M. Mallet, J. C. Roger, S. Despiau, O. Dubovik, and J. P. Putaud, “Microphysical and optical properties of aerosol particles in urban zone during ESCOMPTE,” Atmos. Res. 69, 73-97 (2003), doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2003.07.001.
[CrossRef]

P. Chazette, “The monsoon aerosol extinction properties at Goa during INDOEX as measured with lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4187 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002JD002074
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

C. Mätzler, “MATLAB Functions for Mie scattering and absorption,” IAP Res. Rep. No. 02-08 (Insitut fu¨r Angewandte, 2002).

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, and D. Tanre, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59,590-608 (2002), doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<0590:VOAAOP>2.0.CO;2.
[CrossRef]

E. Weingartner, M. Gysel, and U. Baltensperger, “Hygroscopicity of aerosol particles at low temperatures, 1. New low-temperature H-TDMA instrument: set-up and first applications,” Environmental Science and Technology 36, 55-62 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. Lapyonok, A. Sinyuk, M. I. Mischenko, P. Yang, and I. Slutsker, “Nonspherical aerosol retrieval method employing light scattering by spheroids,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 105, 9791-9806 (2002).

2001 (5)

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, B. Chatenet, A. Karnieli, F. Lavenu, L. Blarel, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, and A. Smirnov, “Climatology of dust aerosol size distribution and optical properties derived from remotely sensed data in the solar spectrum,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18205-18217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, O. Munoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375-17401 (2001), doi:10.1029/2001JD900068.
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, Ch. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, Th. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research lidar Network,” in Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155-158.

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, “Climate change 2001: the scientific basis,” in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 8.

J. Pelon, C. Flamant, P. Chazette, J. F. Leon, D. Tanre, M. Sicard, and S. K. Satheesh, “Characterization of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Indian Ocean from airborne lidar and radiometry during INDOEX'99,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8029 (2001), doi: 10.1029/2001JD000402.
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673-20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, H. Maring, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, P. Formenti, and M. O. Andreae, “Ground-based lidar measurements of aerosols during ACE-2: Instrument description, results, and comparisons with other ground-based and airborne measurements,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 636-651(2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00025.x.
[CrossRef]

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, P. Chazette, V. Trouillet, P. Quinn, R. Frouin, D. Bruneau, J.-F. Leon, T. Bates, J. Johnson, and J. Livingston, “Airborne lidar measurements of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Atlantic Ocean during an European pollution outbreak of ACE-2,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 662-667 (2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00083.x.
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from AERONET sun and sky-radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791-9806(2000), doi:10.1029/2000JD900040.
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, A. M. Thompson, and D. McNamara, “Biomass burning aerosol size distribution and modelled optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31879-31891 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Yamasoe, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, and P. Artaxo, “Retrieval of the real part of the refractive index of smoke particles from Sun/sky measurements during SCAR-B,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31893-31902(1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998), doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(98)00031-5.
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, P. H. Flamant, and P. Durand, “lidar determination of the entrainment zone thickness at the top of the unstable marine atmospheric boundary-layer,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 83, 247-284 (1997), doi:10.1023/A:1000258318944.
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. Travis, R. Kahn, and R. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16831-16847 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

R. R. Barton and J. S. Ivey, Jr., “Nelder-Mead simplex modifications for simulation optimization,” Manage. Sci. 42, 954-973 (1996).

B. E. Anderson, W. Grant, G. Gregory, E. Browell, J. Collins, G. Sachse, D. Bagwell, D. Blake, and N. Blake, “Aerosols from biomass burning over the tropical South Atlantic region: Distributions and impacts,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24117-24137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by large spheroidal particles,” Opt. Commun. 109, 16-21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

J. Lenoble, “The particulate matter from biomass burning: A tutorial and critical review of its radiative impact,” in Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic, and Biospheric Implications, J. S. Levine, ed. (MIT Press, 1991), pp. 381-386.

G. A. D'Almeida, P. Koepke, and E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols: Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, 1991).

1990 (1)

J. Li and J. Mao, “Properties of atmospheric aerosols inverted from optical remote sensing,” Atmos. Environ. Part A , 24, 2517-2522 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley-Interscience, 1984).

F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations--Some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652-653 (1984).

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, “Models of aerosols of lower troposphere and the effect of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFCRL Tech. Rep. 79 0214 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, 1979).

1977 (1)

E. M. Patterson and B. H. Stockton, “Complex index of refraction between 300 and 700 nm for Saharan aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 3153-3160 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

G. Hänel, “The properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as functions of the relative humidity at thermodynamic equilibrium with the surrounding moist air,” Adv. Geophys. 19, 73-188 (1976).

1972 (1)

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482-489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Alpers, M.

A. Papayannis, M. Alpers, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. de Tomasi, A. Haagaard, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, S. Nickovic, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, G. Pisani, S. Puchalski, D. Stoyanov, V. Rizi, L. Sauvage, V. Simeonov, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, M. Wiegner, and A. Castahno, “Saharan dust outbreaks towards europe: 3 years of systematic observations by the european lidar network in the frame of the EARLINET project (2000-2003),” presented at the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), Matera, Italy, 12-16 July 2004.

Anderson, B. E.

B. E. Anderson, W. Grant, G. Gregory, E. Browell, J. Collins, G. Sachse, D. Bagwell, D. Blake, and N. Blake, “Aerosols from biomass burning over the tropical South Atlantic region: Distributions and impacts,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24117-24137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Andreae, M. O.

E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, H. Maring, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, P. Formenti, and M. O. Andreae, “Ground-based lidar measurements of aerosols during ACE-2: Instrument description, results, and comparisons with other ground-based and airborne measurements,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 636-651(2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00025.x.
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

D. Mueller, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Saharan dust over a central European EARLINET-AERONET site: Combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4345 (2003), doi:10.1029/2002JD002918.
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, Ch. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, Th. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research lidar Network,” in Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Artaxo, P.

M. A. Yamasoe, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, and P. Artaxo, “Retrieval of the real part of the refractive index of smoke particles from Sun/sky measurements during SCAR-B,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31893-31902(1998).
[CrossRef]

Bagwell, D.

