Abstract

The South Pole Telescope is a 10m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, millimeter-wave, bolometer array receiver. The telescope has an unusual optical system with a cold stop around the secondary. The design emphasizes low scattering and low background loading. All the optical components except the primary are cold, and the entire beam from prime focus to the detectors is surrounded by cold absorber.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. A. Stark, “Design considerations for large detector arrays on submillimeter-wave telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 4015, 434-445 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. E. Carlstrom, G. P. Holder, and E. D. Reese, “Cosmology with the Sunyaez-Zel'dovich effect,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 40, 643-680 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Hu and S. Dodelson, “Cosmic microwave background anisotropies,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 40, 171-216 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Hanany and D. P. Marrone, “Comparison of designs of off-axis Gregorian telescopes for millimeter-wave large focal-plane arrays,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4666-4670 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. W. Griffin, J. J. Bock, and W. K. Gear, “Relative performance of filled and feedhorn-coupled focal-plane architectures,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6543-6554 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. A. R. Ade, G. Pisano, C. Tucker, and S. Weaver, “A review of metal mesh filters,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 62750U (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. A. Stark, “Meeting the optical requirements of large focal-plane arrays,” presented at the Fourteenth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, Tucson, AZ April 22-24, 2003. http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0305570
  9. R. N. Wilson, Reflecting Telescope Optics I (Springer-Verlag, 1996), Chap. 2.
  10. D. R. Schroeder, Astronomical Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 2000), Chap. 2.
  11. C. Dragone, “A first-order treatment of aberrations in Cassegrainian and Gregorian antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 30, 331-339 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Born and W. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge, 1999), p. 174.
  13. Zemax Development Corporation, 3001 112th Avenue NW, Bellevue, Washington 98004, USA.
  14. TICRA Engineering Consultants, Laederstraede 34, DK-1201 Copenhagen K Denmark.
  15. Emerson & Cuming, 46 Manning Road, Billerica, Massachusetts 01821, USA.
  16. Metallized Products Inc., 37 East Street, Winchester, Massachusetts 01890, USA.
  17. Cryomech Inc., 113 Falso Drive, Syracuse, New York 13211, USA.
  18. Zotefoams PLC, 675 Mitcham Road, Croydon CR9 3AL, UK.
  19. C. E. Tucker and P. A. R. Ade, “Thermal filtering for large aperture cryogenic detector arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 62750T (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. B. Hindle, “Floatation systems,” in Amateur Telescope Making, A. G. Ingalls, ed., (Munn & Co., 1947), pp. 229-234.
  21. J. C. Bennett, A. P. Anderson, P. A. McInnes, and A. J. T. Whittaker, “Microwave holographic metrology of large reflector antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 24, 295-303(1976).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. F. Scott and M. Ryle, “A rapid method for measuring the figure of a radio telescope reflector,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 178, 539-545 (1977).

2006

P. A. R. Ade, G. Pisano, C. Tucker, and S. Weaver, “A review of metal mesh filters,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 62750U (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Tucker and P. A. R. Ade, “Thermal filtering for large aperture cryogenic detector arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 62750T (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. E. Carlstrom, G. P. Holder, and E. D. Reese, “Cosmology with the Sunyaez-Zel'dovich effect,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 40, 643-680 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Hu and S. Dodelson, “Cosmic microwave background anisotropies,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 40, 171-216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Hanany and D. P. Marrone, “Comparison of designs of off-axis Gregorian telescopes for millimeter-wave large focal-plane arrays,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4666-4670 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Griffin, J. J. Bock, and W. K. Gear, “Relative performance of filled and feedhorn-coupled focal-plane architectures,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6543-6554 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

A. A. Stark, “Design considerations for large detector arrays on submillimeter-wave telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 4015, 434-445 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1982

C. Dragone, “A first-order treatment of aberrations in Cassegrainian and Gregorian antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 30, 331-339 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977

P. F. Scott and M. Ryle, “A rapid method for measuring the figure of a radio telescope reflector,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 178, 539-545 (1977).

1976

J. C. Bennett, A. P. Anderson, P. A. McInnes, and A. J. T. Whittaker, “Microwave holographic metrology of large reflector antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 24, 295-303(1976).
[CrossRef]

Ade, P. A. R.

P. A. R. Ade, G. Pisano, C. Tucker, and S. Weaver, “A review of metal mesh filters,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 62750U (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Tucker and P. A. R. Ade, “Thermal filtering for large aperture cryogenic detector arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 62750T (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, A. P.

