Abstract

Recently it was observed that the Hydropsyche pellucidula caddis flies swarm near sunset at the vertical glass surfaces of buildings standing on the bank of the Danube river in Budapest, Hungary. These aquatic insects emerge from the Danube and are lured to dark vertical panes of glass, where they swarm, land, copulate, and remain for hours. It was also shown that ovipositing H. pellucidula caddis flies are attracted to highly and horizontally polarized light stimulating their ventral eye region and thus have positive polarotaxis. The attraction of these aquatic insects to vertical reflectors is surprising, because after their aerial swarming, they must return to the horizontal surface of water bodies from which they emerge and at which they lay their eggs. Our aim is to answer the questions: Why are flying polarotactic caddis flies attracted to vertical glass surfaces? And why do these aquatic insects remain on vertical panes of glass after landing? We propose that both questions can be partly explained by the reflection–polarization characteristics of vertical glass surfaces and the positive polarotaxis of caddis flies. We measured the reflection–polarization patterns of shady and sunlit, black and white vertical glass surfaces from different directions of view under clear and overcast skies by imaging polarimetry in the red, green, and blue parts of the spectrum. Using these polarization patterns we determined which areas of the investigated glass surfaces are sensed as water by a hypothetical polarotactic insect facing and flying toward or landed on a vertical pane of glass. Our results strongly support the mentioned proposition. The main optical characteristics of “green,” that is, environmentally friendly, buildings, considering the protection of polarotactic aquatic insects, are also discussed. Such “green” buildings possess features that attract only a small number of polarotactic aquatic insects when standing in the vicinity of fresh waters. Since vertical glass panes of buildings are abundant in the man-made optical environment, and polarotactic aquatic insects are spread worldwide, our results are of general interest in the visual and behavioral ecology of aquatic insects.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Kriska, P. Malik, I. Szivák, and G. Horváth, “Glass buildings on river banks as 'polarized light traps' for mass-swarming polarotactic caddis flies.,” Naturwissenschaften 95, 461-467 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Gál, G. Horváth, and V. B. Meyer-Rochow, “Measurement of the reflection-polarization pattern of the flat water surface under a clear sky at sunset,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 103-111 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Horváth and J. Zeil, “Kuwait oil lakes as insect traps,” Nature 379, 303-304 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Wildermuth, “Dragonflies recognize the water of rendezvous and oviposition sites by horizontally polarized light: a behavioural field test,” Naturwissenschaften 85, 297-302 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Horváth, B. Bernáth, and G. Molnár, “Dragonflies find crude oil visually more attractive than water: multiple-choice experiments on dragonfly polarotaxis,” Naturwissenschaften 85, 292-297 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Bernáth, G. Szedenics, G. Molnár, G. Kriska, and G. Horváth, “Visual ecological impact of 'shiny black anthropogenic products' on aquatic insects: oil reservoirs and plastic sheets as polarized traps for insects associated with water,” Arch. Nat. Conserv. Land. Research 40, 89-109 (2001).
  7. G. Kriska, G. Horváth, and S. Andrikovics, “Why do mayflies lay their eggs en masse on dry asphalt roads? Water-imitating polarized light reflected from asphalt attracts Ephemeroptera,” J. Exp. Biol. 201, 2273-2286 (1998).
  8. G. Kriska, B. Bernáth, and G. Horváth, “Positive polarotaxis in a mayfly that never leaves the water surface: polarotactic water detection in Palingenia longicauda (Ephemeroptera),” Naturwissenschaften 94, 148-154 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Wildermuth and G. Horváth, “Visual deception of a male Libellula depressa by the shiny surface of a parked car (Odonata: Libellulidae),” Int. J. Odonatology 8, 97-105 (2005).
  10. G. Kriska, Z. Csabai, P. Boda, P. Malik, and G. Horváth, “Why do red and dark-coloured cars lure aquatic insects? The attraction of water insects to car paintwork explained by reflection-polarization signals,” Proc. R. Soc. B 273, 1667-1671 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Horváth, P. Malik, G. Kriska, and H. Wildermuth, “Ecological traps for dragonflies in a cemetery: the attraction of Sympetrum species (Odonata: Libellulidae) by horizontally polarizing black gravestones,” Freshw. Biol. 52, 1700-1709(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Reich and B. J. Downes, “Experimental evidence for physical cues involved in oviposition site selection of lotic hydrobiosid caddis flies,” Oecologia 136, 465-475 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Malicky, Atlas of European Trichoptera (Springer-Verlag, 2005), p. 359.
  14. G. Horváth and D. Varjú, “Polarization pattern of freshwater habitats recorded by video polarimetry in red, green and blue spectral ranges and its relevance for water detection by aquatic insects,” J. Exp. Biol. 200, 1155-1163 (1997).
  15. J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 457, 1385-1399 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Schwind, “Sehen unter und über Wasser, Sehen von Wasser.,” Naturwissenschaften 72, 343-352 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Schwind, “Polarization vision in water insects and insects living on a moist substrate,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 169, 531-540 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Schwind, “Spectral regions in which aquatic insects see reflected polarized light,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 177, 439-448(1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Horváth and D. Varjú, Polarized Light in Animal Vision--Polarization Patterns in Nature (Springer-Verlag, 2004).
  20. N. Umow, “Chromatische Depolarisation durch Lichtzerstreuung,” Phys. Z. 6, 674-676 (1905).
  21. B. Bernáth, J. Gál, and G. Horváth, “Why is it worth flying at dusk for aquatic insects? Polarotactic water detection is easiest at low solar elevations,” J. Exp. Biol. 207, 755-765(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Horváth and I. Pomozi, “How celestial polarization changes due to reflection from the deflector panels used in deflector loft and mirror experiments studying avian navigation,” J. Theor. Biol. 184, 291-300 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Z. Csabai, P. Boda, B. Bernáth, G. Kriska, and G. Horváth, “A 'polarisation sun-dial' dictates the optimal time of day for dispersal by flying aquatic insects,” Freshw. Biol. 51, 1341-1350 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. E. Savolainen, “Swarming in Ephemeroptera: the mechanism of swarming and the effects of illumination and weather,” Ann. Zool. Fennici 15, 17-52 (1978).
  25. M. A. Schlaepfer, M. C. Runge, and P. W. Sherman, “Ecological and evolutionary traps,” Trends Ecol. Evol. 17, 474-480(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Horváth and G. Kriska, “Polarization vision in aquatic insects and ecological traps for polarotactic insects,” in Aquatic Insects: Challenges to Populations, J. Lancaster and R. A. Briers, eds. (CAB International Publishing, 2008), Chap. 11, pp. 204-229.
  27. B. A. Robertson and R. L. Hutto, “A framework for understanding ecological traps and an evaluation of existing evidence,” Ecology 87, 1075-1085 (2006).

