Abstract

A test was made of the ability of Kramers–Kronig-constrained variational dielectric fitting to extract the optical conductivity of a thin film from reflectance data containing structure due to both thin film and substrate. The reflectance of a series of well-characterized thin films of SrRuxMg1xO3 and SrRuxO3 with a variety of thicknesses (56300nm) and dc resistivities (2502200μΩcm) was measured. The low frequency values of the extracted optical conductivities agree with the dc measurements, however, removal of features due to the substrate improves with increasing film thickness.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Kostic, Y. Okada, N. C. Collins, Z. Schlesinger, J. W. Reiner, L. Klein, A. Kapitulnik, T. H. Geballe, and M. R. Beasley, “Non-Fermi-liquid behavior of SrRuO3: evidence from infrared conductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2498-2501 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. R. Lee, K. Char, “Metal-insulator transition in a disordered and correlated SrTi1−xRuxOx system: changes in transport properties, optical spectra, and electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 125104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. F. Santander-Syro, R. P. S. M. Lobo, N. Bontemps, Z. Konstantinovic, Z. Z. Li, and H. Raffy, “Absence of a loss of in-plane infrared spectral weight in the pseudogap regime of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097005 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. B. Kuzmenko, “Kramers-Kronig-constrained variational analysis of optical data,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Nitsche and T. Fritz, “Determination of model-free Kramers-Kronig consistent optical constants of thin absorbing films from just one spectral measurement: application to organic semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 195432 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. A. Crandles, M. M. Yazdanian, and F. S. Razavi, “Metal-insulator transition in Mg-doped SrRuO3 thin films prepared by laser ablation,” J. Phys. D 39, 6-13 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. J. Bouchard and J. L. Gillson, “Electrical properties of CaRuO3 and SrRuO3 single crystals,” Mater. Res. Bull. 7, 873-878 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. C. Homes, T. Timusk, M. A. Reedyk, and D. A. Crandles, “Technique for measuring the reflectance of irregular submillimeter-sized samples,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2976-2983 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Gervais, J. L. Servoin, A. Baratoff, J. G. Bednorz, and G. Binnig, “Temperature dependence of plasmons in Nb-doped SrTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 8187-8194 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Dressel and G. Grüner, Electrodynamics of Solids (Cambridge University, 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. B. Kuzmenko, Guide to Reffit: Software to Fit Optical Spectra (2004), http://optics.unige.ch/alexey/reffit.html.
  12. J. S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. Nakatsuji, H. Fukazawa, R. S. Perry, Y. Maeno, Y. Yoshida, S. I. Ikeda, J. Yu, and C. B. Eom, “Bond-length dependence of charge-transfer excitations and stretch phonon modes in perovskite ruthenates: evidence for strong p-d hybridization effects,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 085103 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, and Y. Cao, “Reflectance of polyaniline protonated with camphor sulfonic acid: disordered metal on the metal-insulator boundary,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 14884-14891 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. N. Iliev, A. P. Litvinchuk, H.-G. Lee, C. L. Chen, M. L. Dezaneti, C. W. Chu, V. G. Ivanov, M. V. Abrashev, and V. N. Popov, “Raman spectroscopy of SrRuO3 near the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 364-368 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Paolone, P. Roy, A. Pimenov, A. Loidl, O. K. Mel'nikov, and A. Y. Shapiro, “Infrared phonon spectrum of pure and doped LaMnO3,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 11255 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. A. Crandles, F. Eftekhari, R. Faust, G. S. Rao, M. Reedyk, and F. S. Razavi, “Infrared active phonons in SrRuxO3 and SrRuxMg1−xO3 thin films,” J. Phys. D 41, 135007(2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

D. A. Crandles, F. Eftekhari, R. Faust, G. S. Rao, M. Reedyk, and F. S. Razavi, “Infrared active phonons in SrRuxO3 and SrRuxMg1−xO3 thin films,” J. Phys. D 41, 135007(2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. A. Crandles, M. M. Yazdanian, and F. S. Razavi, “Metal-insulator transition in Mg-doped SrRuO3 thin films prepared by laser ablation,” J. Phys. D 39, 6-13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

K. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. R. Lee, K. Char, “Metal-insulator transition in a disordered and correlated SrTi1−xRuxOx system: changes in transport properties, optical spectra, and electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 125104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Kuzmenko, “Kramers-Kronig-constrained variational analysis of optical data,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

