Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is explored as a method to image laser-damage sites located on the surface of large aperture fused silica optics during postprocessing via CO2 laser ablation. The signal analysis for image acquisition was adapted to meet the sensitivity requirements for this application. A long-working-distance geometry was employed to allow imaging through the opposite surface of the 5cm thick optic. The experimental results demonstrate the potential of OCT for remote monitoring of transparent material processing applications.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, P. J. Wegner, T. G. Parham, L. W. Hrubesh, B. M. Penetrante, P. K. Whitman, S. G. Demos, J. A. Menapace, M. J. Runkel, M. J. Fluss, M. D. Feit, M. H. Key, and T. A. Biesiada, “Improving 351 nm damage performance of large aperture fused silica and DKDP optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 173-185 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength radiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2007 (1)

D. Stifter, “Beyond biomedicine: a review of alternative applications and developments for optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 337-357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. L. Dufour, G. Lamouche, S. Vergnole, B. Gauthier, C. Padioleau, M. Hewko, S. Levesque, and V. Bartulovic, “Surface inspection of hard to reach industrial parts using low-coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 6343, 63431Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength radiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. L. Bass, G. M. Guss, and R. P. Hackel, “Mitigation of laser damage growth in fused silica with a galvanometer scanned CO2 laser,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910C (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13, 3513-3528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, V. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments,” Opt. Express 13, 10652-10664 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express 12, 367-376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Xi, D. L. Marks, D. S. Parikh, L. Raskin, and S. A. Boppart, “Structural and functional imaging of 3D microfluidic mixers using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 7516-7521 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Targowski, B. Rouba, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “The application of optical coherence tomography to non-destructive examination of museum objects,” Stud. Conserv. 49, 107-114 (2004).

2002 (4)

A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, P. J. Wegner, T. G. Parham, L. W. Hrubesh, B. M. Penetrante, P. K. Whitman, S. G. Demos, J. A. Menapace, M. J. Runkel, M. J. Fluss, M. D. Feit, M. H. Key, and T. A. Biesiada, “Improving 351 nm damage performance of large aperture fused silica and DKDP optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 173-185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, “Investigation of processes leading to damage growth in optical materials for large-aperture lasers,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3628-3633 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, K. Minoshima, and J. Fujimoto, “Characterization of laser induced damage sites in optical components,” Opt. Express 10, 1444-1450 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Bashkansky, D. Lewis, V. Pujari, J. Reintjes, and H. Y. Yu, “Subsurface detection and characterization of Hertzian cracks in Si2N4 balls using optical coherence tomography,” NDT&E Int. 34, 547-555 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiba, M.

Bartulovic, V.

M. L. Dufour, G. Lamouche, S. Vergnole, B. Gauthier, C. Padioleau, M. Hewko, S. Levesque, and V. Bartulovic, “Surface inspection of hard to reach industrial parts using low-coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 6343, 63431Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bashkansky, M.

M. Bashkansky, D. Lewis, V. Pujari, J. Reintjes, and H. Y. Yu, “Subsurface detection and characterization of Hertzian cracks in Si2N4 balls using optical coherence tomography,” NDT&E Int. 34, 547-555 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bass, I. L.

I. L. Bass, G. M. Guss, and R. P. Hackel, “Mitigation of laser damage growth in fused silica with a galvanometer scanned CO2 laser,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910C (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biesiada, T. A.

A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, P. J. Wegner, T. G. Parham, L. W. Hrubesh, B. M. Penetrante, P. K. Whitman, S. G. Demos, J. A. Menapace, M. J. Runkel, M. J. Fluss, M. D. Feit, M. H. Key, and T. A. Biesiada, “Improving 351 nm damage performance of large aperture fused silica and DKDP optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 173-185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

C. W. Xi, D. L. Marks, D. S. Parikh, L. Raskin, and S. A. Boppart, “Structural and functional imaging of 3D microfluidic mixers using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 7516-7521 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Brusasco, R. M.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, A. K.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, P. J. Wegner, T. G. Parham, L. W. Hrubesh, B. M. Penetrante, P. K. Whitman, S. G. Demos, J. A. Menapace, M. J. Runkel, M. J. Fluss, M. D. Feit, M. H. Key, and T. A. Biesiada, “Improving 351 nm damage performance of large aperture fused silica and DKDP optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 173-185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. A.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carr, J.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cense, B.