2008 (1)

G. Kriska, P. Malik, I. Szivák, and G. Horváth, “Glass buildings on river banks as 'polarized light traps' for mass-swarming polarotactic caddis flies.,” Naturwissenschaften 95, 461-467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

G. Kriska, B. Bernáth, and G. Horváth, “Positive polarotaxis in a mayfly that never leaves the water surface: polarotactic water detection in Palingenia longicauda (Ephemeroptera),” Naturwissenschaften 94, 148-154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Horváth, P. Malik, G. Kriska, and H. Wildermuth, “Ecological traps for dragonflies in a cemetery: the attraction of Sympetrum species (Odonata: Libellulidae) by horizontally polarizing black gravestones,” Freshw. Biol. 52, 1700-1709(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

G. Kriska, Z. Csabai, P. Boda, P. Malik, and G. Horváth, “Why do red and dark-coloured cars lure aquatic insects? The attraction of water insects to car paintwork explained by reflection-polarization signals,” Proc. R. Soc. B 273, 1667-1671 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Csabai, P. Boda, B. Bernáth, G. Kriska, and G. Horváth, “A 'polarisation sun-dial' dictates the optimal time of day for dispersal by flying aquatic insects,” Freshw. Biol. 51, 1341-1350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Robertson and R. L. Hutto, “A framework for understanding ecological traps and an evaluation of existing evidence,” Ecology 87, 1075-1085 (2006).

2005 (1)

H. Wildermuth and G. Horváth, “Visual deception of a male Libellula depressa by the shiny surface of a parked car (Odonata: Libellulidae),” Int. J. Odonatology 8, 97-105 (2005).

2004 (1)

B. Bernáth, J. Gál, and G. Horváth, “Why is it worth flying at dusk for aquatic insects? Polarotactic water detection is easiest at low solar elevations,” J. Exp. Biol. 207, 755-765(2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Reich and B. J. Downes, “Experimental evidence for physical cues involved in oviposition site selection of lotic hydrobiosid caddis flies,” Oecologia 136, 465-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. A. Schlaepfer, M. C. Runge, and P. W. Sherman, “Ecological and evolutionary traps,” Trends Ecol. Evol. 17, 474-480(2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 457, 1385-1399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernáth, G. Szedenics, G. Molnár, G. Kriska, and G. Horváth, “Visual ecological impact of 'shiny black anthropogenic products' on aquatic insects: oil reservoirs and plastic sheets as polarized traps for insects associated with water,” Arch. Nat. Conserv. Land. Research 40, 89-109 (2001).

