Abstract

We present the spectral and nonlinear optical properties of ZnOSiO2 nanocomposites prepared by colloidal chemical synthesis. Obvious enhancement of ultraviolet (UV) emission of the samples is observed, and the strongest UV emission of a typical ZnOSiO2 nanocomposite is over three times stronger than that of pure ZnO. The nonlinearity of the silica colloid is low, and its nonlinear response can be improved by making composites with ZnO. These nanocomposites show self-defocusing nonlinearity and good nonlinear absorption behavior. The observed nonlinear absorption is explained through two photon absorption followed by weak free carrier absoption and nonlinear scattering. The nonlinear refractive index and the nonlinear absorption increase with increasing ZnO volume fraction and can be attributed to the enhancement of exciton oscillator strength. ZnOSiO2 is a potential nanocomposite material for the UV light emission and for the development of nonlinear optical devices with a relatively small limiting threshold.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  25. P. Prem Kiran, G. De, and D. Narayana Rao, “Nonlinear optical properties of copper and silver nanoclusters in SiO2 sol-gel films,” IEEE Proc. Circuits Devices Syst. 150 (6), 559-562 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Y. Han, W. Huang, C. H. Chew, L. M. Gan, X. J. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Large nonlinear absorption in coated Ag2S/CdS nanoparticles by inverse microemulsion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 1884-1887 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Y. Sun, J. E. Riggs, K. B. Henbest, and R. B. Martin, “Nanomaterials as optical limiters,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 9, 481-503 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  29. F. M. Quereshi, S. J. Martin, X. Long, D. D. C. Bradley, F. Z. Heneri, W. J. Balu, E. C. Smith, C. H. Wang, A. K. Kar, and H. L. Anderson, “Optical limiting properties of a zinc porphyrin polymer and its dimer and monomer model compounds,” Chem. Phys. 231, 87-94 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  30. L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-CdS,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094914 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (7)

B. Krishnan, L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and V. Kumar, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical studies of nano ZnO colloids,” Physica E (Amsterdam) 40, 2787-2790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-Ag,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455, 265-269 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Luminescence tuning and enhanced nonlinear optical properties of nanocomposites of ZnO─TiO2,” J. Colloids Interface Sci. 324, 99-104(2008) .
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Nonlinear optical characteristics of self assembled films of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 547-556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, L. M. Kukreja, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Effect of self assembly on the nonlinear optical characteristics of ZnO thin films,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2938-2943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, B. Krishnan, A. Deepthy, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Size dependent enhancement of nonlinear optical properties in nano colloids of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-CdS,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Size dependent fluorescence spectroscopy of nanocolloids of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 063524(2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, B. Krishnan, A. Deepthy, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence behavior of nano colloids of ZnO,” J. Phys. D 40, 5670-5674 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

E. S. P. Leong and S. F. Yu, “UV random lasing action in p-SiC(4H)/i-ZnO─SiO2 nanocomposite/n-ZnO:Al heterojunction diodes,” Adv. Mater. 18, 1685-1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Karthikeyan, M. Anija, and R. Philip, “In situ synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of Au:Ag nanocomposite polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 053104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395-1399 (2006).

2005 (1)

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4, 42-46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

P. Prem Kiran, G. De, and D. Narayana Rao, “Nonlinear optical properties of copper and silver nanoclusters in SiO2 sol-gel films,” IEEE Proc. Circuits Devices Syst. 150 (6), 559-562 (2003).