Chan, K.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Chong, C.

de Boer, J. F.

Demos, S. G.

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, “Investigation of processes leading to damage growth in optical materials for large-aperture lasers,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3628-3633 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, P. J. Wegner, T. G. Parham, L. W. Hrubesh, B. M. Penetrante, P. K. Whitman, S. G. Demos, J. A. Menapace, M. J. Runkel, M. J. Fluss, M. D. Feit, M. H. Key, and T. A. Biesiada, “Improving 351 nm damage performance of large aperture fused silica and DKDP optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 173-185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, K. Minoshima, and J. Fujimoto, “Characterization of laser induced damage sites in optical components,” Opt. Express 10, 1444-1450 (2002).
[PubMed]

Donohue, E. E.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength radiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dufour, M. L.

M. L. Dufour, G. Lamouche, S. Vergnole, B. Gauthier, C. Padioleau, M. Hewko, S. Levesque, and V. Bartulovic, “Surface inspection of hard to reach industrial parts using low-coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 6343, 63431Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength radiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, P. J. Wegner, T. G. Parham, L. W. Hrubesh, B. M. Penetrante, P. K. Whitman, S. G. Demos, J. A. Menapace, M. J. Runkel, M. J. Fluss, M. D. Feit, M. H. Key, and T. A. Biesiada, “Improving 351 nm damage performance of large aperture fused silica and DKDP optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 173-185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fluss, M. J.

A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, P. J. Wegner, T. G. Parham, L. W. Hrubesh, B. M. Penetrante, P. K. Whitman, S. G. Demos, J. A. Menapace, M. J. Runkel, M. J. Fluss, M. D. Feit, M. H. Key, and T. A. Biesiada, “Improving 351 nm damage performance of large aperture fused silica and DKDP optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 173-185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13, 3513-3528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauthier, B.

M. L. Dufour, G. Lamouche, S. Vergnole, B. Gauthier, C. Padioleau, M. Hewko, S. Levesque, and V. Bartulovic, “Surface inspection of hard to reach industrial parts using low-coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 6343, 63431Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grundler, W.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guss, G. M.

I. L. Bass, G. M. Guss, and R. P. Hackel, “Mitigation of laser damage growth in fused silica with a galvanometer scanned CO2 laser,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910C (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hackel, L. A.

A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, P. J. Wegner, T. G. Parham, L. W. Hrubesh, B. M. Penetrante, P. K. Whitman, S. G. Demos, J. A. Menapace, M. J. Runkel, M. J. Fluss, M. D. Feit, M. H. Key, and T. A. Biesiada, “Improving 351 nm damage performance of large aperture fused silica and DKDP optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 173-185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hackel, R. P.

I. L. Bass, G. M. Guss, and R. P. Hackel, “Mitigation of laser damage growth in fused silica with a galvanometer scanned CO2 laser,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910C (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength radiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hewko, M.

M. L. Dufour, G. Lamouche, S. Vergnole, B. Gauthier, C. Padioleau, M. Hewko, S. Levesque, and V. Bartulovic, “Surface inspection of hard to reach industrial parts using low-coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 6343, 63431Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hill, R.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hollingsworth, W. G.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength radiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hrubesh, L. W.

A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, P. J. Wegner, T. G. Parham, L. W. Hrubesh, B. M. Penetrante, P. K. Whitman, S. G. Demos, J. A. Menapace, M. J. Runkel, M. J. Fluss, M. D. Feit, M. H. Key, and T. A. Biesiada, “Improving 351 nm damage performance of large aperture fused silica and DKDP optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 173-185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Itoh, M.

Key, M. H.

A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, P. J. Wegner, T. G. Parham, L. W. Hrubesh, B. M. Penetrante, P. K. Whitman, S. G. Demos, J. A. Menapace, M. J. Runkel, M. J. Fluss, M. D. Feit, M. H. Key, and T. A. Biesiada, “Improving 351 nm damage performance of large aperture fused silica and DKDP optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 173-185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, A.

P. Targowski, B. Rouba, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “The application of optical coherence tomography to non-destructive examination of museum objects,” Stud. Conserv. 49, 107-114 (2004).

Kozlowski, M. R.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, “Investigation of processes leading to damage growth in optical materials for large-aperture lasers,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3628-3633 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamouche, G.