B. E. Anderson, W. Grant, G. Gregory, E. Browell, J. Collins, G. Sachse, D. Bagwell, D. Blake, and N. Blake, “Aerosols from biomass burning over the tropical South Atlantic region: Distributions and impacts,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24117-24137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baldasano, J. M.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, Ch. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, Th. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research lidar Network,” in Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Balis, D.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, Ch. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, Th. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research lidar Network,” in Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155-158.

A. Papayannis, M. Alpers, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. de Tomasi, A. Haagaard, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, S. Nickovic, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, G. Pisani, S. Puchalski, D. Stoyanov, V. Rizi, L. Sauvage, V. Simeonov, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, M. Wiegner, and A. Castahno, “Saharan dust outbreaks towards europe: 3 years of systematic observations by the european lidar network in the frame of the EARLINET project (2000-2003),” presented at the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), Matera, Italy, 12-16 July 2004.

Baltensperger, U.

E. Weingartner, M. Gysel, and U. Baltensperger, “Hygroscopicity of aerosol particles at low temperatures, 1. New low-temperature H-TDMA instrument: set-up and first applications,” Environmental Science and Technology 36, 55-62 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barton, R. R.

R. R. Barton and J. S. Ivey, Jr., “Nelder-Mead simplex modifications for simulation optimization,” Manage. Sci. 42, 954-973 (1996).

Bates, T.

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, P. Chazette, V. Trouillet, P. Quinn, R. Frouin, D. Bruneau, J.-F. Leon, T. Bates, J. Johnson, and J. Livingston, “Airborne lidar measurements of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Atlantic Ocean during an European pollution outbreak of ACE-2,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 662-667 (2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00083.x.
[CrossRef]

Blake, D.

B. E. Anderson, W. Grant, G. Gregory, E. Browell, J. Collins, G. Sachse, D. Bagwell, D. Blake, and N. Blake, “Aerosols from biomass burning over the tropical South Atlantic region: Distributions and impacts,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24117-24137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blake, N.

B. E. Anderson, W. Grant, G. Gregory, E. Browell, J. Collins, G. Sachse, D. Bagwell, D. Blake, and N. Blake, “Aerosols from biomass burning over the tropical South Atlantic region: Distributions and impacts,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24117-24137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blarel, L.

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, B. Chatenet, A. Karnieli, F. Lavenu, L. Blarel, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, and A. Smirnov, “Climatology of dust aerosol size distribution and optical properties derived from remotely sensed data in the solar spectrum,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18205-18217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Böckmann, Ch.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, Ch. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, Th. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research lidar Network,” in Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Bösenberg, J.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, Ch. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, Th. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research lidar Network,” in Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155-158.

A. Papayannis, M. Alpers, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. de Tomasi, A. Haagaard, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, S. Nickovic, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, G. Pisani, S. Puchalski, D. Stoyanov, V. Rizi, L. Sauvage, V. Simeonov, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, M. Wiegner, and A. Castahno, “Saharan dust outbreaks towards europe: 3 years of systematic observations by the european lidar network in the frame of the EARLINET project (2000-2003),” presented at the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), Matera, Italy, 12-16 July 2004.

Browell, E.

B. E. Anderson, W. Grant, G. Gregory, E. Browell, J. Collins, G. Sachse, D. Bagwell, D. Blake, and N. Blake, “Aerosols from biomass burning over the tropical South Atlantic region: Distributions and impacts,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24117-24137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bruneau, D.

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, P. Chazette, V. Trouillet, P. Quinn, R. Frouin, D. Bruneau, J.-F. Leon, T. Bates, J. Johnson, and J. Livingston, “Airborne lidar measurements of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Atlantic Ocean during an European pollution outbreak of ACE-2,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 662-667 (2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00083.x.
[CrossRef]

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998), doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(98)00031-5.
[CrossRef]

Calpini, B.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, Ch. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, Th. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research lidar Network,” in Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Castahno, A.

A. Papayannis, M. Alpers, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. de Tomasi, A. Haagaard, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, S. Nickovic, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, G. Pisani, S. Puchalski, D. Stoyanov, V. Rizi, L. Sauvage, V. Simeonov, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, M. Wiegner, and A. Castahno, “Saharan dust outbreaks towards europe: 3 years of systematic observations by the european lidar network in the frame of the EARLINET project (2000-2003),” presented at the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), Matera, Italy, 12-16 July 2004.

Cattrall, C.

C. Cattrall, J. Reagan, K. Thome, and O. Dubovik, “Variability of aerosol and spectral lidar and backscatter and extinction ratios of key aerosol types derived from selected Aerosol Robotic Network locations,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S11, (2005), doi:10.1029/2004JD005124.
[CrossRef]

Chaikovsky, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, Ch. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, Th. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research lidar Network,” in Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155-158.

A. Papayannis, M. Alpers, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. de Tomasi, A. Haagaard, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, S. Nickovic, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, G. Pisani, S. Puchalski, D. Stoyanov, V. Rizi, L. Sauvage, V. Simeonov, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, M. Wiegner, and A. Castahno, “Saharan dust outbreaks towards europe: 3 years of systematic observations by the european lidar network in the frame of the EARLINET project (2000-2003),” presented at the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), Matera, Italy, 12-16 July 2004.

Chatenet, B.

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, B. Chatenet, A. Karnieli, F. Lavenu, L. Blarel, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, and A. Smirnov, “Climatology of dust aerosol size distribution and optical properties derived from remotely sensed data in the solar spectrum,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18205-18217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chazette, P.

H. Randriamiarisoa, P. Chazette, P. Couvert, and J. Sanak, “Relative humidity impact on aerosol parameters in a Paris suburban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 1389-1407 (2006).