E. W. Seelig, B. Tang, A. Yamilov, Hui Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Self-assembled 3D photonic crystals from ZnO colloidal spheres,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 80, 257-263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, A. H. Yuwono, J. M. Xue, and J. Wang, “Ultrafast optical nonlinearity in polymethylmethacrylate-TiO2 nanocomposites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2691-2693(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. L. Moreno, E. D. Rosa-Cruz, F. J. Cuevas, L. E. Regalado, P. Salas, R. Rodriguez, and V. M. Castano, “Refractive index measurement of pure and Er3+-doped ZrO2-SiO2 sol-gel film by using the Brewster angle technique,” Opt. Mater. 19, 275-281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

Achamma Kurian, K. P. Unnikrishnan, P. Gopinath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Study of energy transfer in organic dye pairs using thermal lens technique,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 415-421 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, J. P. Longtin, and P. M. Norris, “Ultrafast laser micromachining of silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281, 39-47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. Sun, J. E. Riggs, K. B. Henbest, and R. B. Martin, “Nanomaterials as optical limiters,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 9, 481-503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

F. M. Quereshi, S. J. Martin, X. Long, D. D. C. Bradley, F. Z. Heneri, W. J. Balu, E. C. Smith, C. H. Wang, A. K. Kar, and H. L. Anderson, “Optical limiting properties of a zinc porphyrin polymer and its dimer and monomer model compounds,” Chem. Phys. 231, 87-94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Han, W. Huang, C. H. Chew, L. M. Gan, X. J. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Large nonlinear absorption in coated Ag2S/CdS nanoparticles by inverse microemulsion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 1884-1887 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

X. J. Zhang, W. Ji, and S. H. Tang, “Determination of optical nonlinearities and carrier lifetime in ZnO,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1951-1955 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230-2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Sekino, T. Nakajima, S. Ueda, and K. Niihara, “Reduction and sintering of a nickel-dispersed-alumina composite and its properties,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 1139-1148(1997).

1996 (1)

A. P. Alivisatos, “Perspectives on the physical chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13226-13239 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

Y. Kayanuma, “Quantum-size effects of interacting electrons and holes in semiconductor microcrystals with spherical shape,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 9797-9805 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Akhouayri, H.

Alivisatos, A. P.

A. P. Alivisatos, “Perspectives on the physical chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13226-13239 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, H. L.

F. M. Quereshi, S. J. Martin, X. Long, D. D. C. Bradley, F. Z. Heneri, W. J. Balu, E. C. Smith, C. H. Wang, A. K. Kar, and H. L. Anderson, “Optical limiting properties of a zinc porphyrin polymer and its dimer and monomer model compounds,” Chem. Phys. 231, 87-94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anija, M.

B. Karthikeyan, M. Anija, and R. Philip, “In situ synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of Au:Ag nanocomposite polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 053104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bagnall, D. M.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230-2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bahae, M. S.

Balu, W. J.

F. M. Quereshi, S. J. Martin, X. Long, D. D. C. Bradley, F. Z. Heneri, W. J. Balu, E. C. Smith, C. H. Wang, A. K. Kar, and H. L. Anderson, “Optical limiting properties of a zinc porphyrin polymer and its dimer and monomer model compounds,” Chem. Phys. 231, 87-94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Battle, R.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395-1399 (2006).

Billard, F.

Bradley, D. D. C.

F. M. Quereshi, S. J. Martin, X. Long, D. D. C. Bradley, F. Z. Heneri, W. J. Balu, E. C. Smith, C. H. Wang, A. K. Kar, and H. L. Anderson, “Optical limiting properties of a zinc porphyrin polymer and its dimer and monomer model compounds,” Chem. Phys. 231, 87-94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, H.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395-1399 (2006).

Cao, Hui

E. W. Seelig, B. Tang, A. Yamilov, Hui Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Self-assembled 3D photonic crystals from ZnO colloidal spheres,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 80, 257-263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Castano, V. M.

D. L. Moreno, E. D. Rosa-Cruz, F. J. Cuevas, L. E. Regalado, P. Salas, R. Rodriguez, and V. M. Castano, “Refractive index measurement of pure and Er3+-doped ZrO2-SiO2 sol-gel film by using the Brewster angle technique,” Opt. Mater. 19, 275-281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

E. W. Seelig, B. Tang, A. Yamilov, Hui Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Self-assembled 3D photonic crystals from ZnO colloidal spheres,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 80, 257-263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230-2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chew, C. H.