M. L. Dufour, G. Lamouche, S. Vergnole, B. Gauthier, C. Padioleau, M. Hewko, S. Levesque, and V. Bartulovic, “Surface inspection of hard to reach industrial parts using low-coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 6343, 63431Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levesque, S.

M. L. Dufour, G. Lamouche, S. Vergnole, B. Gauthier, C. Padioleau, M. Hewko, S. Levesque, and V. Bartulovic, “Surface inspection of hard to reach industrial parts using low-coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 6343, 63431Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, D.

M. Bashkansky, D. Lewis, V. Pujari, J. Reintjes, and H. Y. Yu, “Subsurface detection and characterization of Hertzian cracks in Si2N4 balls using optical coherence tomography,” NDT&E Int. 34, 547-555 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madjarova, V.

Makita, S.

Maricle, S. M.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marks, D. L.

C. W. Xi, D. L. Marks, D. S. Parikh, L. Raskin, and S. A. Boppart, “Structural and functional imaging of 3D microfluidic mixers using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 7516-7521 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menapace, J. A.

A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, P. J. Wegner, T. G. Parham, L. W. Hrubesh, B. M. Penetrante, P. K. Whitman, S. G. Demos, J. A. Menapace, M. J. Runkel, M. J. Fluss, M. D. Feit, M. H. Key, and T. A. Biesiada, “Improving 351 nm damage performance of large aperture fused silica and DKDP optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 173-185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Minoshima, K.

Molander, W. A.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morosawa, A.

Nassif, N. A.

Norton, M. A.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength radiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Padioleau, C.

M. L. Dufour, G. Lamouche, S. Vergnole, B. Gauthier, C. Padioleau, M. Hewko, S. Levesque, and V. Bartulovic, “Surface inspection of hard to reach industrial parts using low-coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 6343, 63431Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Parham, T. G.

A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, P. J. Wegner, T. G. Parham, L. W. Hrubesh, B. M. Penetrante, P. K. Whitman, S. G. Demos, J. A. Menapace, M. J. Runkel, M. J. Fluss, M. D. Feit, M. H. Key, and T. A. Biesiada, “Improving 351 nm damage performance of large aperture fused silica and DKDP optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 173-185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Parikh, D. S.

C. W. Xi, D. L. Marks, D. S. Parikh, L. Raskin, and S. A. Boppart, “Structural and functional imaging of 3D microfluidic mixers using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 7516-7521 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Penetrante, B.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Penetrante, B. M.

A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, P. J. Wegner, T. G. Parham, L. W. Hrubesh, B. M. Penetrante, P. K. Whitman, S. G. Demos, J. A. Menapace, M. J. Runkel, M. J. Fluss, M. D. Feit, M. H. Key, and T. A. Biesiada, “Improving 351 nm damage performance of large aperture fused silica and DKDP optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 173-185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, M. C.

Pujari, V.

M. Bashkansky, D. Lewis, V. Pujari, J. Reintjes, and H. Y. Yu, “Subsurface detection and characterization of Hertzian cracks in Si2N4 balls using optical coherence tomography,” NDT&E Int. 34, 547-555 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raskin, L.

C. W. Xi, D. L. Marks, D. S. Parikh, L. Raskin, and S. A. Boppart, “Structural and functional imaging of 3D microfluidic mixers using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 7516-7521 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reintjes, J.

M. Bashkansky, D. Lewis, V. Pujari, J. Reintjes, and H. Y. Yu, “Subsurface detection and characterization of Hertzian cracks in Si2N4 balls using optical coherence tomography,” NDT&E Int. 34, 547-555 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rouba, B.

P. Targowski, B. Rouba, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “The application of optical coherence tomography to non-destructive examination of museum objects,” Stud. Conserv. 49, 107-114 (2004).

Rubenchik, A. M.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength radiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Runkel, M. J.

A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, P. J. Wegner, T. G. Parham, L. W. Hrubesh, B. M. Penetrante, P. K. Whitman, S. G. Demos, J. A. Menapace, M. J. Runkel, M. J. Fluss, M. D. Feit, M. H. Key, and T. A. Biesiada, “Improving 351 nm damage performance of large aperture fused silica and DKDP optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 173-185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, T.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spaeth, M. L.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength radiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Staggs, M.

Stifter, D.

D. Stifter, “Beyond biomedicine: a review of alternative applications and developments for optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 337-357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Summers, L. J.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taira, K.

Targowski, P.