J. Gál, G. Horváth, and V. B. Meyer-Rochow, “Measurement of the reflection-polarization pattern of the flat water surface under a clear sky at sunset,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 103-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

H. Wildermuth, “Dragonflies recognize the water of rendezvous and oviposition sites by horizontally polarized light: a behavioural field test,” Naturwissenschaften 85, 297-302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Horváth, B. Bernáth, and G. Molnár, “Dragonflies find crude oil visually more attractive than water: multiple-choice experiments on dragonfly polarotaxis,” Naturwissenschaften 85, 292-297 (1998)
[CrossRef]

G. Kriska, G. Horváth, and S. Andrikovics, “Why do mayflies lay their eggs en masse on dry asphalt roads? Water-imitating polarized light reflected from asphalt attracts Ephemeroptera,” J. Exp. Biol. 201, 2273-2286 (1998).

1997 (2)

G. Horváth and D. Varjú, “Polarization pattern of freshwater habitats recorded by video polarimetry in red, green and blue spectral ranges and its relevance for water detection by aquatic insects,” J. Exp. Biol. 200, 1155-1163 (1997).

G. Horváth and I. Pomozi, “How celestial polarization changes due to reflection from the deflector panels used in deflector loft and mirror experiments studying avian navigation,” J. Theor. Biol. 184, 291-300 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. Horváth and J. Zeil, “Kuwait oil lakes as insect traps,” Nature 379, 303-304 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. Schwind, “Spectral regions in which aquatic insects see reflected polarized light,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 177, 439-448(1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. Schwind, “Polarization vision in water insects and insects living on a moist substrate,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 169, 531-540 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. Schwind, “Sehen unter und über Wasser, Sehen von Wasser.,” Naturwissenschaften 72, 343-352 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

E. Savolainen, “Swarming in Ephemeroptera: the mechanism of swarming and the effects of illumination and weather,” Ann. Zool. Fennici 15, 17-52 (1978).

1905 (1)

N. Umow, “Chromatische Depolarisation durch Lichtzerstreuung,” Phys. Z. 6, 674-676 (1905).

Andrikovics, S.

G. Kriska, G. Horváth, and S. Andrikovics, “Why do mayflies lay their eggs en masse on dry asphalt roads? Water-imitating polarized light reflected from asphalt attracts Ephemeroptera,” J. Exp. Biol. 201, 2273-2286 (1998).

Bernáth, B.

G. Kriska, B. Bernáth, and G. Horváth, “Positive polarotaxis in a mayfly that never leaves the water surface: polarotactic water detection in Palingenia longicauda (Ephemeroptera),” Naturwissenschaften 94, 148-154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Csabai, P. Boda, B. Bernáth, G. Kriska, and G. Horváth, “A 'polarisation sun-dial' dictates the optimal time of day for dispersal by flying aquatic insects,” Freshw. Biol. 51, 1341-1350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernáth, J. Gál, and G. Horváth, “Why is it worth flying at dusk for aquatic insects? Polarotactic water detection is easiest at low solar elevations,” J. Exp. Biol. 207, 755-765(2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernáth, G. Szedenics, G. Molnár, G. Kriska, and G. Horváth, “Visual ecological impact of 'shiny black anthropogenic products' on aquatic insects: oil reservoirs and plastic sheets as polarized traps for insects associated with water,” Arch. Nat. Conserv. Land. Research 40, 89-109 (2001).

G. Horváth, B. Bernáth, and G. Molnár, “Dragonflies find crude oil visually more attractive than water: multiple-choice experiments on dragonfly polarotaxis,” Naturwissenschaften 85, 292-297 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Boda, P.

Z. Csabai, P. Boda, B. Bernáth, G. Kriska, and G. Horváth, “A 'polarisation sun-dial' dictates the optimal time of day for dispersal by flying aquatic insects,” Freshw. Biol. 51, 1341-1350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Kriska, Z. Csabai, P. Boda, P. Malik, and G. Horváth, “Why do red and dark-coloured cars lure aquatic insects? The attraction of water insects to car paintwork explained by reflection-polarization signals,” Proc. R. Soc. B 273, 1667-1671 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Csabai, Z.

G. Kriska, Z. Csabai, P. Boda, P. Malik, and G. Horváth, “Why do red and dark-coloured cars lure aquatic insects? The attraction of water insects to car paintwork explained by reflection-polarization signals,” Proc. R. Soc. B 273, 1667-1671 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Csabai, P. Boda, B. Bernáth, G. Kriska, and G. Horváth, “A 'polarisation sun-dial' dictates the optimal time of day for dispersal by flying aquatic insects,” Freshw. Biol. 51, 1341-1350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Downes, B. J.