M. Y. Han, W. Huang, C. H. Chew, L. M. Gan, X. J. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Large nonlinear absorption in coated Ag2S/CdS nanoparticles by inverse microemulsion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 1884-1887 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4, 42-46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Creekmore, L.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395-1399 (2006).

Cuevas, F. J.

D. L. Moreno, E. D. Rosa-Cruz, F. J. Cuevas, L. E. Regalado, P. Salas, R. Rodriguez, and V. M. Castano, “Refractive index measurement of pure and Er3+-doped ZrO2-SiO2 sol-gel film by using the Brewster angle technique,” Opt. Mater. 19, 275-281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De, G.

P. Prem Kiran, G. De, and D. Narayana Rao, “Nonlinear optical properties of copper and silver nanoclusters in SiO2 sol-gel films,” IEEE Proc. Circuits Devices Syst. 150 (6), 559-562 (2003).

Deepthy, A.

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Nonlinear optical characteristics of self assembled films of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 547-556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, L. M. Kukreja, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Effect of self assembly on the nonlinear optical characteristics of ZnO thin films,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2938-2943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, B. Krishnan, A. Deepthy, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Size dependent enhancement of nonlinear optical properties in nano colloids of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, B. Krishnan, A. Deepthy, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence behavior of nano colloids of ZnO,” J. Phys. D 40, 5670-5674 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Size dependent fluorescence spectroscopy of nanocolloids of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 063524(2007).
[CrossRef]

Elim, H. I.

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, A. H. Yuwono, J. M. Xue, and J. Wang, “Ultrafast optical nonlinearity in polymethylmethacrylate-TiO2 nanocomposites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2691-2693(2003).
[CrossRef]

Fuke, S.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4, 42-46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gan, L. M.

M. Y. Han, W. Huang, C. H. Chew, L. M. Gan, X. J. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Large nonlinear absorption in coated Ag2S/CdS nanoparticles by inverse microemulsion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 1884-1887 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gopinath, P.

Achamma Kurian, K. P. Unnikrishnan, P. Gopinath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Study of energy transfer in organic dye pairs using thermal lens technique,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 415-421 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goto, T.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230-2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Han, M. Y.

M. Y. Han, W. Huang, C. H. Chew, L. M. Gan, X. J. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Large nonlinear absorption in coated Ag2S/CdS nanoparticles by inverse microemulsion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 1884-1887 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Henbest, K. B.

Y. Sun, J. E. Riggs, K. B. Henbest, and R. B. Martin, “Nanomaterials as optical limiters,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 9, 481-503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heneri, F. Z.

F. M. Quereshi, S. J. Martin, X. Long, D. D. C. Bradley, F. Z. Heneri, W. J. Balu, E. C. Smith, C. H. Wang, A. K. Kar, and H. L. Anderson, “Optical limiting properties of a zinc porphyrin polymer and its dimer and monomer model compounds,” Chem. Phys. 231, 87-94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

M. Y. Han, W. Huang, C. H. Chew, L. M. Gan, X. J. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Large nonlinear absorption in coated Ag2S/CdS nanoparticles by inverse microemulsion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 1884-1887 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Irimpan, L.

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, L. M. Kukreja, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Effect of self assembly on the nonlinear optical characteristics of ZnO thin films,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2938-2943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, B. Krishnan, A. Deepthy, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Size dependent enhancement of nonlinear optical properties in nano colloids of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-Ag,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455, 265-269 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Nonlinear optical characteristics of self assembled films of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 547-556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-CdS,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Krishnan, L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and V. Kumar, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical studies of nano ZnO colloids,” Physica E (Amsterdam) 40, 2787-2790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Luminescence tuning and enhanced nonlinear optical properties of nanocomposites of ZnO─TiO2,” J. Colloids Interface Sci. 324, 99-104(2008) .
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Size dependent fluorescence spectroscopy of nanocolloids of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 063524(2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, B. Krishnan, A. Deepthy, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence behavior of nano colloids of ZnO,” J. Phys. D 40, 5670-5674 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, A.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395-1399 (2006).