P. Targowski, B. Rouba, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “The application of optical coherence tomography to non-destructive examination of museum objects,” Stud. Conserv. 49, 107-114 (2004).

Tearney, G. J.

Vergnole, S.

M. L. Dufour, G. Lamouche, S. Vergnole, B. Gauthier, C. Padioleau, M. Hewko, S. Levesque, and V. Bartulovic, “Surface inspection of hard to reach industrial parts using low-coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 6343, 63431Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wegner, P. J.

A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, P. J. Wegner, T. G. Parham, L. W. Hrubesh, B. M. Penetrante, P. K. Whitman, S. G. Demos, J. A. Menapace, M. J. Runkel, M. J. Fluss, M. D. Feit, M. H. Key, and T. A. Biesiada, “Improving 351 nm damage performance of large aperture fused silica and DKDP optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 173-185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Whitman, P. K.

A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, P. J. Wegner, T. G. Parham, L. W. Hrubesh, B. M. Penetrante, P. K. Whitman, S. G. Demos, J. A. Menapace, M. J. Runkel, M. J. Fluss, M. D. Feit, M. H. Key, and T. A. Biesiada, “Improving 351 nm damage performance of large aperture fused silica and DKDP optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 173-185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13, 3513-3528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Targowski, B. Rouba, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “The application of optical coherence tomography to non-destructive examination of museum objects,” Stud. Conserv. 49, 107-114 (2004).

Xi, C. W.

C. W. Xi, D. L. Marks, D. S. Parikh, L. Raskin, and S. A. Boppart, “Structural and functional imaging of 3D microfluidic mixers using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 7516-7521 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yu, H. Y.

M. Bashkansky, D. Lewis, V. Pujari, J. Reintjes, and H. Y. Yu, “Subsurface detection and characterization of Hertzian cracks in Si2N4 balls using optical coherence tomography,” NDT&E Int. 34, 547-555 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Stifter, “Beyond biomedicine: a review of alternative applications and developments for optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 337-357 (2007).
[CrossRef]

NDT&E Int. (1)

M. Bashkansky, D. Lewis, V. Pujari, J. Reintjes, and H. Y. Yu, “Subsurface detection and characterization of Hertzian cracks in Si2N4 balls using optical coherence tomography,” NDT&E Int. 34, 547-555 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

C. W. Xi, D. L. Marks, D. S. Parikh, L. Raskin, and S. A. Boppart, “Structural and functional imaging of 3D microfluidic mixers using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 7516-7521 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (5)

M. L. Dufour, G. Lamouche, S. Vergnole, B. Gauthier, C. Padioleau, M. Hewko, S. Levesque, and V. Bartulovic, “Surface inspection of hard to reach industrial parts using low-coherence interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 6343, 63431Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, P. J. Wegner, T. G. Parham, L. W. Hrubesh, B. M. Penetrante, P. K. Whitman, S. G. Demos, J. A. Menapace, M. J. Runkel, M. J. Fluss, M. D. Feit, M. H. Key, and T. A. Biesiada, “Improving 351 nm damage performance of large aperture fused silica and DKDP optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 173-185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength radiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. Carr, R. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Methods for mitigating surface damage growth in NIF final optics,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 23-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. L. Bass, G. M. Guss, and R. P. Hackel, “Mitigation of laser damage growth in fused silica with a galvanometer scanned CO2 laser,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910C (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stud. Conserv. (1)

P. Targowski, B. Rouba, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “The application of optical coherence tomography to non-destructive examination of museum objects,” Stud. Conserv. 49, 107-114 (2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic depicting the experimental arrangement for OCT imaging of surface damage sites through the opposite surface of a large-aperture fused silica optic.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OCT cross-sectional images of a damage site (a) prior to and (b) after application of the image-processing algorithm to remove “ghost” image components arising from signal acquisition artifacts.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of the same surface damage site. (a) Top-view and (b) side-view conventional microscope images. Projections of the 3D OCT image on (c) the surface plane and (d) the axial plane that correspond to the viewing orientation of the conventional images. The red circle indicates a crack that is shown to be near the surface in the OCT projection. The green circle indicates a deep fracture, which is obscured in the microscope image but visible in the OCT projections. The yellow circle indicates two cracks, which appear to be a single crack in the microscope images due to limited depth of field.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Projections of OCT images of a damage site located on the surface of a large aperture fused silica optics taken (a) before and (b) after CO 2 laser mitigation.

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