P. Reich and B. J. Downes, “Experimental evidence for physical cues involved in oviposition site selection of lotic hydrobiosid caddis flies,” Oecologia 136, 465-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gál, J.

B. Bernáth, J. Gál, and G. Horváth, “Why is it worth flying at dusk for aquatic insects? Polarotactic water detection is easiest at low solar elevations,” J. Exp. Biol. 207, 755-765(2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Gál, G. Horváth, and V. B. Meyer-Rochow, “Measurement of the reflection-polarization pattern of the flat water surface under a clear sky at sunset,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 103-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 457, 1385-1399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Horváth, G.

G. Kriska, P. Malik, I. Szivák, and G. Horváth, “Glass buildings on river banks as 'polarized light traps' for mass-swarming polarotactic caddis flies.,” Naturwissenschaften 95, 461-467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Kriska, B. Bernáth, and G. Horváth, “Positive polarotaxis in a mayfly that never leaves the water surface: polarotactic water detection in Palingenia longicauda (Ephemeroptera),” Naturwissenschaften 94, 148-154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Horváth, P. Malik, G. Kriska, and H. Wildermuth, “Ecological traps for dragonflies in a cemetery: the attraction of Sympetrum species (Odonata: Libellulidae) by horizontally polarizing black gravestones,” Freshw. Biol. 52, 1700-1709(2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Kriska, Z. Csabai, P. Boda, P. Malik, and G. Horváth, “Why do red and dark-coloured cars lure aquatic insects? The attraction of water insects to car paintwork explained by reflection-polarization signals,” Proc. R. Soc. B 273, 1667-1671 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Csabai, P. Boda, B. Bernáth, G. Kriska, and G. Horváth, “A 'polarisation sun-dial' dictates the optimal time of day for dispersal by flying aquatic insects,” Freshw. Biol. 51, 1341-1350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Wildermuth and G. Horváth, “Visual deception of a male Libellula depressa by the shiny surface of a parked car (Odonata: Libellulidae),” Int. J. Odonatology 8, 97-105 (2005).

B. Bernáth, J. Gál, and G. Horváth, “Why is it worth flying at dusk for aquatic insects? Polarotactic water detection is easiest at low solar elevations,” J. Exp. Biol. 207, 755-765(2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Gál, G. Horváth, and V. B. Meyer-Rochow, “Measurement of the reflection-polarization pattern of the flat water surface under a clear sky at sunset,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 103-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernáth, G. Szedenics, G. Molnár, G. Kriska, and G. Horváth, “Visual ecological impact of 'shiny black anthropogenic products' on aquatic insects: oil reservoirs and plastic sheets as polarized traps for insects associated with water,” Arch. Nat. Conserv. Land. Research 40, 89-109 (2001).

J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 457, 1385-1399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Horváth, B. Bernáth, and G. Molnár, “Dragonflies find crude oil visually more attractive than water: multiple-choice experiments on dragonfly polarotaxis,” Naturwissenschaften 85, 292-297 (1998)
[CrossRef]

G. Kriska, G. Horváth, and S. Andrikovics, “Why do mayflies lay their eggs en masse on dry asphalt roads? Water-imitating polarized light reflected from asphalt attracts Ephemeroptera,” J. Exp. Biol. 201, 2273-2286 (1998).

G. Horváth and I. Pomozi, “How celestial polarization changes due to reflection from the deflector panels used in deflector loft and mirror experiments studying avian navigation,” J. Theor. Biol. 184, 291-300 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Horváth and D. Varjú, “Polarization pattern of freshwater habitats recorded by video polarimetry in red, green and blue spectral ranges and its relevance for water detection by aquatic insects,” J. Exp. Biol. 200, 1155-1163 (1997).

G. Horváth and J. Zeil, “Kuwait oil lakes as insect traps,” Nature 379, 303-304 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Horváth and G. Kriska, “Polarization vision in aquatic insects and ecological traps for polarotactic insects,” in Aquatic Insects: Challenges to Populations, J. Lancaster and R. A. Briers, eds. (CAB International Publishing, 2008), Chap. 11, pp. 204-229.

G. Horváth and D. Varjú, Polarized Light in Animal Vision--Polarization Patterns in Nature (Springer-Verlag, 2004).

Hutto, R. L.

B. A. Robertson and R. L. Hutto, “A framework for understanding ecological traps and an evaluation of existing evidence,” Ecology 87, 1075-1085 (2006).