Ji, W.

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, A. H. Yuwono, J. M. Xue, and J. Wang, “Ultrafast optical nonlinearity in polymethylmethacrylate-TiO2 nanocomposites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2691-2693(2003).
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X. J. Zhang, W. Ji, and S. H. Tang, “Determination of optical nonlinearities and carrier lifetime in ZnO,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1951-1955 (1997).
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J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395-1399 (2006).

Kar, A. K.

F. M. Quereshi, S. J. Martin, X. Long, D. D. C. Bradley, F. Z. Heneri, W. J. Balu, E. C. Smith, C. H. Wang, A. K. Kar, and H. L. Anderson, “Optical limiting properties of a zinc porphyrin polymer and its dimer and monomer model compounds,” Chem. Phys. 231, 87-94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Karthikeyan, B.

B. Karthikeyan, M. Anija, and R. Philip, “In situ synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of Au:Ag nanocomposite polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 053104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, M.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4, 42-46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kayanuma, Y.

Y. Kayanuma, “Quantum-size effects of interacting electrons and holes in semiconductor microcrystals with spherical shape,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 9797-9805 (1988).
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J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395-1399 (2006).

Kiran, P. Prem

P. Prem Kiran, G. De, and D. Narayana Rao, “Nonlinear optical properties of copper and silver nanoclusters in SiO2 sol-gel films,” IEEE Proc. Circuits Devices Syst. 150 (6), 559-562 (2003).

Koinuma, H.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4, 42-46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, S.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230-2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, B.

L. Irimpan, B. Krishnan, A. Deepthy, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Size dependent enhancement of nonlinear optical properties in nano colloids of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, L. M. Kukreja, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Effect of self assembly on the nonlinear optical characteristics of ZnO thin films,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2938-2943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Nonlinear optical characteristics of self assembled films of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 547-556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Luminescence tuning and enhanced nonlinear optical properties of nanocomposites of ZnO─TiO2,” J. Colloids Interface Sci. 324, 99-104(2008) .
[CrossRef]

B. Krishnan, L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and V. Kumar, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical studies of nano ZnO colloids,” Physica E (Amsterdam) 40, 2787-2790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Size dependent fluorescence spectroscopy of nanocolloids of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 063524(2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, B. Krishnan, A. Deepthy, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence behavior of nano colloids of ZnO,” J. Phys. D 40, 5670-5674 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kukreja, L. M.

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, L. M. Kukreja, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Effect of self assembly on the nonlinear optical characteristics of ZnO thin films,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2938-2943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, V.

B. Krishnan, L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and V. Kumar, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical studies of nano ZnO colloids,” Physica E (Amsterdam) 40, 2787-2790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kurian, Achamma

Achamma Kurian, K. P. Unnikrishnan, P. Gopinath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Study of energy transfer in organic dye pairs using thermal lens technique,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 415-421 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395-1399 (2006).

Leong, E. S. P.

E. S. P. Leong and S. F. Yu, “UV random lasing action in p-SiC(4H)/i-ZnO─SiO2 nanocomposite/n-ZnO:Al heterojunction diodes,” Adv. Mater. 18, 1685-1688 (2006).
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Long, X.

F. M. Quereshi, S. J. Martin, X. Long, D. D. C. Bradley, F. Z. Heneri, W. J. Balu, E. C. Smith, C. H. Wang, A. K. Kar, and H. L. Anderson, “Optical limiting properties of a zinc porphyrin polymer and its dimer and monomer model compounds,” Chem. Phys. 231, 87-94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Longtin, J. P.

Y. Sun, J. P. Longtin, and P. M. Norris, “Ultrafast laser micromachining of silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281, 39-47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ma, S. M.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395-1399 (2006).

