Abstract

An optical system for authentication using a 3D (3D) random phase object with various wavelength readouts is proposed. The 3D phase object without surface modulation is secure when the scattering is strong enough because it prevents from the interferometric measurement. The identification is implemented by the correlation between a measured speckle pattern of the 3D phase object and stored speckle patterns. For accurate identification, two speckle patterns of the 3D object obtained by illuminating two wavelengths are used. Experimental demonstrations and numerical evaluations of wavelength selectivity are presented.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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2007 (1)

O. Matoba, T. Sawasaki, K. Nakajima, and K. Nitta, “Optical identification system of 3D random phase object by use of speckle patterns in different propagation distances,” J. Phys: Conf. Ser. 77, 012009 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Hsu, C. H. Wu, and W. C. Su, “Spatial filtering of 3D objects based on volume holography,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2788-2789 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, “Physical one-way functions,” Science 297, 2026-2030 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

2000 (3)

1999 (1)

1994 (1)

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, “Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1752-1756(1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1978 (1)

Feit, M. D.

Fleck, J. A.

Gershenfeld, N.

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, “Physical one-way functions,” Science 297, 2026-2030 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gluckstad, J.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed.(Roberts & Company, 2005), Chap. 8.

Horner, J. L.

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, “Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1752-1756(1994).
[Crossref]

Hsu, C. Y.

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Hsu, C. H. Wu, and W. C. Su, “Spatial filtering of 3D objects based on volume holography,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2788-2789 (2003).
[Crossref]

Javidi, B.

B. Javidi and T. Nomura, “Polarization encoding for optical security systems,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2439-2443 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. Tajahuerce and B. Javidi, “Encrypting 3D information with digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6595-6601 (2000).
[Crossref]

O. Matoba and B. Javidi, “Encrypted optical memory system using 3D keys in the Fresnel domain,” Opt. Lett. 24, 762-764(1999).
[Crossref]

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, “Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1752-1756(1994).
[Crossref]

Joseph, J.

Matoba, O.

O. Matoba, T. Sawasaki, K. Nakajima, and K. Nitta, “Optical identification system of 3D random phase object by use of speckle patterns in different propagation distances,” J. Phys: Conf. Ser. 77, 012009 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Matoba and B. Javidi, “Encrypted optical memory system using 3D keys in the Fresnel domain,” Opt. Lett. 24, 762-764(1999).
[Crossref]

Mogensen, P. C.

Nakajima, K.

O. Matoba, T. Sawasaki, K. Nakajima, and K. Nitta, “Optical identification system of 3D random phase object by use of speckle patterns in different propagation distances,” J. Phys: Conf. Ser. 77, 012009 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nitta, K.

O. Matoba, T. Sawasaki, K. Nakajima, and K. Nitta, “Optical identification system of 3D random phase object by use of speckle patterns in different propagation distances,” J. Phys: Conf. Ser. 77, 012009 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nomura, T.

B. Javidi and T. Nomura, “Polarization encoding for optical security systems,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2439-2443 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pappu, R.

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, “Physical one-way functions,” Science 297, 2026-2030 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Recht, B.

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, “Physical one-way functions,” Science 297, 2026-2030 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawasaki, T.

O. Matoba, T. Sawasaki, K. Nakajima, and K. Nitta, “Optical identification system of 3D random phase object by use of speckle patterns in different propagation distances,” J. Phys: Conf. Ser. 77, 012009 (2007).
[Crossref]

Singh, K.

Su, W. C.

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Hsu, C. H. Wu, and W. C. Su, “Spatial filtering of 3D objects based on volume holography,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2788-2789 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. C. Sun and W. C. Su, “Three-dimensional shifting selectivity of random phase encoding in volume holograms,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1253-1260 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. C.

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Hsu, C. H. Wu, and W. C. Su, “Spatial filtering of 3D objects based on volume holography,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2788-2789 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. C. Sun and W. C. Su, “Three-dimensional shifting selectivity of random phase encoding in volume holograms,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1253-1260 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tajahuerce, E.

Taylor, J.

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, “Physical one-way functions,” Science 297, 2026-2030 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uang, C. M.

Unnikrishnan, G.

Wen, M.

Wu, C. H.

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Hsu, C. H. Wu, and W. C. Su, “Spatial filtering of 3D objects based on volume holography,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2788-2789 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yin, S.

Yu, F.

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Phys: Conf. Ser. (1)

O. Matoba, T. Sawasaki, K. Nakajima, and K. Nitta, “Optical identification system of 3D random phase object by use of speckle patterns in different propagation distances,” J. Phys: Conf. Ser. 77, 012009 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (3)

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Hsu, C. H. Wu, and W. C. Su, “Spatial filtering of 3D objects based on volume holography,” Opt. Eng. 42, 2788-2789 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Javidi and T. Nomura, “Polarization encoding for optical security systems,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2439-2443 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, “Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1752-1756(1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (1)

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, “Physical one-way functions,” Science 297, 2026-2030 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

B.Javidi, ed., Optical and Digital Techniques for Information Security (Springer, 2004).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed.(Roberts & Company, 2005), Chap. 8.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the proposed identification system based on authenticating a 3D phase object by use of a two wavelength readout.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

3D random phase object: (a) proposed 3D phase object for identification system and (b) embossed structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup; BE, beam expander; A, aperture; BS, beam splitter; M, mirror.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Speckle patterns at distances of (a) 200, (b) 300, (c) 400, and (d)  500 mm when a laser beam at a wavelength of 632.8 nm is used.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Speckle patterns at distances of (a) 200, (b) 300, (c) 400, and (d)  500 mm when a laser beam at wavelength of 532 nm is used.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Width of autocorrelation of speckle patterns as a function of propagation distance.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Maximum of autocorrelation and cross correlation between speckle patterns obtained by 632.8 nm and 532 nm at different propagation distances.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Angle change of a 3D phase object rotated on the x and y axes.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Angle tolerance of a 3D phase object.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Peaks of cross correlation between speckle pattern at 632.8 nm and speckle patterns obtained at different wavelengths.

Equations (2)

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C λ 1 , z ( x , y ) = f λ 1 , z ( x , y ) g λ 1 , z ( x , y ) ,
C λ 2 , z ( x , y ) = f λ 2 , z ( x , y ) g λ 2 , z ( x , y ) ,

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