J. C. Bennett, A. P. Anderson, P. A. McInnes, and A. J. T. Whittaker, “Microwave holographic metrology of large reflector antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 24, 295-303(1976).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. C.

J. C. Bennett, A. P. Anderson, P. A. McInnes, and A. J. T. Whittaker, “Microwave holographic metrology of large reflector antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 24, 295-303(1976).
[CrossRef]

Bock, J. J.

Born, M.

M. Born and W. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge, 1999), p. 174.

Carlstrom, J. E.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Carlstrom, G. P. Holder, and E. D. Reese, “Cosmology with the Sunyaez-Zel'dovich effect,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 40, 643-680 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. M.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, T.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dobbs, M.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dodelson, S.

W. Hu and S. Dodelson, “Cosmic microwave background anisotropies,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 40, 171-216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dragone, C.

C. Dragone, “A first-order treatment of aberrations in Cassegrainian and Gregorian antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 30, 331-339 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gear, W. K.

Greer, C. H.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, M. W.

Halverson, N. W.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hanany, S.

Hindle, J. B.

J. B. Hindle, “Floatation systems,” in Amateur Telescope Making, A. G. Ingalls, ed., (Munn & Co., 1947), pp. 229-234.

Holder, G. P.

J. E. Carlstrom, G. P. Holder, and E. D. Reese, “Cosmology with the Sunyaez-Zel'dovich effect,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 40, 643-680 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holzapfel, W. L.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

W. Hu and S. Dodelson, “Cosmic microwave background anisotropies,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 40, 171-216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lanting, T. M.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A. T.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leitch, E. M.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leong, J.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lueker, M.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marrone, D. P.

McInnes, P. A.

J. C. Bennett, A. P. Anderson, P. A. McInnes, and A. J. T. Whittaker, “Microwave holographic metrology of large reflector antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 24, 295-303(1976).
[CrossRef]

Mehl, J.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, S. S.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mohr, J. J.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Padin, S.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pisano, G.

P. A. R. Ade, G. Pisano, C. Tucker, and S. Weaver, “A review of metal mesh filters,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 62750U (2006).
[CrossRef]

Plagge, T.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pryke, C.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reese, E. D.

J. E. Carlstrom, G. P. Holder, and E. D. Reese, “Cosmology with the Sunyaez-Zel'dovich effect,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 40, 643-680 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ruhl, J. E.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Runyan, M. C.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ryle, M.

P. F. Scott and M. Ryle, “A rapid method for measuring the figure of a radio telescope reflector,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 178, 539-545 (1977).

Schroeder, D. R.

D. R. Schroeder, Astronomical Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 2000), Chap. 2.

Schwan, D.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scott, P. F.

P. F. Scott and M. Ryle, “A rapid method for measuring the figure of a radio telescope reflector,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 178, 539-545 (1977).

Sharp, M. K.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spieler, H.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Staniszewski, Z.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stark, A. A.

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Stark, “Design considerations for large detector arrays on submillimeter-wave telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 4015, 434-445 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Stark, “Meeting the optical requirements of large focal-plane arrays,” presented at the Fourteenth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, Tucson, AZ April 22-24, 2003. http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0305570

Tucker, C.

P. A. R. Ade, G. Pisano, C. Tucker, and S. Weaver, “A review of metal mesh filters,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 62750U (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, C. E.

C. E. Tucker and P. A. R. Ade, “Thermal filtering for large aperture cryogenic detector arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 62750T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, S.

P. A. R. Ade, G. Pisano, C. Tucker, and S. Weaver, “A review of metal mesh filters,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 62750U (2006).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, A. J. T.

J. C. Bennett, A. P. Anderson, P. A. McInnes, and A. J. T. Whittaker, “Microwave holographic metrology of large reflector antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 24, 295-303(1976).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. N.

R. N. Wilson, Reflecting Telescope Optics I (Springer-Verlag, 1996), Chap. 2.

Wolf, W.

M. Born and W. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge, 1999), p. 174.

Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.

J. E. Carlstrom, G. P. Holder, and E. D. Reese, “Cosmology with the Sunyaez-Zel'dovich effect,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 40, 643-680 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Hu and S. Dodelson, “Cosmic microwave background anisotropies,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 40, 171-216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat.

C. Dragone, “A first-order treatment of aberrations in Cassegrainian and Gregorian antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 30, 331-339 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Bennett, A. P. Anderson, P. A. McInnes, and A. J. T. Whittaker, “Microwave holographic metrology of large reflector antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 24, 295-303(1976).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.