Makino, T.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4, 42-46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. B.

Y. Sun, J. E. Riggs, K. B. Henbest, and R. B. Martin, “Nanomaterials as optical limiters,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 9, 481-503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martin, S. J.

F. M. Quereshi, S. J. Martin, X. Long, D. D. C. Bradley, F. Z. Heneri, W. J. Balu, E. C. Smith, C. H. Wang, A. K. Kar, and H. L. Anderson, “Optical limiting properties of a zinc porphyrin polymer and its dimer and monomer model compounds,” Chem. Phys. 231, 87-94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, D. L.

D. L. Moreno, E. D. Rosa-Cruz, F. J. Cuevas, L. E. Regalado, P. Salas, R. Rodriguez, and V. M. Castano, “Refractive index measurement of pure and Er3+-doped ZrO2-SiO2 sol-gel film by using the Brewster angle technique,” Opt. Mater. 19, 275-281 (2002).
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L. D. Zhang and J. M. Mou, Nanomaterials and Nanostructures (Scientia Sinica, 2001).

N. Nampoori, V. P.

B. Krishnan, L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and V. Kumar, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical studies of nano ZnO colloids,” Physica E (Amsterdam) 40, 2787-2790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

T. Sekino, T. Nakajima, S. Ueda, and K. Niihara, “Reduction and sintering of a nickel-dispersed-alumina composite and its properties,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 1139-1148(1997).

Namkung, M.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395-1399 (2006).

Nampoori, V. P. N.

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Nonlinear optical characteristics of self assembled films of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 547-556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-Ag,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455, 265-269 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Luminescence tuning and enhanced nonlinear optical properties of nanocomposites of ZnO─TiO2,” J. Colloids Interface Sci. 324, 99-104(2008) .
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-CdS,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, B. Krishnan, A. Deepthy, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Size dependent enhancement of nonlinear optical properties in nano colloids of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, L. M. Kukreja, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Effect of self assembly on the nonlinear optical characteristics of ZnO thin films,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2938-2943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, B. Krishnan, A. Deepthy, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence behavior of nano colloids of ZnO,” J. Phys. D 40, 5670-5674 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Size dependent fluorescence spectroscopy of nanocolloids of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 063524(2007).
[CrossRef]

Achamma Kurian, K. P. Unnikrishnan, P. Gopinath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Study of energy transfer in organic dye pairs using thermal lens technique,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 415-421 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Niihara, K.

T. Sekino, T. Nakajima, S. Ueda, and K. Niihara, “Reduction and sintering of a nickel-dispersed-alumina composite and its properties,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 1139-1148(1997).

Norris, P. M.

Y. Sun, J. P. Longtin, and P. M. Norris, “Ultrafast laser micromachining of silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281, 39-47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, H.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4, 42-46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohtani, K.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4, 42-46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohtani, M.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4, 42-46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohtomo, A.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4, 42-46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, T.

Onuma, T.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4, 42-46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Philip, R.

B. Karthikeyan, M. Anija, and R. Philip, “In situ synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of Au:Ag nanocomposite polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 053104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quereshi, F. M.

F. M. Quereshi, S. J. Martin, X. Long, D. D. C. Bradley, F. Z. Heneri, W. J. Balu, E. C. Smith, C. H. Wang, A. K. Kar, and H. L. Anderson, “Optical limiting properties of a zinc porphyrin polymer and its dimer and monomer model compounds,” Chem. Phys. 231, 87-94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Radhakrishnan, P.