P. Chazette, H. Randriamiarisoa, J. Sanak, P. Couvert, and C. Flamant, “Optical properties of urban aerosol from airborne and ground-based in situ measurements performed during the Etude et Simulation de la Qualité de l'air en Ile de France (ESQUIF) program,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D02206 (2005), doi:10.1029/2004JD004810.
[CrossRef]

P. Chazette, “The monsoon aerosol extinction properties at Goa during INDOEX as measured with lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4187 (2003), doi: 10.1029/2002JD002074
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, C. Flamant, P. Chazette, J. F. Leon, D. Tanre, M. Sicard, and S. K. Satheesh, “Characterization of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Indian Ocean from airborne lidar and radiometry during INDOEX'99,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8029 (2001), doi: 10.1029/2001JD000402.
[CrossRef]

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, P. Chazette, V. Trouillet, P. Quinn, R. Frouin, D. Bruneau, J.-F. Leon, T. Bates, J. Johnson, and J. Livingston, “Airborne lidar measurements of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Atlantic Ocean during an European pollution outbreak of ACE-2,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 662-667 (2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00083.x.
[CrossRef]

Christopher, S. A.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, “A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827-849 (2005).

Cliff, S. S.

J. S. Reid, H. Halflidi, H. B. Maring, A. Smirnov, D. L. Savoie, S. S. Cliff, E. A. Reid, J. M. Livingston, M. M. Meier, O. Dubovik, and S.-C. Tsay, “Comparison of size and morphological measurements of coarse mode dust particles from Africa,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8593 (2003), doi:10.1029/2002JD002485.
[CrossRef]

Collins, J.

B. E. Anderson, W. Grant, G. Gregory, E. Browell, J. Collins, G. Sachse, D. Bagwell, D. Blake, and N. Blake, “Aerosols from biomass burning over the tropical South Atlantic region: Distributions and impacts,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24117-24137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Couvert, P.

H. Randriamiarisoa, P. Chazette, P. Couvert, and J. Sanak, “Relative humidity impact on aerosol parameters in a Paris suburban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 1389-1407 (2006).

P. Chazette, H. Randriamiarisoa, J. Sanak, P. Couvert, and C. Flamant, “Optical properties of urban aerosol from airborne and ground-based in situ measurements performed during the Etude et Simulation de la Qualité de l'air en Ile de France (ESQUIF) program,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D02206 (2005), doi:10.1029/2004JD004810.
[CrossRef]

Cuesta, J.

J. Cuesta, P. H. Flamant, and C. Loth, “Nouvelle station d'observations transportable: lidar et radiomètres,” presented at the Atelier d'Instrumentation et Experimentation 2004, Paris, France, 12-16 March, 2004.

C. Loth, J. Cuesta, and P. H. Flamant, TReSS : “A transportable remote sensing station for atmospheric research & satellite validation,” presented at the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), Matera, Italy, 12-16 July, 2004.

Dai, X.

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, “Climate change 2001: the scientific basis,” in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 8.

D'Almeida, G. A.

G. A. D'Almeida, P. Koepke, and E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols: Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, 1991).

de Haan, J. F.

H. Volten, O. Munoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375-17401 (2001), doi:10.1029/2001JD900068.
[CrossRef]

de Tomasi, F.

A. Papayannis, M. Alpers, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. de Tomasi, A. Haagaard, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, S. Nickovic, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, G. Pisani, S. Puchalski, D. Stoyanov, V. Rizi, L. Sauvage, V. Simeonov, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, M. Wiegner, and A. Castahno, “Saharan dust outbreaks towards europe: 3 years of systematic observations by the european lidar network in the frame of the EARLINET project (2000-2003),” presented at the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), Matera, Italy, 12-16 July 2004.

Despiau, S.

M. Mallet, J. C. Roger, S. Despiau, O. Dubovik, and J. P. Putaud, “Microphysical and optical properties of aerosol particles in urban zone during ESCOMPTE,” Atmos. Res. 69, 73-97 (2003), doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2003.07.001.
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, “Climate change 2001: the scientific basis,” in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 8.

Dubovik, O.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006619.
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, “A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827-849 (2005).

C. Cattrall, J. Reagan, K. Thome, and O. Dubovik, “Variability of aerosol and spectral lidar and backscatter and extinction ratios of key aerosol types derived from selected Aerosol Robotic Network locations,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S11, (2005), doi:10.1029/2004JD005124.
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, H. Halflidi, H. B. Maring, A. Smirnov, D. L. Savoie, S. S. Cliff, E. A. Reid, J. M. Livingston, M. M. Meier, O. Dubovik, and S.-C. Tsay, “Comparison of size and morphological measurements of coarse mode dust particles from Africa,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8593 (2003), doi:10.1029/2002JD002485.
[CrossRef]

M. Mallet, J. C. Roger, S. Despiau, O. Dubovik, and J. P. Putaud, “Microphysical and optical properties of aerosol particles in urban zone during ESCOMPTE,” Atmos. Res. 69, 73-97 (2003), doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2003.07.001.
[CrossRef]

J. M. Haywood, P. Francis, O. Dubovik, M. Glew, and B. N. Holben, “Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8471 (2003), doi:10.1029/2002JD002250.
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. Lapyonok, A. Sinyuk, M. I. Mischenko, P. Yang, and I. Slutsker, “Nonspherical aerosol retrieval method employing light scattering by spheroids,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 105, 9791-9806 (2002).

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, and D. Tanre, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59,590-608 (2002), doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<0590:VOAAOP>2.0.CO;2.
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, B. Chatenet, A. Karnieli, F. Lavenu, L. Blarel, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, and A. Smirnov, “Climatology of dust aerosol size distribution and optical properties derived from remotely sensed data in the solar spectrum,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18205-18217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673-20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from AERONET sun and sky-radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791-9806(2000), doi:10.1029/2000JD900040.
[CrossRef]

M. A. Yamasoe, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, and P. Artaxo, “Retrieval of the real part of the refractive index of smoke particles from Sun/sky measurements during SCAR-B,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31893-31902(1998).
[CrossRef]

Durand, P.

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, P. H. Flamant, and P. Durand, “lidar determination of the entrainment zone thickness at the top of the unstable marine atmospheric boundary-layer,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 83, 247-284 (1997), doi:10.1023/A:1000258318944.
[CrossRef]

Durkee, P. A.

E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, H. Maring, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, P. Formenti, and M. O. Andreae, “Ground-based lidar measurements of aerosols during ACE-2: Instrument description, results, and comparisons with other ground-based and airborne measurements,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 636-651(2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00025.x.
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006619.
[CrossRef]

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, “A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827-849 (2005).

