Abstract

Adaptive optics systems often work in a closed-loop configuration due to the hysteretic and nonlinearity properties of conventional deformable mirrors. Because of the high-precision wavefront generation and nonhysteretic properties of liquid-crystal devices, the open-loop control becomes possible. Open-loop control is a requirement for advanced adaptive optics concepts. We designed an open-loop adaptive optics system with a liquid-crystal-on-silicon wavefront corrector. This system is simple, fast, and can save much more light compared to conventional liquid-crystal-based closed-loop systems. The detailed principle, construction, and operation are discussed. The 500m horizontal turbulence correction experiment was done using a 250mm telescope in the laboratory. The whole system can reach a 60Hz correction frequency. Evaluation of the correction precision was done at closed-loop configuration, which is 0.2λ(λ=0.633μm) in peak to valley. The dynamic image under open-loop correction got the same resolution compared to closed-loop correction. The whole system reached 0.68arcsec resolution capability at open-loop correction, which is slightly larger than the system’s diffraction-limited resolution of 0.65arcsec.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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2007 (4)

N. Devaney, “Review of astronomical adaptive optics systems and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6584, 658407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Morzinski, K. B. W. Harpsoe, D. T. Gavel, and S. M. Ammons, “The open-loop control of MEMS: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670G (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Zamkotsian, V. Conedera, H. Granier, A. Liotard, P. Lanzoni, L. Salvagnac, N. Fabre, and H. Camon, “Electrostatic polymer-based microdeformable mirror for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670P (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, D. Li, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Liquid crystal based adaptive optics system to compensate both low and high order aberrations in a model eye,” Opt. Express 15, 1946-1953 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

Y. Liu, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Z. Cao, D. Li, Q. Mu, and X. Lu, “Investigation on the liquid crystal spatial light modulator with high precision and pure phase,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25, 1682-1686 (2005).

S. R. Restaino, T. Martinez, J. Andrews, C. C. Wilcox, F. Santiago, S. W. Teare and D. M. Payne, “MEMs and LC for compact AO systems,” Proc. SPIE 6018, 601818 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

C. Boyer, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Adaptive optics: interaction matrix measurements and real time control algorithms for the COME-ON project,” Proc. SPIE 1237, 406-421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65, 229-236 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Ammons, S. M.

K. M. Morzinski, K. B. W. Harpsoe, D. T. Gavel, and S. M. Ammons, “The open-loop control of MEMS: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670G (2007).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, J.

S. R. Restaino, T. Martinez, J. Andrews, C. C. Wilcox, F. Santiago, S. W. Teare and D. M. Payne, “MEMs and LC for compact AO systems,” Proc. SPIE 6018, 601818 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

Babcock, H. W.

H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65, 229-236 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Baker, J.

Boyer, C.

C. Boyer, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Adaptive optics: interaction matrix measurements and real time control algorithms for the COME-ON project,” Proc. SPIE 1237, 406-421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Browne, S.

Camon, H.

F. Zamkotsian, V. Conedera, H. Granier, A. Liotard, P. Lanzoni, L. Salvagnac, N. Fabre, and H. Camon, “Electrostatic polymer-based microdeformable mirror for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670P (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Z.

Conedera, V.

F. Zamkotsian, V. Conedera, H. Granier, A. Liotard, P. Lanzoni, L. Salvagnac, N. Fabre, and H. Camon, “Electrostatic polymer-based microdeformable mirror for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670P (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dayton, D.

Devaney, N.

N. Devaney, “Review of astronomical adaptive optics systems and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6584, 658407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, N.

F. Zamkotsian, V. Conedera, H. Granier, A. Liotard, P. Lanzoni, L. Salvagnac, N. Fabre, and H. Camon, “Electrostatic polymer-based microdeformable mirror for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670P (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, E.

Gallegos, J.

Gavel, D. T.

K. M. Morzinski, K. B. W. Harpsoe, D. T. Gavel, and S. M. Ammons, “The open-loop control of MEMS: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670G (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gonglewski, J.

Granier, H.

F. Zamkotsian, V. Conedera, H. Granier, A. Liotard, P. Lanzoni, L. Salvagnac, N. Fabre, and H. Camon, “Electrostatic polymer-based microdeformable mirror for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670P (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harpsoe, K. B. W.

K. M. Morzinski, K. B. W. Harpsoe, D. T. Gavel, and S. M. Ammons, “The open-loop control of MEMS: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670G (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

Lanzoni, P.

F. Zamkotsian, V. Conedera, H. Granier, A. Liotard, P. Lanzoni, L. Salvagnac, N. Fabre, and H. Camon, “Electrostatic polymer-based microdeformable mirror for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670P (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

Liotard, A.