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, L. M. Kukreja, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Effect of self assembly on the nonlinear optical characteristics of ZnO thin films,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2938-2943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, B. Krishnan, A. Deepthy, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Size dependent enhancement of nonlinear optical properties in nano colloids of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-Ag,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455, 265-269 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Nonlinear optical characteristics of self assembled films of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 547-556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-CdS,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Luminescence tuning and enhanced nonlinear optical properties of nanocomposites of ZnO─TiO2,” J. Colloids Interface Sci. 324, 99-104(2008) .
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Size dependent fluorescence spectroscopy of nanocolloids of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 063524(2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, B. Krishnan, A. Deepthy, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence behavior of nano colloids of ZnO,” J. Phys. D 40, 5670-5674 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rao, D. Narayana

P. Prem Kiran, G. De, and D. Narayana Rao, “Nonlinear optical properties of copper and silver nanoclusters in SiO2 sol-gel films,” IEEE Proc. Circuits Devices Syst. 150 (6), 559-562 (2003).

Regalado, L. E.

D. L. Moreno, E. D. Rosa-Cruz, F. J. Cuevas, L. E. Regalado, P. Salas, R. Rodriguez, and V. M. Castano, “Refractive index measurement of pure and Er3+-doped ZrO2-SiO2 sol-gel film by using the Brewster angle technique,” Opt. Mater. 19, 275-281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Riggs, J. E.

Y. Sun, J. E. Riggs, K. B. Henbest, and R. B. Martin, “Nanomaterials as optical limiters,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 9, 481-503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, R.

D. L. Moreno, E. D. Rosa-Cruz, F. J. Cuevas, L. E. Regalado, P. Salas, R. Rodriguez, and V. M. Castano, “Refractive index measurement of pure and Er3+-doped ZrO2-SiO2 sol-gel film by using the Brewster angle technique,” Opt. Mater. 19, 275-281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosa-Cruz, E. D.

D. L. Moreno, E. D. Rosa-Cruz, F. J. Cuevas, L. E. Regalado, P. Salas, R. Rodriguez, and V. M. Castano, “Refractive index measurement of pure and Er3+-doped ZrO2-SiO2 sol-gel film by using the Brewster angle technique,” Opt. Mater. 19, 275-281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Salas, P.

D. L. Moreno, E. D. Rosa-Cruz, F. J. Cuevas, L. E. Regalado, P. Salas, R. Rodriguez, and V. M. Castano, “Refractive index measurement of pure and Er3+-doped ZrO2-SiO2 sol-gel film by using the Brewster angle technique,” Opt. Mater. 19, 275-281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seelig, E. W.

E. W. Seelig, B. Tang, A. Yamilov, Hui Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Self-assembled 3D photonic crystals from ZnO colloidal spheres,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 80, 257-263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Segawa, Y.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4, 42-46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sekino, T.

T. Sekino, T. Nakajima, S. Ueda, and K. Niihara, “Reduction and sintering of a nickel-dispersed-alumina composite and its properties,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 1139-1148(1997).

Seo, J. T.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395-1399 (2006).

Shen, M. Y.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230-2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Skyles, T.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395-1399 (2006).

Smith, E. C.

F. M. Quereshi, S. J. Martin, X. Long, D. D. C. Bradley, F. Z. Heneri, W. J. Balu, E. C. Smith, C. H. Wang, A. K. Kar, and H. L. Anderson, “Optical limiting properties of a zinc porphyrin polymer and its dimer and monomer model compounds,” Chem. Phys. 231, 87-94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sumiya, M.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4, 42-46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, J. P. Longtin, and P. M. Norris, “Ultrafast laser micromachining of silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281, 39-47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, J. E. Riggs, K. B. Henbest, and R. B. Martin, “Nanomaterials as optical limiters,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 9, 481-503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tabibi, B.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395-1399 (2006).

Tang, B.

E. W. Seelig, B. Tang, A. Yamilov, Hui Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Self-assembled 3D photonic crystals from ZnO colloidal spheres,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 80, 257-263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S. H.

Tsukazaki, A.

A. Tsukazaki, A. Ohtomo, T. Onuma, M. Ohtani, T. Makino, M. Sumiya, K. Ohtani, S. F. Chichibu, S. Fuke, Y. Segawa, H. Ohno, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Repeated temperature modulation epitaxy for p-type doping and light-emitting diode based on ZnO,” Nat. Mater. 4, 42-46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, S.