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, and D. Tanre, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59,590-608 (2002), doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<0590:VOAAOP>2.0.CO;2.
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from AERONET sun and sky-radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791-9806(2000), doi:10.1029/2000JD900040.
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998), doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(98)00031-5.
[CrossRef]

Eleuterio, D. P.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, “A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827-849 (2005).

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, “Models of aerosols of lower troposphere and the effect of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFCRL Tech. Rep. 79 0214 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, 1979).

Fernald, F. G.

F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations--Some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652-653 (1984).

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J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, Ch. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, Th. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research lidar Network,” in Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Flamant, P. H.

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, P. H. Flamant, and P. Durand, “lidar determination of the entrainment zone thickness at the top of the unstable marine atmospheric boundary-layer,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 83, 247-284 (1997), doi:10.1023/A:1000258318944.
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J. Cuesta, P. H. Flamant, and C. Loth, “Nouvelle station d'observations transportable: lidar et radiomètres,” presented at the Atelier d'Instrumentation et Experimentation 2004, Paris, France, 12-16 March, 2004.

C. Loth, J. Cuesta, and P. H. Flamant, TReSS : “A transportable remote sensing station for atmospheric research & satellite validation,” presented at the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), Matera, Italy, 12-16 July, 2004.

Formenti, P.

E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, H. Maring, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, P. Formenti, and M. O. Andreae, “Ground-based lidar measurements of aerosols during ACE-2: Instrument description, results, and comparisons with other ground-based and airborne measurements,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 636-651(2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00025.x.
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J. M. Haywood, P. Francis, O. Dubovik, M. Glew, and B. N. Holben, “Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8471 (2003), doi:10.1029/2002JD002250.
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C. Flamant, J. Pelon, P. Chazette, V. Trouillet, P. Quinn, R. Frouin, D. Bruneau, J.-F. Leon, T. Bates, J. Johnson, and J. Livingston, “Airborne lidar measurements of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Atlantic Ocean during an European pollution outbreak of ACE-2,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 662-667 (2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00083.x.
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J. M. Haywood, P. Francis, O. Dubovik, M. Glew, and B. N. Holben, “Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8471 (2003), doi:10.1029/2002JD002250.
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E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, H. Maring, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, P. Formenti, and M. O. Andreae, “Ground-based lidar measurements of aerosols during ACE-2: Instrument description, results, and comparisons with other ground-based and airborne measurements,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 636-651(2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00025.x.
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Gysel, M.

E. Weingartner, M. Gysel, and U. Baltensperger, “Hygroscopicity of aerosol particles at low temperatures, 1. New low-temperature H-TDMA instrument: set-up and first applications,” Environmental Science and Technology 36, 55-62 (2002).
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A. Papayannis, M. Alpers, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. de Tomasi, A. Haagaard, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, S. Nickovic, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, G. Pisani, S. Puchalski, D. Stoyanov, V. Rizi, L. Sauvage, V. Simeonov, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, M. Wiegner, and A. Castahno, “Saharan dust outbreaks towards europe: 3 years of systematic observations by the european lidar network in the frame of the EARLINET project (2000-2003),” presented at the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), Matera, Italy, 12-16 July 2004.

Hagard, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, Ch. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, Th. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research lidar Network,” in Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Halflidi, H.

J. S. Reid, H. Halflidi, H. B. Maring, A. Smirnov, D. L. Savoie, S. S. Cliff, E. A. Reid, J. M. Livingston, M. M. Meier, O. Dubovik, and S.-C. Tsay, “Comparison of size and morphological measurements of coarse mode dust particles from Africa,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8593 (2003), doi:10.1029/2002JD002485.
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J. M. Haywood, P. Francis, O. Dubovik, M. Glew, and B. N. Holben, “Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8471 (2003), doi:10.1029/2002JD002250.
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Hennemuth, B.

B. Hennemuth and A. Lammert, “Determination of the atmospheric boundary layer height from radiosonde and lidar backscatter,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 120, 181-200 (2006), doi:10.1007/s10546-005-9035-3.
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Herman, B. M.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482-489 (1972).
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Holben, B.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, and D. Tanre, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59,590-608 (2002), doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<0590:VOAAOP>2.0.CO;2.
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E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, H. Maring, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, P. Formenti, and M. O. Andreae, “Ground-based lidar measurements of aerosols during ACE-2: Instrument description, results, and comparisons with other ground-based and airborne measurements,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 636-651(2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00025.x.
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Holben, B. N.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006619.
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J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, “A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827-849 (2005).

J. M. Haywood, P. Francis, O. Dubovik, M. Glew, and B. N. Holben, “Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8471 (2003), doi:10.1029/2002JD002250.
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O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. Lapyonok, A. Sinyuk, M. I. Mischenko, P. Yang, and I. Slutsker, “Nonspherical aerosol retrieval method employing light scattering by spheroids,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 105, 9791-9806 (2002).

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, B. Chatenet, A. Karnieli, F. Lavenu, L. Blarel, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, and A. Smirnov, “Climatology of dust aerosol size distribution and optical properties derived from remotely sensed data in the solar spectrum,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18205-18217 (2001).
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O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from AERONET sun and sky-radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791-9806(2000), doi:10.1029/2000JD900040.
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998), doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(98)00031-5.
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L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, A. M. Thompson, and D. McNamara, “Biomass burning aerosol size distribution and modelled optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31879-31891 (1998).
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M. A. Yamasoe, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, and P. Artaxo, “Retrieval of the real part of the refractive index of smoke particles from Sun/sky measurements during SCAR-B,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31893-31902(1998).
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Houghton, J. T.

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, “Climate change 2001: the scientific basis,” in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 8.

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H. Volten, O. Munoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375-17401 (2001), doi:10.1029/2001JD900068.
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998), doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(98)00031-5.
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J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, “Climate change 2001: the scientific basis,” in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 8.

Johnson, J.