R. Nitsche and T. Fritz, “Determination of model-free Kramers-Kronig consistent optical constants of thin absorbing films from just one spectral measurement: application to organic semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 195432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. Nakatsuji, H. Fukazawa, R. S. Perry, Y. Maeno, Y. Yoshida, S. I. Ikeda, J. Yu, and C. B. Eom, “Bond-length dependence of charge-transfer excitations and stretch phonon modes in perovskite ruthenates: evidence for strong p-d hybridization effects,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 085103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. F. Santander-Syro, R. P. S. M. Lobo, N. Bontemps, Z. Konstantinovic, Z. Z. Li, and H. Raffy, “Absence of a loss of in-plane infrared spectral weight in the pseudogap regime of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097005 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. Paolone, P. Roy, A. Pimenov, A. Loidl, O. K. Mel'nikov, and A. Y. Shapiro, “Infrared phonon spectrum of pure and doped LaMnO3,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 11255 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. N. Iliev, A. P. Litvinchuk, H.-G. Lee, C. L. Chen, M. L. Dezaneti, C. W. Chu, V. G. Ivanov, M. V. Abrashev, and V. N. Popov, “Raman spectroscopy of SrRuO3 near the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 364-368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. Kostic, Y. Okada, N. C. Collins, Z. Schlesinger, J. W. Reiner, L. Klein, A. Kapitulnik, T. H. Geballe, and M. R. Beasley, “Non-Fermi-liquid behavior of SrRuO3: evidence from infrared conductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2498-2501 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, and Y. Cao, “Reflectance of polyaniline protonated with camphor sulfonic acid: disordered metal on the metal-insulator boundary,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 14884-14891 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Homes, T. Timusk, M. A. Reedyk, and D. A. Crandles, “Technique for measuring the reflectance of irregular submillimeter-sized samples,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2976-2983 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gervais, J. L. Servoin, A. Baratoff, J. G. Bednorz, and G. Binnig, “Temperature dependence of plasmons in Nb-doped SrTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 8187-8194 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

R. J. Bouchard and J. L. Gillson, “Electrical properties of CaRuO3 and SrRuO3 single crystals,” Mater. Res. Bull. 7, 873-878 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Abrashev, M. V.

M. N. Iliev, A. P. Litvinchuk, H.-G. Lee, C. L. Chen, M. L. Dezaneti, C. W. Chu, V. G. Ivanov, M. V. Abrashev, and V. N. Popov, “Raman spectroscopy of SrRuO3 near the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 364-368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baratoff, A.

F. Gervais, J. L. Servoin, A. Baratoff, J. G. Bednorz, and G. Binnig, “Temperature dependence of plasmons in Nb-doped SrTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 8187-8194 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Beasley, M. R.

P. Kostic, Y. Okada, N. C. Collins, Z. Schlesinger, J. W. Reiner, L. Klein, A. Kapitulnik, T. H. Geballe, and M. R. Beasley, “Non-Fermi-liquid behavior of SrRuO3: evidence from infrared conductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2498-2501 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bednorz, J. G.

F. Gervais, J. L. Servoin, A. Baratoff, J. G. Bednorz, and G. Binnig, “Temperature dependence of plasmons in Nb-doped SrTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 8187-8194 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Binnig, G.

F. Gervais, J. L. Servoin, A. Baratoff, J. G. Bednorz, and G. Binnig, “Temperature dependence of plasmons in Nb-doped SrTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 8187-8194 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bontemps, N.

A. F. Santander-Syro, R. P. S. M. Lobo, N. Bontemps, Z. Konstantinovic, Z. Z. Li, and H. Raffy, “Absence of a loss of in-plane infrared spectral weight in the pseudogap regime of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097005 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouchard, R. J.

R. J. Bouchard and J. L. Gillson, “Electrical properties of CaRuO3 and SrRuO3 single crystals,” Mater. Res. Bull. 7, 873-878 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, and Y. Cao, “Reflectance of polyaniline protonated with camphor sulfonic acid: disordered metal on the metal-insulator boundary,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 14884-14891 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Char, K.

K. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. R. Lee, K. Char, “Metal-insulator transition in a disordered and correlated SrTi1−xRuxOx system: changes in transport properties, optical spectra, and electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 125104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. L.

M. N. Iliev, A. P. Litvinchuk, H.-G. Lee, C. L. Chen, M. L. Dezaneti, C. W. Chu, V. G. Ivanov, M. V. Abrashev, and V. N. Popov, “Raman spectroscopy of SrRuO3 near the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 364-368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C. W.