T. Sekino, T. Nakajima, S. Ueda, and K. Niihara, “Reduction and sintering of a nickel-dispersed-alumina composite and its properties,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 1139-1148(1997).

Unnikrishnan, K. P.

Achamma Kurian, K. P. Unnikrishnan, P. Gopinath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Study of energy transfer in organic dye pairs using thermal lens technique,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 415-421 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vallabhan, C. P. G.

Achamma Kurian, K. P. Unnikrishnan, P. Gopinath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Study of energy transfer in organic dye pairs using thermal lens technique,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 415-421 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van Stryland, E. W.

Wang, C. H.

F. M. Quereshi, S. J. Martin, X. Long, D. D. C. Bradley, F. Z. Heneri, W. J. Balu, E. C. Smith, C. H. Wang, A. K. Kar, and H. L. Anderson, “Optical limiting properties of a zinc porphyrin polymer and its dimer and monomer model compounds,” Chem. Phys. 231, 87-94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, A. H. Yuwono, J. M. Xue, and J. Wang, “Ultrafast optical nonlinearity in polymethylmethacrylate-TiO2 nanocomposites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2691-2693(2003).
[CrossRef]

Xue, J. M.

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, A. H. Yuwono, J. M. Xue, and J. Wang, “Ultrafast optical nonlinearity in polymethylmethacrylate-TiO2 nanocomposites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2691-2693(2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamilov, A.

E. W. Seelig, B. Tang, A. Yamilov, Hui Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Self-assembled 3D photonic crystals from ZnO colloidal spheres,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 80, 257-263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395-1399 (2006).

Yao, T.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230-2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, K. P.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395-1399 (2006).

Yu, S. F.

E. S. P. Leong and S. F. Yu, “UV random lasing action in p-SiC(4H)/i-ZnO─SiO2 nanocomposite/n-ZnO:Al heterojunction diodes,” Adv. Mater. 18, 1685-1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yuwono, A. H.

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, A. H. Yuwono, J. M. Xue, and J. Wang, “Ultrafast optical nonlinearity in polymethylmethacrylate-TiO2 nanocomposites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2691-2693(2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. D.

L. D. Zhang and J. M. Mou, Nanomaterials and Nanostructures (Scientia Sinica, 2001).

Zhang, X. J.

M. Y. Han, W. Huang, C. H. Chew, L. M. Gan, X. J. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Large nonlinear absorption in coated Ag2S/CdS nanoparticles by inverse microemulsion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 1884-1887 (1998).
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X. J. Zhang, W. Ji, and S. H. Tang, “Determination of optical nonlinearities and carrier lifetime in ZnO,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1951-1955 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230-2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

E. S. P. Leong and S. F. Yu, “UV random lasing action in p-SiC(4H)/i-ZnO─SiO2 nanocomposite/n-ZnO:Al heterojunction diodes,” Adv. Mater. 18, 1685-1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Nonlinear optical characteristics of self assembled films of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 547-556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230-2232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, A. H. Yuwono, J. M. Xue, and J. Wang, “Ultrafast optical nonlinearity in polymethylmethacrylate-TiO2 nanocomposites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2691-2693(2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Karthikeyan, M. Anija, and R. Philip, “In situ synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of Au:Ag nanocomposite polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 053104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

F. M. Quereshi, S. J. Martin, X. Long, D. D. C. Bradley, F. Z. Heneri, W. J. Balu, E. C. Smith, C. H. Wang, A. K. Kar, and H. L. Anderson, “Optical limiting properties of a zinc porphyrin polymer and its dimer and monomer model compounds,” Chem. Phys. 231, 87-94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-Ag,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455, 265-269 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Proc. Circuits Devices Syst. (1)

P. Prem Kiran, G. De, and D. Narayana Rao, “Nonlinear optical properties of copper and silver nanoclusters in SiO2 sol-gel films,” IEEE Proc. Circuits Devices Syst. 150 (6), 559-562 (2003).