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, P. Chazette, V. Trouillet, P. Quinn, R. Frouin, D. Bruneau, J.-F. Leon, T. Bates, J. Johnson, and J. Livingston, “Airborne lidar measurements of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Atlantic Ocean during an European pollution outbreak of ACE-2,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 662-667 (2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00083.x.
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M. I. Mishchenko, L. Travis, R. Kahn, and R. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16831-16847 (1997).
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Karnieli, A.

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, B. Chatenet, A. Karnieli, F. Lavenu, L. Blarel, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, and A. Smirnov, “Climatology of dust aerosol size distribution and optical properties derived from remotely sensed data in the solar spectrum,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18205-18217 (2001).
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Kaufman, Y.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998), doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(98)00031-5.
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Kaufman, Y. J.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, and D. Tanre, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59,590-608 (2002), doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<0590:VOAAOP>2.0.CO;2.
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D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, B. Chatenet, A. Karnieli, F. Lavenu, L. Blarel, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, and A. Smirnov, “Climatology of dust aerosol size distribution and optical properties derived from remotely sensed data in the solar spectrum,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18205-18217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from AERONET sun and sky-radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791-9806(2000), doi:10.1029/2000JD900040.
[CrossRef]

M. A. Yamasoe, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, and P. Artaxo, “Retrieval of the real part of the refractive index of smoke particles from Sun/sky measurements during SCAR-B,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31893-31902(1998).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, A. M. Thompson, and D. McNamara, “Biomass burning aerosol size distribution and modelled optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31879-31891 (1998).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, and D. Tanre, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59,590-608 (2002), doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<0590:VOAAOP>2.0.CO;2.
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O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from AERONET sun and sky-radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791-9806(2000), doi:10.1029/2000JD900040.
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O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673-20696 (2000).
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Koppmann, R.

J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, “A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827-849 (2005).

Lammert, A.

B. Hennemuth and A. Lammert, “Determination of the atmospheric boundary layer height from radiosonde and lidar backscatter,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 120, 181-200 (2006), doi:10.1007/s10546-005-9035-3.
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Lapyonok, T.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006619.
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O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. Lapyonok, A. Sinyuk, M. I. Mischenko, P. Yang, and I. Slutsker, “Nonspherical aerosol retrieval method employing light scattering by spheroids,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 105, 9791-9806 (2002).

Lavenu, F.

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, B. Chatenet, A. Karnieli, F. Lavenu, L. Blarel, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, and A. Smirnov, “Climatology of dust aerosol size distribution and optical properties derived from remotely sensed data in the solar spectrum,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18205-18217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998), doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(98)00031-5.
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Leon, J. F.

J. Pelon, C. Flamant, P. Chazette, J. F. Leon, D. Tanre, M. Sicard, and S. K. Satheesh, “Characterization of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Indian Ocean from airborne lidar and radiometry during INDOEX'99,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8029 (2001), doi: 10.1029/2001JD000402.
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Leon, J.-F.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006619.
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C. Flamant, J. Pelon, P. Chazette, V. Trouillet, P. Quinn, R. Frouin, D. Bruneau, J.-F. Leon, T. Bates, J. Johnson, and J. Livingston, “Airborne lidar measurements of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Atlantic Ocean during an European pollution outbreak of ACE-2,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 662-667 (2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00083.x.
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J. Li and J. Mao, “Properties of atmospheric aerosols inverted from optical remote sensing,” Atmos. Environ. Part A , 24, 2517-2522 (1990).
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Livingston, J.

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, P. Chazette, V. Trouillet, P. Quinn, R. Frouin, D. Bruneau, J.-F. Leon, T. Bates, J. Johnson, and J. Livingston, “Airborne lidar measurements of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Atlantic Ocean during an European pollution outbreak of ACE-2,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 662-667 (2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00083.x.
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Livingston, J. M.

J. S. Reid, H. Halflidi, H. B. Maring, A. Smirnov, D. L. Savoie, S. S. Cliff, E. A. Reid, J. M. Livingston, M. M. Meier, O. Dubovik, and S.-C. Tsay, “Comparison of size and morphological measurements of coarse mode dust particles from Africa,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8593 (2003), doi:10.1029/2002JD002485.
[CrossRef]

E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, H. Maring, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, P. Formenti, and M. O. Andreae, “Ground-based lidar measurements of aerosols during ACE-2: Instrument description, results, and comparisons with other ground-based and airborne measurements,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 636-651(2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00025.x.
[CrossRef]

Loth, C.

J. Cuesta, P. H. Flamant, and C. Loth, “Nouvelle station d'observations transportable: lidar et radiomètres,” presented at the Atelier d'Instrumentation et Experimentation 2004, Paris, France, 12-16 March, 2004.

C. Loth, J. Cuesta, and P. H. Flamant, TReSS : “A transportable remote sensing station for atmospheric research & satellite validation,” presented at the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), Matera, Italy, 12-16 July, 2004.

Mallet, M.

M. Mallet, J. C. Roger, S. Despiau, O. Dubovik, and J. P. Putaud, “Microphysical and optical properties of aerosol particles in urban zone during ESCOMPTE,” Atmos. Res. 69, 73-97 (2003), doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2003.07.001.
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J. Li and J. Mao, “Properties of atmospheric aerosols inverted from optical remote sensing,” Atmos. Environ. Part A , 24, 2517-2522 (1990).
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Maring, H.

E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, H. Maring, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, P. Formenti, and M. O. Andreae, “Ground-based lidar measurements of aerosols during ACE-2: Instrument description, results, and comparisons with other ground-based and airborne measurements,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 636-651(2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00025.x.
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Maring, H. B.

J. S. Reid, H. Halflidi, H. B. Maring, A. Smirnov, D. L. Savoie, S. S. Cliff, E. A. Reid, J. M. Livingston, M. M. Meier, O. Dubovik, and S.-C. Tsay, “Comparison of size and morphological measurements of coarse mode dust particles from Africa,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8593 (2003), doi:10.1029/2002JD002485.
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A. Papayannis, M. Alpers, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. de Tomasi, A. Haagaard, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, S. Nickovic, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, G. Pisani, S. Puchalski, D. Stoyanov, V. Rizi, L. Sauvage, V. Simeonov, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, M. Wiegner, and A. Castahno, “Saharan dust outbreaks towards europe: 3 years of systematic observations by the european lidar network in the frame of the EARLINET project (2000-2003),” presented at the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), Matera, Italy, 12-16 July 2004.