M. N. Iliev, A. P. Litvinchuk, H.-G. Lee, C. L. Chen, M. L. Dezaneti, C. W. Chu, V. G. Ivanov, M. V. Abrashev, and V. N. Popov, “Raman spectroscopy of SrRuO3 near the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 364-368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Collins, N. C.

P. Kostic, Y. Okada, N. C. Collins, Z. Schlesinger, J. W. Reiner, L. Klein, A. Kapitulnik, T. H. Geballe, and M. R. Beasley, “Non-Fermi-liquid behavior of SrRuO3: evidence from infrared conductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2498-2501 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crandles, D. A.

D. A. Crandles, F. Eftekhari, R. Faust, G. S. Rao, M. Reedyk, and F. S. Razavi, “Infrared active phonons in SrRuxO3 and SrRuxMg1−xO3 thin films,” J. Phys. D 41, 135007(2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Crandles, M. M. Yazdanian, and F. S. Razavi, “Metal-insulator transition in Mg-doped SrRuO3 thin films prepared by laser ablation,” J. Phys. D 39, 6-13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Homes, T. Timusk, M. A. Reedyk, and D. A. Crandles, “Technique for measuring the reflectance of irregular submillimeter-sized samples,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2976-2983 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dezaneti, M. L.

M. N. Iliev, A. P. Litvinchuk, H.-G. Lee, C. L. Chen, M. L. Dezaneti, C. W. Chu, V. G. Ivanov, M. V. Abrashev, and V. N. Popov, “Raman spectroscopy of SrRuO3 near the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 364-368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dressel, M.

M. Dressel and G. Grüner, Electrodynamics of Solids (Cambridge University, 2002).
[CrossRef]

Eftekhari, F.

D. A. Crandles, F. Eftekhari, R. Faust, G. S. Rao, M. Reedyk, and F. S. Razavi, “Infrared active phonons in SrRuxO3 and SrRuxMg1−xO3 thin films,” J. Phys. D 41, 135007(2008).
[CrossRef]

Eom, C. B.

J. S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. Nakatsuji, H. Fukazawa, R. S. Perry, Y. Maeno, Y. Yoshida, S. I. Ikeda, J. Yu, and C. B. Eom, “Bond-length dependence of charge-transfer excitations and stretch phonon modes in perovskite ruthenates: evidence for strong p-d hybridization effects,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 085103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Faust, R.

D. A. Crandles, F. Eftekhari, R. Faust, G. S. Rao, M. Reedyk, and F. S. Razavi, “Infrared active phonons in SrRuxO3 and SrRuxMg1−xO3 thin films,” J. Phys. D 41, 135007(2008).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, T.

R. Nitsche and T. Fritz, “Determination of model-free Kramers-Kronig consistent optical constants of thin absorbing films from just one spectral measurement: application to organic semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 195432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fukazawa, H.

J. S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. Nakatsuji, H. Fukazawa, R. S. Perry, Y. Maeno, Y. Yoshida, S. I. Ikeda, J. Yu, and C. B. Eom, “Bond-length dependence of charge-transfer excitations and stretch phonon modes in perovskite ruthenates: evidence for strong p-d hybridization effects,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 085103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geballe, T. H.

P. Kostic, Y. Okada, N. C. Collins, Z. Schlesinger, J. W. Reiner, L. Klein, A. Kapitulnik, T. H. Geballe, and M. R. Beasley, “Non-Fermi-liquid behavior of SrRuO3: evidence from infrared conductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2498-2501 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gervais, F.

F. Gervais, J. L. Servoin, A. Baratoff, J. G. Bednorz, and G. Binnig, “Temperature dependence of plasmons in Nb-doped SrTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 8187-8194 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gillson, J. L.

R. J. Bouchard and J. L. Gillson, “Electrical properties of CaRuO3 and SrRuO3 single crystals,” Mater. Res. Bull. 7, 873-878 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Grüner, G.

M. Dressel and G. Grüner, Electrodynamics of Solids (Cambridge University, 2002).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, and Y. Cao, “Reflectance of polyaniline protonated with camphor sulfonic acid: disordered metal on the metal-insulator boundary,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 14884-14891 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Homes, C. C.

Ikeda, S. I.