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

T. Sekino, T. Nakajima, S. Ueda, and K. Niihara, “Reduction and sintering of a nickel-dispersed-alumina composite and its properties,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 1139-1148(1997).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

L. Irimpan, B. Krishnan, A. Deepthy, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Size dependent enhancement of nonlinear optical properties in nano colloids of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-CdS,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Size dependent fluorescence spectroscopy of nanocolloids of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 063524(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloids Interface Sci. (1)

L. Irimpan, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Luminescence tuning and enhanced nonlinear optical properties of nanocomposites of ZnO─TiO2,” J. Colloids Interface Sci. 324, 99-104(2008) .
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, H. Brown, R. Battle, K. Lee, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, K. P. Yoo, S. Y. Kim, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large optical nonlinearity of highly porous silica nanoaerogels in the nanosecond time domain,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1395-1399 (2006).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

Y. Sun, J. P. Longtin, and P. M. Norris, “Ultrafast laser micromachining of silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281, 39-47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

Achamma Kurian, K. P. Unnikrishnan, P. Gopinath, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Study of energy transfer in organic dye pairs using thermal lens technique,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 415-421 (2001).
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Y. Sun, J. E. Riggs, K. B. Henbest, and R. B. Martin, “Nanomaterials as optical limiters,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 9, 481-503 (2000).
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M. Y. Han, W. Huang, C. H. Chew, L. M. Gan, X. J. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Large nonlinear absorption in coated Ag2S/CdS nanoparticles by inverse microemulsion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 1884-1887 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

L. Irimpan, B. Krishnan, A. Deepthy, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence behavior of nano colloids of ZnO,” J. Phys. D 40, 5670-5674 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

E. W. Seelig, B. Tang, A. Yamilov, Hui Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Self-assembled 3D photonic crystals from ZnO colloidal spheres,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 80, 257-263 (2003).
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[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, L. M. Kukreja, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Effect of self assembly on the nonlinear optical characteristics of ZnO thin films,” Opt. Commun. 281, 2938-2943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

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D. L. Moreno, E. D. Rosa-Cruz, F. J. Cuevas, L. E. Regalado, P. Salas, R. Rodriguez, and V. M. Castano, “Refractive index measurement of pure and Er3+-doped ZrO2-SiO2 sol-gel film by using the Brewster angle technique,” Opt. Mater. 19, 275-281 (2002).
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B. Krishnan, L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and V. Kumar, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical studies of nano ZnO colloids,” Physica E (Amsterdam) 40, 2787-2790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

L. D. Zhang and J. M. Mou, Nanomaterials and Nanostructures (Scientia Sinica, 2001).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra of ZnO SiO 2 nanocomposites.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence spectra of ZnO SiO 2 nanocomposites.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence intensity of UV peak as a function of the volume fraction of ZnO in ZnO SiO 2 nanocomposites.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Open aperture z-scan traces of ZnO SiO 2 nanocomposites at an intensity of 300 MW / cm 2 for an irradiation wavelength of 532 nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Closed-aperture z-scan traces of ZnO SiO 2 nanocomposites at an intensity of 300 MW / cm 2 for an irradiation wavelength of 532 nm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical limiting response of ZnO SiO 2 nanocomposites generated from open-aperture z-scan traces at 532 nm .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Values of Nonlinear Absorption Coefficient and Refractive Index of ZnO SiO 2 Nanocomposites at Intensity of 300 MW / cm 2 for Irradiation Wavelength of 532 nm

Equations (2)

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T ( z ) = 1 q 0 π ln ( 1 + q 0 e t 2 ) d t ,     q o ( z , r , t ) = β I o ( t ) L eff .
Δ T p v = 0.406 ( 1 S ) 0.25 | Δ Φ 0 | ,     | Δ Φ 0 | = 2 π λ n 2 I 0 L eff .

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