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J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, “A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827-849 (2005).

J. S. Reid, H. Halflidi, H. B. Maring, A. Smirnov, D. L. Savoie, S. S. Cliff, E. A. Reid, J. M. Livingston, M. M. Meier, O. Dubovik, and S.-C. Tsay, “Comparison of size and morphological measurements of coarse mode dust particles from Africa,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8593 (2003), doi:10.1029/2002JD002485.
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J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, Ch. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, Th. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research lidar Network,” in Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Rizi, V.

A. Papayannis, M. Alpers, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. de Tomasi, A. Haagaard, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, S. Nickovic, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, G. Pisani, S. Puchalski, D. Stoyanov, V. Rizi, L. Sauvage, V. Simeonov, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, M. Wiegner, and A. Castahno, “Saharan dust outbreaks towards europe: 3 years of systematic observations by the european lidar network in the frame of the EARLINET project (2000-2003),” presented at the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), Matera, Italy, 12-16 July 2004.

Roger, J. C.

M. Mallet, J. C. Roger, S. Despiau, O. Dubovik, and J. P. Putaud, “Microphysical and optical properties of aerosol particles in urban zone during ESCOMPTE,” Atmos. Res. 69, 73-97 (2003), doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2003.07.001.
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H. Volten, O. Munoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375-17401 (2001), doi:10.1029/2001JD900068.
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E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, H. Maring, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, P. Formenti, and M. O. Andreae, “Ground-based lidar measurements of aerosols during ACE-2: Instrument description, results, and comparisons with other ground-based and airborne measurements,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 636-651(2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00025.x.
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H. Randriamiarisoa, P. Chazette, P. Couvert, and J. Sanak, “Relative humidity impact on aerosol parameters in a Paris suburban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 1389-1407 (2006).

P. Chazette, H. Randriamiarisoa, J. Sanak, P. Couvert, and C. Flamant, “Optical properties of urban aerosol from airborne and ground-based in situ measurements performed during the Etude et Simulation de la Qualité de l'air en Ile de France (ESQUIF) program,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D02206 (2005), doi:10.1029/2004JD004810.
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Satheesh, S. K.

J. Pelon, C. Flamant, P. Chazette, J. F. Leon, D. Tanre, M. Sicard, and S. K. Satheesh, “Characterization of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Indian Ocean from airborne lidar and radiometry during INDOEX'99,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8029 (2001), doi: 10.1029/2001JD000402.
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Sauvage, L.

A. Papayannis, M. Alpers, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. de Tomasi, A. Haagaard, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, S. Nickovic, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, G. Pisani, S. Puchalski, D. Stoyanov, V. Rizi, L. Sauvage, V. Simeonov, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, M. Wiegner, and A. Castahno, “Saharan dust outbreaks towards europe: 3 years of systematic observations by the european lidar network in the frame of the EARLINET project (2000-2003),” presented at the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), Matera, Italy, 12-16 July 2004.

Savoie, D. L.

J. S. Reid, H. Halflidi, H. B. Maring, A. Smirnov, D. L. Savoie, S. S. Cliff, E. A. Reid, J. M. Livingston, M. M. Meier, O. Dubovik, and S.-C. Tsay, “Comparison of size and morphological measurements of coarse mode dust particles from Africa,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8593 (2003), doi:10.1029/2002JD002485.
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Schmid, B.

E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, H. Maring, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, P. Formenti, and M. O. Andreae, “Ground-based lidar measurements of aerosols during ACE-2: Instrument description, results, and comparisons with other ground-based and airborne measurements,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 636-651(2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00025.x.
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Schneider, J.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, Ch. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, Th. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research lidar Network,” in Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155-158.

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998), doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(98)00031-5.
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J. Pelon, C. Flamant, P. Chazette, J. F. Leon, D. Tanre, M. Sicard, and S. K. Satheesh, “Characterization of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Indian Ocean from airborne lidar and radiometry during INDOEX'99,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8029 (2001), doi: 10.1029/2001JD000402.
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A. Papayannis, M. Alpers, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. de Tomasi, A. Haagaard, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, S. Nickovic, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, G. Pisani, S. Puchalski, D. Stoyanov, V. Rizi, L. Sauvage, V. Simeonov, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, M. Wiegner, and A. Castahno, “Saharan dust outbreaks towards europe: 3 years of systematic observations by the european lidar network in the frame of the EARLINET project (2000-2003),” presented at the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), Matera, Italy, 12-16 July 2004.

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O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006619.
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O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. Lapyonok, A. Sinyuk, M. I. Mischenko, P. Yang, and I. Slutsker, “Nonspherical aerosol retrieval method employing light scattering by spheroids,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 105, 9791-9806 (2002).

Slutsker, I.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006619.
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O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. Lapyonok, A. Sinyuk, M. I. Mischenko, P. Yang, and I. Slutsker, “Nonspherical aerosol retrieval method employing light scattering by spheroids,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 105, 9791-9806 (2002).