P. F. Scott and M. Ryle, “A rapid method for measuring the figure of a radio telescope reflector,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 178, 539-545 (1977).

Proc. SPIE

J. E. Ruhl, P. A. R. Ade, J. E. Carlstrom, H. M. Cho, T. Crawford, M. Dobbs, C. H. Greer, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, T. M. Lanting, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, J. Leong, W. Lu, M. Lueker, J. Mehl, S. S. Meyer, J. J. Mohr, S. Padin, T. Plagge, C. Pryke, M. C. Runyan, D. Schwan, M. K. Sharp, H. Spieler, Z. Staniszewski, and A. A. Stark, “The South Pole Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5498, 11-29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Stark, “Design considerations for large detector arrays on submillimeter-wave telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 4015, 434-445 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Tucker and P. A. R. Ade, “Thermal filtering for large aperture cryogenic detector arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 62750T (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. A. R. Ade, G. Pisano, C. Tucker, and S. Weaver, “A review of metal mesh filters,” Proc. SPIE 6275, 62750U (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. A. Stark, “Meeting the optical requirements of large focal-plane arrays,” presented at the Fourteenth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, Tucson, AZ April 22-24, 2003. http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0305570

R. N. Wilson, Reflecting Telescope Optics I (Springer-Verlag, 1996), Chap. 2.

D. R. Schroeder, Astronomical Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 2000), Chap. 2.

M. Born and W. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge, 1999), p. 174.

Zemax Development Corporation, 3001 112th Avenue NW, Bellevue, Washington 98004, USA.

TICRA Engineering Consultants, Laederstraede 34, DK-1201 Copenhagen K Denmark.

Emerson & Cuming, 46 Manning Road, Billerica, Massachusetts 01821, USA.

Metallized Products Inc., 37 East Street, Winchester, Massachusetts 01890, USA.

Cryomech Inc., 113 Falso Drive, Syracuse, New York 13211, USA.

Zotefoams PLC, 675 Mitcham Road, Croydon CR9 3AL, UK.

J. B. Hindle, “Floatation systems,” in Amateur Telescope Making, A. G. Ingalls, ed., (Munn & Co., 1947), pp. 229-234.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SPT: The “wings” on each side of the primary are comoving ground shields. The receiver cabin is the large box at the end of the space-frame arm at top right.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SPT optics details for (top) the basic Gregorian telescope with no lens and (bottom) a meniscus lens that makes the final focus telecentric and centers the detector illumination patterns on the secondary. For each surface, r is the radius of curvature and k is the conic constant. Dimensions are in mm at the operating temperature, i.e., ambient for the primary, 10 K for the secondary, and 4 K for the lens. On warming to 300 K , the secondary expands 0.415% and the HDPE lens expands 2.06%. The 1024 × 1048 mm ellipse is the rim of the secondary.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Full field spot diagram: The spots are at offsets of 1 / 4 ° and 1 / 2 ° and the circle is the diameter of the Airy disk at λ = 2 mm . The spots have been enlarged by a factor 5 about the central ray, but the relative positions of the central rays have not been changed. Distortion is 0.7 arcmin at the edge of a 1 ° field.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cuts through the beam from a GRASP-SE [14] simulation at λ = 2 mm (left and center) and beam profiles measured on Mars (right). The beam coordinates ( x , y ) are oriented with y parallel to elevation, i.e., in the plane of the mirror offset. Bold lines are the copolar response and light lines are the crosspolar response. If the beam has no x offset, the crosspolar response is zero along a y cut, so there are no crosspolar response curves in the top left and bottom left panels. The measured and calculated beam shapes have the same general features, but the details are different because of surface profile errors in the mirrors. In the simulations, distortion displaces the beam from its nominal position (see, e.g., center left panel). This effect has been removed in the Mars maps by centering each map on the peak response.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Section through the receiver and optics cryostats. The entire inside surface of the cold stop (from the secondary to the window and from the secondary to the focal plane) is covered with HR-10 absorber. The break between the receiver and optics cryostats is at the flange immediately below the window. The slot in the cold stop just to the right of the break is part of the stop support.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cold stop and radiation shield assembly. The receiver port is at top left and the prime focus port is at top right. The wiring on the outside of the radiation shield is for diode and cernox thermometers. In this picture, the radiation shield has not yet been covered with superinsulation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