J. S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. Nakatsuji, H. Fukazawa, R. S. Perry, Y. Maeno, Y. Yoshida, S. I. Ikeda, J. Yu, and C. B. Eom, “Bond-length dependence of charge-transfer excitations and stretch phonon modes in perovskite ruthenates: evidence for strong p-d hybridization effects,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 085103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iliev, M. N.

M. N. Iliev, A. P. Litvinchuk, H.-G. Lee, C. L. Chen, M. L. Dezaneti, C. W. Chu, V. G. Ivanov, M. V. Abrashev, and V. N. Popov, “Raman spectroscopy of SrRuO3 near the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 364-368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, V. G.

M. N. Iliev, A. P. Litvinchuk, H.-G. Lee, C. L. Chen, M. L. Dezaneti, C. W. Chu, V. G. Ivanov, M. V. Abrashev, and V. N. Popov, “Raman spectroscopy of SrRuO3 near the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 364-368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kapitulnik, A.

P. Kostic, Y. Okada, N. C. Collins, Z. Schlesinger, J. W. Reiner, L. Klein, A. Kapitulnik, T. H. Geballe, and M. R. Beasley, “Non-Fermi-liquid behavior of SrRuO3: evidence from infrared conductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2498-2501 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. W.

K. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. R. Lee, K. Char, “Metal-insulator transition in a disordered and correlated SrTi1−xRuxOx system: changes in transport properties, optical spectra, and electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 125104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klein, L.

P. Kostic, Y. Okada, N. C. Collins, Z. Schlesinger, J. W. Reiner, L. Klein, A. Kapitulnik, T. H. Geballe, and M. R. Beasley, “Non-Fermi-liquid behavior of SrRuO3: evidence from infrared conductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2498-2501 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Konstantinovic, Z.

A. F. Santander-Syro, R. P. S. M. Lobo, N. Bontemps, Z. Konstantinovic, Z. Z. Li, and H. Raffy, “Absence of a loss of in-plane infrared spectral weight in the pseudogap regime of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097005 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kostic, P.

P. Kostic, Y. Okada, N. C. Collins, Z. Schlesinger, J. W. Reiner, L. Klein, A. Kapitulnik, T. H. Geballe, and M. R. Beasley, “Non-Fermi-liquid behavior of SrRuO3: evidence from infrared conductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2498-2501 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmenko, A. B.

A. B. Kuzmenko, “Kramers-Kronig-constrained variational analysis of optical data,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Kuzmenko, Guide to Reffit: Software to Fit Optical Spectra (2004), http://optics.unige.ch/alexey/reffit.html.

Lee, H.-G.

M. N. Iliev, A. P. Litvinchuk, H.-G. Lee, C. L. Chen, M. L. Dezaneti, C. W. Chu, V. G. Ivanov, M. V. Abrashev, and V. N. Popov, “Raman spectroscopy of SrRuO3 near the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 364-368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

K. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. R. Lee, K. Char, “Metal-insulator transition in a disordered and correlated SrTi1−xRuxOx system: changes in transport properties, optical spectra, and electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 125104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. Nakatsuji, H. Fukazawa, R. S. Perry, Y. Maeno, Y. Yoshida, S. I. Ikeda, J. Yu, and C. B. Eom, “Bond-length dependence of charge-transfer excitations and stretch phonon modes in perovskite ruthenates: evidence for strong p-d hybridization effects,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 085103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, and Y. Cao, “Reflectance of polyaniline protonated with camphor sulfonic acid: disordered metal on the metal-insulator boundary,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 14884-14891 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. R.

K. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. R. Lee, K. Char, “Metal-insulator transition in a disordered and correlated SrTi1−xRuxOx system: changes in transport properties, optical spectra, and electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 125104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

J. S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. Nakatsuji, H. Fukazawa, R. S. Perry, Y. Maeno, Y. Yoshida, S. I. Ikeda, J. Yu, and C. B. Eom, “Bond-length dependence of charge-transfer excitations and stretch phonon modes in perovskite ruthenates: evidence for strong p-d hybridization effects,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 085103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Z.

A. F. Santander-Syro, R. P. S. M. Lobo, N. Bontemps, Z. Konstantinovic, Z. Z. Li, and H. Raffy, “Absence of a loss of in-plane infrared spectral weight in the pseudogap regime of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097005 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litvinchuk, A. P.