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from AERONET sun and sky-radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791-9806(2000), doi:10.1029/2000JD900040.
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998), doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(98)00031-5.
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J. S. Reid, H. Halflidi, H. B. Maring, A. Smirnov, D. L. Savoie, S. S. Cliff, E. A. Reid, J. M. Livingston, M. M. Meier, O. Dubovik, and S.-C. Tsay, “Comparison of size and morphological measurements of coarse mode dust particles from Africa,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8593 (2003), doi:10.1029/2002JD002485.
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O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, and D. Tanre, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59,590-608 (2002), doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<0590:VOAAOP>2.0.CO;2.
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D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, B. Chatenet, A. Karnieli, F. Lavenu, L. Blarel, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, and A. Smirnov, “Climatology of dust aerosol size distribution and optical properties derived from remotely sensed data in the solar spectrum,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18205-18217 (2001).
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E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, H. Maring, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, P. Formenti, and M. O. Andreae, “Ground-based lidar measurements of aerosols during ACE-2: Instrument description, results, and comparisons with other ground-based and airborne measurements,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 636-651(2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00025.x.
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from AERONET sun and sky-radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791-9806(2000), doi:10.1029/2000JD900040.
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998), doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(98)00031-5.
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O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006619.
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Tanre, D.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, and D. Tanre, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59,590-608 (2002), doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<0590:VOAAOP>2.0.CO;2.
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J. Pelon, C. Flamant, P. Chazette, J. F. Leon, D. Tanre, M. Sicard, and S. K. Satheesh, “Characterization of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Indian Ocean from airborne lidar and radiometry during INDOEX'99,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8029 (2001), doi: 10.1029/2001JD000402.
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998), doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(98)00031-5.
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D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, B. N. Holben, B. Chatenet, A. Karnieli, F. Lavenu, L. Blarel, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, and A. Smirnov, “Climatology of dust aerosol size distribution and optical properties derived from remotely sensed data in the solar spectrum,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18205-18217 (2001).
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J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, Ch. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, Th. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research lidar Network,” in Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155-158.

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J. S. Reid, H. Halflidi, H. B. Maring, A. Smirnov, D. L. Savoie, S. S. Cliff, E. A. Reid, J. M. Livingston, M. M. Meier, O. Dubovik, and S.-C. Tsay, “Comparison of size and morphological measurements of coarse mode dust particles from Africa,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8593 (2003), doi:10.1029/2002JD002485.
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O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006619.
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A. Papayannis, M. Alpers, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. de Tomasi, A. Haagaard, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, S. Nickovic, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, G. Pisani, S. Puchalski, D. Stoyanov, V. Rizi, L. Sauvage, V. Simeonov, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, M. Wiegner, and A. Castahno, “Saharan dust outbreaks towards europe: 3 years of systematic observations by the european lidar network in the frame of the EARLINET project (2000-2003),” presented at the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), Matera, Italy, 12-16 July 2004.

Veihelmann, B.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006619.
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998), doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(98)00031-5.
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J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, Ch. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, Th. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research lidar Network,” in Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155-158.

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O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006619.
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H. Volten, O. Munoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375-17401 (2001), doi:10.1029/2001JD900068.
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E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, H. Maring, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, P. Formenti, and M. O. Andreae, “Ground-based lidar measurements of aerosols during ACE-2: Instrument description, results, and comparisons with other ground-based and airborne measurements,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 636-651(2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00025.x.
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E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, H. Maring, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, P. Formenti, and M. O. Andreae, “Ground-based lidar measurements of aerosols during ACE-2: Instrument description, results, and comparisons with other ground-based and airborne measurements,” Tellus Ser. B 52, 636-651(2000), doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00025.x.
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M. I. Mishchenko, L. Travis, R. Kahn, and R. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16831-16847 (1997).
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J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, Ch. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, Th. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research lidar Network,” in Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, A. Dabas, C. Loth, and J. Pelon, eds. (École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155-158.

A. Papayannis, M. Alpers, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, F. de Tomasi, A. Haagaard, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, V. Mitev, S. Nickovic, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, G. Pisani, S. Puchalski, D. Stoyanov, V. Rizi, L. Sauvage, V. Simeonov, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, M. Wiegner, and A. Castahno, “Saharan dust outbreaks towards europe: 3 years of systematic observations by the european lidar network in the frame of the EARLINET project (2000-2003),” presented at the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), Matera, Italy, 12-16 July 2004.

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D. M. Winker, W. H. Hunt, and M. J. McGill, “Initial performance assessmentof CALIOP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L19803 (2007), doi:10.1029/2007GL030135
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M. A. Yamasoe, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, and P. Artaxo, “Retrieval of the real part of the refractive index of smoke particles from Sun/sky measurements during SCAR-B,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31893-31902(1998).
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O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D11208 (2006), doi:10.1029/2005JD006619.
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O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. Lapyonok, A. Sinyuk, M. I. Mischenko, P. Yang, and I. Slutsker, “Nonspherical aerosol retrieval method employing light scattering by spheroids,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 105, 9791-9806 (2002).