Kriska, G.

G. Kriska, P. Malik, I. Szivák, and G. Horváth, “Glass buildings on river banks as 'polarized light traps' for mass-swarming polarotactic caddis flies.,” Naturwissenschaften 95, 461-467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Kriska, B. Bernáth, and G. Horváth, “Positive polarotaxis in a mayfly that never leaves the water surface: polarotactic water detection in Palingenia longicauda (Ephemeroptera),” Naturwissenschaften 94, 148-154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Horváth, P. Malik, G. Kriska, and H. Wildermuth, “Ecological traps for dragonflies in a cemetery: the attraction of Sympetrum species (Odonata: Libellulidae) by horizontally polarizing black gravestones,” Freshw. Biol. 52, 1700-1709(2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Kriska, Z. Csabai, P. Boda, P. Malik, and G. Horváth, “Why do red and dark-coloured cars lure aquatic insects? The attraction of water insects to car paintwork explained by reflection-polarization signals,” Proc. R. Soc. B 273, 1667-1671 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Csabai, P. Boda, B. Bernáth, G. Kriska, and G. Horváth, “A 'polarisation sun-dial' dictates the optimal time of day for dispersal by flying aquatic insects,” Freshw. Biol. 51, 1341-1350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernáth, G. Szedenics, G. Molnár, G. Kriska, and G. Horváth, “Visual ecological impact of 'shiny black anthropogenic products' on aquatic insects: oil reservoirs and plastic sheets as polarized traps for insects associated with water,” Arch. Nat. Conserv. Land. Research 40, 89-109 (2001).

G. Kriska, G. Horváth, and S. Andrikovics, “Why do mayflies lay their eggs en masse on dry asphalt roads? Water-imitating polarized light reflected from asphalt attracts Ephemeroptera,” J. Exp. Biol. 201, 2273-2286 (1998).

G. Horváth and G. Kriska, “Polarization vision in aquatic insects and ecological traps for polarotactic insects,” in Aquatic Insects: Challenges to Populations, J. Lancaster and R. A. Briers, eds. (CAB International Publishing, 2008), Chap. 11, pp. 204-229.

Malicky, H.

H. Malicky, Atlas of European Trichoptera (Springer-Verlag, 2005), p. 359.

Malik, P.

G. Kriska, P. Malik, I. Szivák, and G. Horváth, “Glass buildings on river banks as 'polarized light traps' for mass-swarming polarotactic caddis flies.,” Naturwissenschaften 95, 461-467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Horváth, P. Malik, G. Kriska, and H. Wildermuth, “Ecological traps for dragonflies in a cemetery: the attraction of Sympetrum species (Odonata: Libellulidae) by horizontally polarizing black gravestones,” Freshw. Biol. 52, 1700-1709(2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Kriska, Z. Csabai, P. Boda, P. Malik, and G. Horváth, “Why do red and dark-coloured cars lure aquatic insects? The attraction of water insects to car paintwork explained by reflection-polarization signals,” Proc. R. Soc. B 273, 1667-1671 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meyer-Rochow, V. B.

J. Gál, G. Horváth, and V. B. Meyer-Rochow, “Measurement of the reflection-polarization pattern of the flat water surface under a clear sky at sunset,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 103-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 457, 1385-1399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Molnár, G.

B. Bernáth, G. Szedenics, G. Molnár, G. Kriska, and G. Horváth, “Visual ecological impact of 'shiny black anthropogenic products' on aquatic insects: oil reservoirs and plastic sheets as polarized traps for insects associated with water,” Arch. Nat. Conserv. Land. Research 40, 89-109 (2001).

G. Horváth, B. Bernáth, and G. Molnár, “Dragonflies find crude oil visually more attractive than water: multiple-choice experiments on dragonfly polarotaxis,” Naturwissenschaften 85, 292-297 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Pomozi, I.

G. Horváth and I. Pomozi, “How celestial polarization changes due to reflection from the deflector panels used in deflector loft and mirror experiments studying avian navigation,” J. Theor. Biol. 184, 291-300 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reich, P.

P. Reich and B. J. Downes, “Experimental evidence for physical cues involved in oviposition site selection of lotic hydrobiosid caddis flies,” Oecologia 136, 465-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, B. A.

B. A. Robertson and R. L. Hutto, “A framework for understanding ecological traps and an evaluation of existing evidence,” Ecology 87, 1075-1085 (2006).

Runge, M. C.

M. A. Schlaepfer, M. C. Runge, and P. W. Sherman, “Ecological and evolutionary traps,” Trends Ecol. Evol. 17, 474-480(2002).
[CrossRef]

Savolainen, E.