M. N. Iliev, A. P. Litvinchuk, H.-G. Lee, C. L. Chen, M. L. Dezaneti, C. W. Chu, V. G. Ivanov, M. V. Abrashev, and V. N. Popov, “Raman spectroscopy of SrRuO3 near the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 364-368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lobo, R. P. S. M.

A. F. Santander-Syro, R. P. S. M. Lobo, N. Bontemps, Z. Konstantinovic, Z. Z. Li, and H. Raffy, “Absence of a loss of in-plane infrared spectral weight in the pseudogap regime of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097005 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loidl, A.

A. Paolone, P. Roy, A. Pimenov, A. Loidl, O. K. Mel'nikov, and A. Y. Shapiro, “Infrared phonon spectrum of pure and doped LaMnO3,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 11255 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maeno, Y.

J. S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. Nakatsuji, H. Fukazawa, R. S. Perry, Y. Maeno, Y. Yoshida, S. I. Ikeda, J. Yu, and C. B. Eom, “Bond-length dependence of charge-transfer excitations and stretch phonon modes in perovskite ruthenates: evidence for strong p-d hybridization effects,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 085103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mel'nikov, O. K.

A. Paolone, P. Roy, A. Pimenov, A. Loidl, O. K. Mel'nikov, and A. Y. Shapiro, “Infrared phonon spectrum of pure and doped LaMnO3,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 11255 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuji, S.

J. S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. Nakatsuji, H. Fukazawa, R. S. Perry, Y. Maeno, Y. Yoshida, S. I. Ikeda, J. Yu, and C. B. Eom, “Bond-length dependence of charge-transfer excitations and stretch phonon modes in perovskite ruthenates: evidence for strong p-d hybridization effects,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 085103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nitsche, R.

R. Nitsche and T. Fritz, “Determination of model-free Kramers-Kronig consistent optical constants of thin absorbing films from just one spectral measurement: application to organic semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 195432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noh, T. W.

K. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. R. Lee, K. Char, “Metal-insulator transition in a disordered and correlated SrTi1−xRuxOx system: changes in transport properties, optical spectra, and electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 125104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. Nakatsuji, H. Fukazawa, R. S. Perry, Y. Maeno, Y. Yoshida, S. I. Ikeda, J. Yu, and C. B. Eom, “Bond-length dependence of charge-transfer excitations and stretch phonon modes in perovskite ruthenates: evidence for strong p-d hybridization effects,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 085103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okada, Y.

P. Kostic, Y. Okada, N. C. Collins, Z. Schlesinger, J. W. Reiner, L. Klein, A. Kapitulnik, T. H. Geballe, and M. R. Beasley, “Non-Fermi-liquid behavior of SrRuO3: evidence from infrared conductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2498-2501 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paolone, A.

A. Paolone, P. Roy, A. Pimenov, A. Loidl, O. K. Mel'nikov, and A. Y. Shapiro, “Infrared phonon spectrum of pure and doped LaMnO3,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 11255 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perry, R. S.

J. S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. Nakatsuji, H. Fukazawa, R. S. Perry, Y. Maeno, Y. Yoshida, S. I. Ikeda, J. Yu, and C. B. Eom, “Bond-length dependence of charge-transfer excitations and stretch phonon modes in perovskite ruthenates: evidence for strong p-d hybridization effects,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 085103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pimenov, A.

A. Paolone, P. Roy, A. Pimenov, A. Loidl, O. K. Mel'nikov, and A. Y. Shapiro, “Infrared phonon spectrum of pure and doped LaMnO3,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 11255 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Popov, V. N.

M. N. Iliev, A. P. Litvinchuk, H.-G. Lee, C. L. Chen, M. L. Dezaneti, C. W. Chu, V. G. Ivanov, M. V. Abrashev, and V. N. Popov, “Raman spectroscopy of SrRuO3 near the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 364-368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raffy, H.

A. F. Santander-Syro, R. P. S. M. Lobo, N. Bontemps, Z. Konstantinovic, Z. Z. Li, and H. Raffy, “Absence of a loss of in-plane infrared spectral weight in the pseudogap regime of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097005 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, G. S.

D. A. Crandles, F. Eftekhari, R. Faust, G. S. Rao, M. Reedyk, and F. S. Razavi, “Infrared active phonons in SrRuxO3 and SrRuxMg1−xO3 thin films,” J. Phys. D 41, 135007(2008).
[CrossRef]

Razavi, F. S.