F. Zamkotsian, V. Conedera, H. Granier, A. Liotard, P. Lanzoni, L. Salvagnac, N. Fabre, and H. Camon, “Electrostatic polymer-based microdeformable mirror for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670P (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Z. Cao, D. Li, Q. Mu, and X. Lu, “Investigation on the liquid crystal spatial light modulator with high precision and pure phase,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25, 1682-1686 (2005).

L. Hu, L. Xuan, Y. Liu, Z. Cao, D. Li, and Q. Mu, “Phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator for wavefront correction with high precision,” Opt. Express 12, 6403-6409 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Love, G. D.

Lu, X.

Y. Liu, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Z. Cao, D. Li, Q. Mu, and X. Lu, “Investigation on the liquid crystal spatial light modulator with high precision and pure phase,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25, 1682-1686 (2005).

Manzanera, S.

Martinez, T.

S. R. Restaino, T. Martinez, J. Andrews, C. C. Wilcox, F. Santiago, S. W. Teare and D. M. Payne, “MEMs and LC for compact AO systems,” Proc. SPIE 6018, 601818 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mcdermott, S.

Michau, V.

C. Boyer, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Adaptive optics: interaction matrix measurements and real time control algorithms for the COME-ON project,” Proc. SPIE 1237, 406-421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Morzinski, K. M.

K. M. Morzinski, K. B. W. Harpsoe, D. T. Gavel, and S. M. Ammons, “The open-loop control of MEMS: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670G (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mu, Q.

Payne, D. M.

S. R. Restaino, T. Martinez, J. Andrews, C. C. Wilcox, F. Santiago, S. W. Teare and D. M. Payne, “MEMs and LC for compact AO systems,” Proc. SPIE 6018, 601818 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prieto, P.

Restaino, S.

Restaino, S. R.

S. R. Restaino, T. Martinez, J. Andrews, C. C. Wilcox, F. Santiago, S. W. Teare and D. M. Payne, “MEMs and LC for compact AO systems,” Proc. SPIE 6018, 601818 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, S.

Rousset, G.

C. Boyer, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Adaptive optics: interaction matrix measurements and real time control algorithms for the COME-ON project,” Proc. SPIE 1237, 406-421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Salvagnac, L.

F. Zamkotsian, V. Conedera, H. Granier, A. Liotard, P. Lanzoni, L. Salvagnac, N. Fabre, and H. Camon, “Electrostatic polymer-based microdeformable mirror for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670P (2007).
[CrossRef]

Santiago, F.

S. R. Restaino, T. Martinez, J. Andrews, C. C. Wilcox, F. Santiago, S. W. Teare and D. M. Payne, “MEMs and LC for compact AO systems,” Proc. SPIE 6018, 601818 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shilko, M.

Teare, S. W.

S. R. Restaino, T. Martinez, J. Andrews, C. C. Wilcox, F. Santiago, S. W. Teare and D. M. Payne, “MEMs and LC for compact AO systems,” Proc. SPIE 6018, 601818 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, C. R.

Wilcox, C. C.

S. R. Restaino, T. Martinez, J. Andrews, C. C. Wilcox, F. Santiago, S. W. Teare and D. M. Payne, “MEMs and LC for compact AO systems,” Proc. SPIE 6018, 601818 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xuan, L.

Yang, Q.

Zamkotsian, F.

F. Zamkotsian, V. Conedera, H. Granier, A. Liotard, P. Lanzoni, L. Salvagnac, N. Fabre, and H. Camon, “Electrostatic polymer-based microdeformable mirror for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670P (2007).
[CrossRef]

Acta Opt. Sin. (1)

Y. Liu, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Z. Cao, D. Li, Q. Mu, and X. Lu, “Investigation on the liquid crystal spatial light modulator with high precision and pure phase,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25, 1682-1686 (2005).

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (5)

Proc. SPIE (5)

N. Devaney, “Review of astronomical adaptive optics systems and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6584, 658407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Morzinski, K. B. W. Harpsoe, D. T. Gavel, and S. M. Ammons, “The open-loop control of MEMS: modeling and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670G (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Zamkotsian, V. Conedera, H. Granier, A. Liotard, P. Lanzoni, L. Salvagnac, N. Fabre, and H. Camon, “Electrostatic polymer-based microdeformable mirror for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670P (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Restaino, T. Martinez, J. Andrews, C. C. Wilcox, F. Santiago, S. W. Teare and D. M. Payne, “MEMs and LC for compact AO systems,” Proc. SPIE 6018, 601818 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Boyer, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Adaptive optics: interaction matrix measurements and real time control algorithms for the COME-ON project,” Proc. SPIE 1237, 406-421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

H. W. Babcock, “The possibility of compensating astronomical seeing,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65, 229-236 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (2)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Closed-loop adaptive optics system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Open-loop adaptive optics system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Registration optical scheme.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Open-loop adaptive optics system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Horizontal turbulence correction system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Media 1) Closed-loop correction of the 500 m horizontal turbulence.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Media 2) Open-loop correction of the 500 m horizontal turbulence.

Metrics