E. Savolainen, “Swarming in Ephemeroptera: the mechanism of swarming and the effects of illumination and weather,” Ann. Zool. Fennici 15, 17-52 (1978).

Schlaepfer, M. A.

M. A. Schlaepfer, M. C. Runge, and P. W. Sherman, “Ecological and evolutionary traps,” Trends Ecol. Evol. 17, 474-480(2002).
[CrossRef]

Schwind, R.

R. Schwind, “Spectral regions in which aquatic insects see reflected polarized light,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 177, 439-448(1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Schwind, “Polarization vision in water insects and insects living on a moist substrate,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 169, 531-540 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Schwind, “Sehen unter und über Wasser, Sehen von Wasser.,” Naturwissenschaften 72, 343-352 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sherman, P. W.

M. A. Schlaepfer, M. C. Runge, and P. W. Sherman, “Ecological and evolutionary traps,” Trends Ecol. Evol. 17, 474-480(2002).
[CrossRef]

Szedenics, G.

B. Bernáth, G. Szedenics, G. Molnár, G. Kriska, and G. Horváth, “Visual ecological impact of 'shiny black anthropogenic products' on aquatic insects: oil reservoirs and plastic sheets as polarized traps for insects associated with water,” Arch. Nat. Conserv. Land. Research 40, 89-109 (2001).

Szivák, I.

G. Kriska, P. Malik, I. Szivák, and G. Horváth, “Glass buildings on river banks as 'polarized light traps' for mass-swarming polarotactic caddis flies.,” Naturwissenschaften 95, 461-467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Umow, N.

N. Umow, “Chromatische Depolarisation durch Lichtzerstreuung,” Phys. Z. 6, 674-676 (1905).

Varjú, D.

G. Horváth and D. Varjú, “Polarization pattern of freshwater habitats recorded by video polarimetry in red, green and blue spectral ranges and its relevance for water detection by aquatic insects,” J. Exp. Biol. 200, 1155-1163 (1997).

G. Horváth and D. Varjú, Polarized Light in Animal Vision--Polarization Patterns in Nature (Springer-Verlag, 2004).

Wehner, R.

J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 457, 1385-1399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wildermuth, H.

G. Horváth, P. Malik, G. Kriska, and H. Wildermuth, “Ecological traps for dragonflies in a cemetery: the attraction of Sympetrum species (Odonata: Libellulidae) by horizontally polarizing black gravestones,” Freshw. Biol. 52, 1700-1709(2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Wildermuth and G. Horváth, “Visual deception of a male Libellula depressa by the shiny surface of a parked car (Odonata: Libellulidae),” Int. J. Odonatology 8, 97-105 (2005).

H. Wildermuth, “Dragonflies recognize the water of rendezvous and oviposition sites by horizontally polarized light: a behavioural field test,” Naturwissenschaften 85, 297-302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zeil, J.

G. Horváth and J. Zeil, “Kuwait oil lakes as insect traps,” Nature 379, 303-304 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Zool. Fennici (1)

E. Savolainen, “Swarming in Ephemeroptera: the mechanism of swarming and the effects of illumination and weather,” Ann. Zool. Fennici 15, 17-52 (1978).

Arch. Nat. Conserv. Land. Research (1)

B. Bernáth, G. Szedenics, G. Molnár, G. Kriska, and G. Horváth, “Visual ecological impact of 'shiny black anthropogenic products' on aquatic insects: oil reservoirs and plastic sheets as polarized traps for insects associated with water,” Arch. Nat. Conserv. Land. Research 40, 89-109 (2001).

Ecology (1)

B. A. Robertson and R. L. Hutto, “A framework for understanding ecological traps and an evaluation of existing evidence,” Ecology 87, 1075-1085 (2006).

Freshw. Biol. (2)

Z. Csabai, P. Boda, B. Bernáth, G. Kriska, and G. Horváth, “A 'polarisation sun-dial' dictates the optimal time of day for dispersal by flying aquatic insects,” Freshw. Biol. 51, 1341-1350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Horváth, P. Malik, G. Kriska, and H. Wildermuth, “Ecological traps for dragonflies in a cemetery: the attraction of Sympetrum species (Odonata: Libellulidae) by horizontally polarizing black gravestones,” Freshw. Biol. 52, 1700-1709(2007).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Odonatology (1)

H. Wildermuth and G. Horváth, “Visual deception of a male Libellula depressa by the shiny surface of a parked car (Odonata: Libellulidae),” Int. J. Odonatology 8, 97-105 (2005).