D. A. Crandles, F. Eftekhari, R. Faust, G. S. Rao, M. Reedyk, and F. S. Razavi, “Infrared active phonons in SrRuxO3 and SrRuxMg1−xO3 thin films,” J. Phys. D 41, 135007(2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Crandles, M. M. Yazdanian, and F. S. Razavi, “Metal-insulator transition in Mg-doped SrRuO3 thin films prepared by laser ablation,” J. Phys. D 39, 6-13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reedyk, M.

D. A. Crandles, F. Eftekhari, R. Faust, G. S. Rao, M. Reedyk, and F. S. Razavi, “Infrared active phonons in SrRuxO3 and SrRuxMg1−xO3 thin films,” J. Phys. D 41, 135007(2008).
[CrossRef]

Reedyk, M. A.

Reiner, J. W.

P. Kostic, Y. Okada, N. C. Collins, Z. Schlesinger, J. W. Reiner, L. Klein, A. Kapitulnik, T. H. Geballe, and M. R. Beasley, “Non-Fermi-liquid behavior of SrRuO3: evidence from infrared conductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2498-2501 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roy, P.

A. Paolone, P. Roy, A. Pimenov, A. Loidl, O. K. Mel'nikov, and A. Y. Shapiro, “Infrared phonon spectrum of pure and doped LaMnO3,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 11255 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Santander-Syro, A. F.

A. F. Santander-Syro, R. P. S. M. Lobo, N. Bontemps, Z. Konstantinovic, Z. Z. Li, and H. Raffy, “Absence of a loss of in-plane infrared spectral weight in the pseudogap regime of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097005 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlesinger, Z.

P. Kostic, Y. Okada, N. C. Collins, Z. Schlesinger, J. W. Reiner, L. Klein, A. Kapitulnik, T. H. Geballe, and M. R. Beasley, “Non-Fermi-liquid behavior of SrRuO3: evidence from infrared conductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2498-2501 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Servoin, J. L.

F. Gervais, J. L. Servoin, A. Baratoff, J. G. Bednorz, and G. Binnig, “Temperature dependence of plasmons in Nb-doped SrTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 8187-8194 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, A. Y.

A. Paolone, P. Roy, A. Pimenov, A. Loidl, O. K. Mel'nikov, and A. Y. Shapiro, “Infrared phonon spectrum of pure and doped LaMnO3,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 11255 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Timusk, T.

Yazdanian, M. M.

D. A. Crandles, M. M. Yazdanian, and F. S. Razavi, “Metal-insulator transition in Mg-doped SrRuO3 thin films prepared by laser ablation,” J. Phys. D 39, 6-13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, Y.

J. S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. Nakatsuji, H. Fukazawa, R. S. Perry, Y. Maeno, Y. Yoshida, S. I. Ikeda, J. Yu, and C. B. Eom, “Bond-length dependence of charge-transfer excitations and stretch phonon modes in perovskite ruthenates: evidence for strong p-d hybridization effects,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 085103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

J. S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. Nakatsuji, H. Fukazawa, R. S. Perry, Y. Maeno, Y. Yoshida, S. I. Ikeda, J. Yu, and C. B. Eom, “Bond-length dependence of charge-transfer excitations and stretch phonon modes in perovskite ruthenates: evidence for strong p-d hybridization effects,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 085103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Phys. D (2)

D. A. Crandles, M. M. Yazdanian, and F. S. Razavi, “Metal-insulator transition in Mg-doped SrRuO3 thin films prepared by laser ablation,” J. Phys. D 39, 6-13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Crandles, F. Eftekhari, R. Faust, G. S. Rao, M. Reedyk, and F. S. Razavi, “Infrared active phonons in SrRuxO3 and SrRuxMg1−xO3 thin films,” J. Phys. D 41, 135007(2008).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

R. J. Bouchard and J. L. Gillson, “Electrical properties of CaRuO3 and SrRuO3 single crystals,” Mater. Res. Bull. 7, 873-878 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (7)