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J. S. Reid, T. F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, R. Koppmann, O. Dubovik, D. P. Eleuterio, B. N. Holben, E. A. Reid, and J. Zhang, “A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 827-849 (2005).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overall schematics of the LidAlm synergetic technique. Sections 3, 4 present each of the processing modules.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Examples of attenuated backscatter profiles after calibration using an aerosol-free zone at 3 km : (a) profile with a single aerosol layer in the ABL (extending from the surface up to 1.5 km of altitude), uncorrected lidar profile (dashed black line), and corrected profile (solid black line) for overlap (considering the mean slope over the lowest valid 100 m) and comparison with the radiosounding-derived molecular profile (gray dashed line). (b) Lidar profile with two aerosol layers in the ABL and in the FT and (c) first derivative detection of the layers (gray circles).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of column-integrated aerosol size distribution observed in the Paris region: (a) standard AERONET size spectrum [23], (b) second derivative with respect to ln (r) (gray lines) of the actual size distribution (dashed black line), with the relative maxima and first zero-crossing points indicated by gray circles (used to estimate r i and s i ), (c) second derivative of a theoretical Gaussian curve (plain black line), and (d) corresponding breakdown in three LNMs of (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reference “noise-free” model used for the sensitivity tests of the LidAlm retrievals to AERONET retrieval uncertainties (Subsection 5A), the auxiliary inputs 5B, and the closure criterion 5C: (a) “noise-free” size distribution model (black dots), (b) and (c) corresponding backscatter coefficient profiles ( β m , β, and β att ) at 532 nm and 1064 nm , respectively (accounting for a RH profile of 50% to 85% in the ABL and 50% to 75% in the FT).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Uncertainties in LidAlm retrievals estimated by Monte Carlo simulations for (Subsection 5A) (a) modal concentration C i for each LNM (modes 1, 2, 3, and 4 of Fig. 4, from black to light gray), (b) and (c) τ Alm and k p of the FT aerosol layer (at 532 and 1064 nm ), and (d) and (e) τ Alm and k p of the ABL aerosol layer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sensitivity of the closure criterion to ABL/FT mode assignment. The closure error E LA (using a single or two lidar probing wavelengths) with its corresponding uncertainties is presented for all possible mode assignment combinations (the true case in gray).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Application of the LidAlm algorithm to a one-layer case (on 6 September 2004 in Palaiseau, France): (a) example of the five AERONET-retrieved size distributions broken down in LNMs (each mode has a color associated); (b) time series of attenuated backscatter profiles at 532 nm , measured by lidar [47, 48], normalized at 2 km , and extrapolated down to the surface, as a function of UTC; (c) and (d) time series modal radii r i and concentrations C i , respectively; (e) mean aerosol BER retrieved for each AERONET sounding; and (f) comparison of the AOD (at 532 nm ) retrieved by lidar inversion τ Lid , using the AERONET retrievals τ Alm and the sun photometer direct measurements τ TOT (in red, orange, and dotted line in orange, respectively, with bars at the AERONET soundings and a solid red line for τ Lid derived using the lidar time series and interpolation of the LidAlm BER).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Application of the LidAlm algorithm to a two-layer case (on 23 June 2003 in Palaiseau, France): (a) example of the 3 AERONET size distributions broken down in four LNMs (five for the first AERONET sounding); (b) lidar time series of attenuated backscatter profiles at 532 nm and the detected ABL and FT aerosol layer boundaries (dashed black and white line, respectively); (c) detected modal radii r i time series; (d) closure error E LA calculated for all possible ABL/FT mode assignments at 1600 UTC (blue), 1635 UTC (red) and 1730 UTC (black); (e) and (f) LidAlm-retrieved BER and aerosol size distributions, respectively, of the ABL (red) and FT (blue) aerosol layers (mean over each layer); (g) comparison of total and partial AODs for the ABL (orange for τ Alm and red for τ Lid ) and FT (light blue for τ Alm and dark blue for τ Lid ) layers; and (h) LidAlm-retrieved aerosol extinction profiles time series at 532 nm .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Application of the LidAlm algorithm to a two-layer case (on 12 June 2003 in Palaiseau, France): (a) NAAPS simulations of AOD of desert dust (green) and sulphate pollution aerosols (orange) with HYSPLIT 96 h backtrajectories from Palaiseau at 500 m (red), 2 km (blue), and 3 km (dark green) at 1400 UTC. (c) AERONET size distribution at 1350 UTC broken down in LNMs, (f) LidAlm-retrieved size distributions at 1350 UTC (solid lines) and 1630 UTC (dashed lines). Same as Fig. 8c for (b), (e), (g), (h), and (d). Missing values in (g) and (h) correspond to the occurrence of clouds.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Dispersion in the LNM Parameters Used in the LidAlm Algorithm Associated with Uncertainties in the AERONET Inversion [Monte Carlo Simulations Used the Example of Fig. 4a as Noise-Free Data]

Tables Icon

Table 2 Dispersion in LidAlm-Retrieved Optical Properties Associated with Uncertainties in the AERONET Inversion a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Errors on LidAlm-retrieved Optical Properties Associated with Uncertainties in Auxiliary Input Data (Indicated in Parenthesis) as the First-Guess BER for Refractive Index Calculations k p 0 , the Climatological Refractive Index for the FT Aerosol Layer in the FT, RH, and the Hygroscopic Growth Parameter ε (the Results Consider One Variable at a Time)

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P ( z ) z 2 = K β ( z ) [ T ( 0 , z ) ] 2 ,
T ( 0 , z ) = exp ( 0 z α ( z ) d z ) ,
β m ( z ) 1.38 ( 550 λ ) 4.09 ( p ( z ) 1013 288 T ( z ) ) 10 6 ,
β p ( z ) = k p ( z ) α p ( z ) ,
β ( z ) = β att ( z ) exp ( Φ ( z ) ) 1 β m ( z 0 ) + 2 z z R 1 k p ( z ) β att ( z ) exp ( Φ ( z ) ) d z ,
Φ ( z ) = 2 z R z k m k p ( z ) k p ( z ) α m ( z ) d z .
α p ( z ) = ( β ( z ) β m ( z ) ) / k p ( z ) .
d V d   ln r ( r ) | Alm i = 1 N C i 2 π ln s i exp ( 1 2 ( ln r ln r i ln s i ) 2 ) ,
y = tan ( π ( x x min x max x min 1 2 ) ) ,
α i ( RH ) 1 H i r min r max Q ext ( 2 π r / λ , m i ( RH ) ) 1 4 / 3 r C i ( RH ) 2 π ln s i exp ( 1 2 ( ln r ln r i ( RH ) ln s i ) 2 ) d ln r ,
β i ( RH ) 1 H i r min r max Q back ( 2 π r / λ , m i ( RH ) ) 1 4 / 3 r C i ( RH ) 2 π ln s i exp ( 1 2 ( ln r ln r i ( RH ) ln s i ) 2 ) d ln r .
r i ( RH ) r i ( 1 RH / 100 ) ε 1 3 ε 1 2 ε ( 100 RH 1 ) 1 2 ε ( 100 RH 0 ) 1 2 ε ( 1000 RH 1 ) 1 3 ε ( 100 RH 0 ) 1 3 ε ,
C i ( RH ) C i ( r i ( RH ) r i ) 3 ,
m i ( RH ) m H 2 O + ( m 0 m H 2 O ) ( r i 0 r i ( RH ) ) 3 ,
m ABL ( RH ) m τ TOT m FT ( R H ) τ FT 0 τ ABL 0 ,
k p ( z ) | ABL / FT = i , ABL / FT β i ( z ) i , ABL / FT α i ( z ) ,
τ ABL / FT Alm ( λ ) = i , ABL / FT [ H ABL / FT α i ( z ) d z ] ,
E LA = ( τ ABL Lid τ ABL Alm τ ABL ) 2 + ( τ FT Lid τ FT Alm τ FT ) 2 + ( τ TOT Lid τ TOT τ TOT ) 2 0.1 0.2.
E LA = E L A , 1 2 + E L A , 2 2 .

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