J. Comp. Physiol. A (2)

R. Schwind, “Polarization vision in water insects and insects living on a moist substrate,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 169, 531-540 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Schwind, “Spectral regions in which aquatic insects see reflected polarized light,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 177, 439-448(1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Biol. (3)

G. Horváth and D. Varjú, “Polarization pattern of freshwater habitats recorded by video polarimetry in red, green and blue spectral ranges and its relevance for water detection by aquatic insects,” J. Exp. Biol. 200, 1155-1163 (1997).

G. Kriska, G. Horváth, and S. Andrikovics, “Why do mayflies lay their eggs en masse on dry asphalt roads? Water-imitating polarized light reflected from asphalt attracts Ephemeroptera,” J. Exp. Biol. 201, 2273-2286 (1998).

B. Bernáth, J. Gál, and G. Horváth, “Why is it worth flying at dusk for aquatic insects? Polarotactic water detection is easiest at low solar elevations,” J. Exp. Biol. 207, 755-765(2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Theor. Biol. (1)

G. Horváth and I. Pomozi, “How celestial polarization changes due to reflection from the deflector panels used in deflector loft and mirror experiments studying avian navigation,” J. Theor. Biol. 184, 291-300 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

G. Horváth and J. Zeil, “Kuwait oil lakes as insect traps,” Nature 379, 303-304 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Naturwissenschaften (5)

H. Wildermuth, “Dragonflies recognize the water of rendezvous and oviposition sites by horizontally polarized light: a behavioural field test,” Naturwissenschaften 85, 297-302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Horváth, B. Bernáth, and G. Molnár, “Dragonflies find crude oil visually more attractive than water: multiple-choice experiments on dragonfly polarotaxis,” Naturwissenschaften 85, 292-297 (1998)
[CrossRef]

G. Kriska, P. Malik, I. Szivák, and G. Horváth, “Glass buildings on river banks as 'polarized light traps' for mass-swarming polarotactic caddis flies.,” Naturwissenschaften 95, 461-467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Kriska, B. Bernáth, and G. Horváth, “Positive polarotaxis in a mayfly that never leaves the water surface: polarotactic water detection in Palingenia longicauda (Ephemeroptera),” Naturwissenschaften 94, 148-154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Schwind, “Sehen unter und über Wasser, Sehen von Wasser.,” Naturwissenschaften 72, 343-352 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Oecologia (1)

P. Reich and B. J. Downes, “Experimental evidence for physical cues involved in oviposition site selection of lotic hydrobiosid caddis flies,” Oecologia 136, 465-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Z. (1)

N. Umow, “Chromatische Depolarisation durch Lichtzerstreuung,” Phys. Z. 6, 674-676 (1905).

Proc. R. Soc. B (1)

G. Kriska, Z. Csabai, P. Boda, P. Malik, and G. Horváth, “Why do red and dark-coloured cars lure aquatic insects? The attraction of water insects to car paintwork explained by reflection-polarization signals,” Proc. R. Soc. B 273, 1667-1671 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1)

J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 457, 1385-1399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

J. Gál, G. Horváth, and V. B. Meyer-Rochow, “Measurement of the reflection-polarization pattern of the flat water surface under a clear sky at sunset,” Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 103-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Trends Ecol. Evol. (1)

M. A. Schlaepfer, M. C. Runge, and P. W. Sherman, “Ecological and evolutionary traps,” Trends Ecol. Evol. 17, 474-480(2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. Horváth and G. Kriska, “Polarization vision in aquatic insects and ecological traps for polarotactic insects,” in Aquatic Insects: Challenges to Populations, J. Lancaster and R. A. Briers, eds. (CAB International Publishing, 2008), Chap. 11, pp. 204-229.

H. Malicky, Atlas of European Trichoptera (Springer-Verlag, 2005), p. 359.

G. Horváth and D. Varjú, Polarized Light in Animal Vision--Polarization Patterns in Nature (Springer-Verlag, 2004).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Mass swarming of the H. pellucidula caddis flies (white spots) in front of the vertical glass surfaces of the northern building of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary, on 1 May 2007. (b) Numerous individuals of H. pellucidula (black spots) landed on vertical glass surfaces.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