One of the four radiation shield supports at the mirror end of the shield. One end of the G10 cylinder is attached to the cold stop shroud and the other end is attached to an aluminum box mounted on the radiation shield. The box lid has been made transparent to show the G10 cylinder inside.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Cold stop and radiation shield supports at the receiver mounting flange. The G10 fin on the right is one of three that constrain the spacing between the shield and stop. The fin is glued to an aluminum strip that engages a slot in the stop and it is clamped, under tension, to the shield. The fin and bracket on the left is one of four that support the shield. This view is from inside the optics cryostat, looking out through the receiver port. The radiation shield has been made transparent to show the mounting details.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Section through one of the three mirror mounts. The spherical washers and thrust bearings allow lateral and tilt motions of the mirror back plate. The Belleville spring provides the force to hold the mirror against the back plate. See Fig. 10 for a 3D view of the mirror mount.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Truss rod ball joint at one of the three corners on the mirror back plate. The spring is a thick disk that presses the ball against a cylindrical hole in the ball plate. The spring, ball, and ball plate are all made of steel. The mirror back plate is made of aluminum. A similar arrangement clamps the other ends of the truss rods to three blocks on the receiver mounting flange.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Holography setup. HM is a harmonic mixer and + is a power splitter.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Secondary surface profile error (a) at room temperature with no filters or window; (b) at room temperature, under vacuum, with heat-blocking filters and a 43 mm thick, HDPE vacuum window; and (c) at 32 K with the same filters and window as (b). The gray scale range is + 100 μm (white) to 100 μm (black). The number in each plot is the beam-weighted rms surface error. Gravity is up and tilted 20 ° above the top of the page. The small black circles in (c) indicate the positions of the mirror support studs. These studs engage a tight-fitting hole (bottom right), a radial slot (bottom left), and a clearance hole (top) in the stud support plates on the mirror side of the back plate (see Figs. 9, 10).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Secondary surface details: The small circles are at prime and Gregory foci. Dotted lines are the principal and edge rays for a source at the field center.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Secondary Mirror Design Parameters at 10 K .

Equations (22)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

m 2 tan i 1 = ( m 2 + 1 ) tan i 2 ,
D 2 = D 1 L f .
D 1 = D 1 + u f 1 L ( f L ) ,
Q 1 1 + n σ A ( T 1 4 T 2 4 ) ε ,
( x a + f 2 ) 2 a 2 + y 2 b 2 + z 2 b 2 = 1 ,
a = r 2 ( 1 + k 2 ) 1 ,
b = r 2 ( 1 + k 2 ) 1 / 2 .
x cos θ r y sin θ r = ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 1 / 2 cos θ c ,
θ r = 2 i 1 2 i 2 + θ s
θ c arctan ( D 1 / 2 f )
y = x [ a cos θ r ( a f 2 ) cos θ c ] b 2 cos θ c a sin θ r ,
θ e = arctan [ a cos θ r ( a f 2 ) cos θ c a sin θ r ] ,
h = b 2 cos θ c a sin θ r .
z = ± ( A x 2 + B x + C ) 1 / 2 a sin θ r ,
A = 2 a ( a f 2 ) cos θ r cos θ c + ( a 2 b 2 ) ( sin 2 θ r cos 2 θ c ) a 2 , B = 2 b 2 [ ( a f 2 ) ( sin 2 θ r cos 2 θ c ) + a cos θ r cos θ c ] , C = b 4 ( sin 2 θ r cos 2 θ c ) .
x t = B 2 a b 2 sin θ r sin θ c 2 A , x b = B + 2 a b 2 sin θ r sin θ c 2 A ,
a e = x t x b 2 cos θ e ,
x e = x t + x b 2 = B 2 A ,
b e = b 2 sin θ r ( A ) 1 / 2 .
( x y z ) = ( cos θ e 0 sin θ e sin θ e 0 cos θ e 0 1 0 ) ( x y z ) + ( x e y e 0 )
z = P x + Q + a ( J y 2 + K x 2 + L x + N ) 1 / 2 J ,
J = ( a 2 b 2 ) cos 2 θ e b 2 , K = b 2 , L = 2 b 2 [ ( a f 2 ) cos θ e y e sin θ e x e cos θ e ] , N = b 2 [ b 2 x e 2 cos 2 θ e 2 y e x e cos θ e sin θ e + 2 ( a f 2 ) cos θ e ( y e sin θ e + x e cos θ e ) y e 2 sin 2 θ e ] , P = ( a 2 b 2 ) cos θ e sin θ e , Q = a 2 y e cos θ e b 2 x e sin θ e + b 2 ( a f 2 ) sin θ e .

Metrics