J. S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. Nakatsuji, H. Fukazawa, R. S. Perry, Y. Maeno, Y. Yoshida, S. I. Ikeda, J. Yu, and C. B. Eom, “Bond-length dependence of charge-transfer excitations and stretch phonon modes in perovskite ruthenates: evidence for strong p-d hybridization effects,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 085103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, and Y. Cao, “Reflectance of polyaniline protonated with camphor sulfonic acid: disordered metal on the metal-insulator boundary,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 14884-14891 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Iliev, A. P. Litvinchuk, H.-G. Lee, C. L. Chen, M. L. Dezaneti, C. W. Chu, V. G. Ivanov, M. V. Abrashev, and V. N. Popov, “Raman spectroscopy of SrRuO3 near the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 364-368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Paolone, P. Roy, A. Pimenov, A. Loidl, O. K. Mel'nikov, and A. Y. Shapiro, “Infrared phonon spectrum of pure and doped LaMnO3,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 11255 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Gervais, J. L. Servoin, A. Baratoff, J. G. Bednorz, and G. Binnig, “Temperature dependence of plasmons in Nb-doped SrTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 8187-8194 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Kim, J. S. Lee, T. W. Noh, S. R. Lee, K. Char, “Metal-insulator transition in a disordered and correlated SrTi1−xRuxOx system: changes in transport properties, optical spectra, and electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 125104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Nitsche and T. Fritz, “Determination of model-free Kramers-Kronig consistent optical constants of thin absorbing films from just one spectral measurement: application to organic semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 195432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

P. Kostic, Y. Okada, N. C. Collins, Z. Schlesinger, J. W. Reiner, L. Klein, A. Kapitulnik, T. H. Geballe, and M. R. Beasley, “Non-Fermi-liquid behavior of SrRuO3: evidence from infrared conductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2498-2501 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Santander-Syro, R. P. S. M. Lobo, N. Bontemps, Z. Konstantinovic, Z. Z. Li, and H. Raffy, “Absence of a loss of in-plane infrared spectral weight in the pseudogap regime of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097005 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. B. Kuzmenko, “Kramers-Kronig-constrained variational analysis of optical data,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. Dressel and G. Grüner, Electrodynamics of Solids (Cambridge University, 2002).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Kuzmenko, Guide to Reffit: Software to Fit Optical Spectra (2004), http://optics.unige.ch/alexey/reffit.html.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Room temperature reflectance data comparing thin films of approximately the same thickness but with different dc resistivity as well as the spectrum of the STO substrate. (a) The reflectance of Sr Ru x O 3 films approximately 86 nm thick. The stoichiometry of the ρ = 250 μΩcm film is Sr Ru O 3 , while the stoichiometry of the ρ = 800 μΩcm film is Sr Ru 0.8 O 3 . (b) The reflectance of two Sr Ru x Mg 1 x O 3 films approximately 175 nm thick. The stoichiometry of the ρ = 380 μΩcm film is Sr Ru 0.99 Mg 0.01 O 3 , while the stoichiometry of the ρ = 2200 μΩcm film is Sr Ru 0.85 Mg 0.15 O 3

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Room temperature reflectance data comparing two thin films with approximately the same dc resistivity but with different thickness. The stoichiometry of the ρ = 750 μΩcm film is Sr Ru 0.91 Mg 0.09 O 3 , while the stoichiometry of the ρ = 800 μΩcm film is Sr Ru 0.8 O 3 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Room temperature real optical conductivity data comparing two thin films with (a) approximately the same thickness but different DC resistivity or with (b) approximately the same dc resistivity but with different thickness. σ 1 ( ω ) was extracted from reflectance data using the KKCVDF procedure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral weight S = 0 ω c σ 1 ( ω ) d ω with ω c = 7000 cm 1 for Sr Ru x O 3 and Sr Ru x Mg 1 x O 3 (this work) and Sr Ru x Ti 1 x O 3 [2]. The solid line is a guide for the eye.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the KKCVDF-derived σ 1 ( ω ) of thin films of several different thicknesses, the STO substrate, and a Sr Ru O 3 crystal. The vertical lines indicate the presence of substrate features in the thin film spectra. The dashed line was obtained by fitting the reflectance data to a model, which assumed a simple Drude–Lorentz model with one phonon term for the dielectric function of the thin film. The center frequencies of the infrared active phonon modes marked A, B, C, and D are listed in Table 1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Size of the 170 cm 1 STO feature in the KKCVDF-derived σ 1 ( ω ) of thin films versus film thickness.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of crystal and film reflectance data.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Film Stoichiometry and Thickness Determined by RBS as well as the Room Temperature Resistivities Determined by the van der Pauw Technique a

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R = | r f + t 2 r f s 1 + t 2 r f r f s | 2 ,
r f = 1 ϵ f 1 + ϵ f , r f s = ϵ f ϵ s ϵ f + ϵ s , t = exp ( i ω c ϵ f d ) .

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