H. pellucidula landed on the outside surface of a vertical glass pane of the northern building of the Eötvös University photographed from (a), (b) outside and (c), (d) inside the building. A copulating pair of H. pellucidula is seen in Picture C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Geometry of the northern building of Eötvös University on the bank of the Danube river with Directions of View 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 of the polarimeter. (b)–(e) Color photograph and patterns of p and α (measured from the vertical) of the northern building at the vertical glass surfaces at which H. pellucidula caddis flies swarmed. In the α patterns the white double-headed arrows show the average directions of polarization of light reflected from the vertical glass surfaces. The reflection–polarization patterns were measured in the green ( 550 nm ) part of the spectrum, and they were practically the same as those in the red ( 650 nm ) and blue ( 450 nm ) spectral ranges.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Middle: Geometry of the southern building of Eötvös University on the bank of the Danube river with Directions of View A, B, C, and D of the polarimeter relative to the solar meridian. Periphery: 180 ° field of view color photograph and patterns of p and α (measured from the vertical) of the southern building at the vertical glass surfaces at which H. pellucidula swarmed. The reflection–polarization patterns were measured by 180 ° field of view imaging polarimetry in the green ( 550 nm ) part of the spectrum, and they were similar to those in the red ( 650 nm ) and blue ( 450 nm ) spectral ranges.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Color photograph and patterns of (b) p and (c), (d) α of a shady black vertical glass surface measured by 180 ° field of view imaging polarimetry in the blue ( 450 nm ) part of the spectrum from Direction of View 5 in Fig. 3a. (c) α of reflected light is measured from the vertical or (d) from the local meridian passing through the point observed. (e) Area (black) of the vertical glass surface detected as water by a hypothetical polarotactic aquatic insect flying perpendicular to the glass. (f) Area (black) of the vertical glass surface detected as water by a hypothetical polarotactic insect landed on the glass. The insect was assumed to consider a surface to be water if the reflected light has the following polarization characteristics: p > 10 % and 85 ° < α < 95 ° . It was also assumed that the insect’s entire eye is polarization sensitive. (b)–(f) In the circular patterns the Brewster angle is shown by circles. The horizontal optical axis of the polarimeter passes through the center of a given circular pattern, the perimeter of which represents angles of view perpendicular to the optical axis.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

As Fig. 5 under a totally overcast sky.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

As Fig. 5 for a shady vertical pane of a glass window, behind which there is a white curtain. The sky was clear and cloudless. This white glass surface was next to the black glass in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

As Fig. 7 under a totally overcast sky.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

As Fig. 5 measured under a clear sky from Direction of View 3 in Fig. 3a for a sunlit vertical pane of a glass window, behind which there is a white curtain.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Flying insect approaching vertical wall of a building covered by a quadratic grid of glass surfaces. The smaller the distance d of the insect from the wall (d decreases from 1 to 3), the fewer quadratic glass surfaces fall within a given field of view (here coinciding with twice of the Brewster angle) of the insect. (b)  180 ° field of view pattern of p seen by a flying polarotactic insect approaching perpendicular to the glass-covered vertical wall in (a) for a (1) large, (2) medium, and (3) small distance. The Brewster angle is shown as a white circle.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

How a flying polarization-sensitive insect approaching perpendicular to a vertical glass surface perceives the direction of polarization (double-headed arrows) of light reflected from the glass at the Brewster angle (dashed circle). A polarotactic aquatic insect is attracted to the reflected light only if the perceived direction of polarization is exactly or nearly perpendicular to its dorsoventral symmetry axis. If the perceived direction of polarization is parallel or tilted to this symmetry axis, the reflected light is unattractive to the insect.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Side view of a light beam (light gray) reflected from a vertical glass surface and received by the ventral eye region of an insect landed on the glass. (b) How a polarization-sensitive insect landed on a vertical glass surface and looking into different directions (here only four such directions are shown) perceives the direction of polarization (double-headed arrows) of light reflected from the glass at the Brewster angle (dashed circle). Since the perceived direction of polarization is always perpendicular to the insect's dorsoventral symmetry axis (independently of the direction of view), the light reflected from the Brewster angle is always attractive to a polarotactic aquatic insect landed on the glass.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Degree of Linear Polarization p (%, Average ± Standard Deviation ) in the Red ( 650 nm ), Green ( 550 nm ), and Blue ( 450 nm ) Parts of the Spectrum Averaged for the Entire Vertical Glass Surface (without the Unevaluable Underexposed or Overexposed Regions Displayed as a Checkered Pattern) in Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Tables Icon

Table 2 Proportion W (%) of the Vertical Glass Surfaces in Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Detected as Water by a Hypothetical Polarotactic Aquatic Insect Flying Toward the Glass [see Figs. 5c, 6c, 7c, 8c, 9c] Calculated in the Red ( 650 nm ), Green ( 550 nm ), and Blue ( 450 nm ) Parts of the Spectrum a

Tables Icon

Table 3 As Table 2 for a Hypothetical Polarotactic Aquatic Insect Landed on the Glass Surface [see Figs. 5d, 6d, 7d, 8d, 9d]

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