Abstract

Cr/Sc and Ni/V multilayers, intended as normal incidence soft x-ray mirrors and Brewster angle polarizers, have been synthesized by employing a novel modulated low-energy and high-flux ion assistance as a means of engineering the interfaces between the subnanometer layers on an atomic scale during magnetron sputter deposition. To reduce both roughness and intermixing, the ion energy was modulated within each layer. The flat and abrupt interfaces yielded soft x-ray mirrors with near-normal incidence reflectances of R=20.7% at the Sc 2p absorption edge and R=2.7% at the V 2p absorption edge. Multilayers optimized for the Brewster angle showed a reflectance of R=26.7% and an extinction ratio of Rs/Rp=5450 for Cr/Sc and R=10% and Rs/Rp=4190 for Ni/V. Transmission electron microscopy investigations showed an amorphous Cr/Sc structure with an accumulating high spatial frequency roughness. For Ni/V the initial growth mode is amorphous and then turns crystalline after 1/3 of the total thickness, with an accumulating low spatial frequency roughness as a consequence. Elastic recoil detection analyses showed that N was the major impurity in both Cr/Sc and Ni/V with concentrations of 15 at. % and 9 at. %, respectively, but also O (3 at. % and 1.3 at. %) and C (0.5 at. % and 1.9 at. %) were present. Simulations of the possible normal incidence reflective properties in the soft x-ray range of 100600eV are given, predicting that reflectivities of more than 31% for Cr/Sc and 5.8% for Ni/V can be achieved if better control of the impurities and the deposition process is employed. The simulations also show that Cr/Sc is a good candidate for mirrors for the photon energies between the absorption edges of B (E=188eV) and Sc (E=398.8eV).

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, P. O. Å. Persson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of ion-assisted growth on the layer definition in Cr/Sc multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 516, 982-990 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. Birch, T. Joelsson, F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, and L. Hultman, “Single crystal CrN/ScN superlattice soft x-ray mirrors: epitaxial growth, structure and properties,” Thin Solid Films 514, 10-19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, F. Schäfers, E. M. Gullikson, and J. Birch, “Interface engineering of short-period Ni/V multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Thin Solid Films 500, 84-95 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

D. L. Windt, S. M. Kahn, and G. E. Sommargren, “Diffraction-limited astronomical x-ray imaging and x-ray interferometry using normal incidence multilayer optics,” Proc. SPIE 4851, 441-450 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Knulst, M. J. van der Wiel, O. J. Luiten, and J. Verhoeven, “High-brightness, narrowband, and compact soft x-ray cherenkov sources in the water window,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4050-4052 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kreissig, and J. Birch, “14.5% near-normal incidence reflectance of Cr/Sc x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2494-2496 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (5)

T. Kuhlmann, S. A. Yulin, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, T. Gorelik, U. Kaiser, and W. Richter, “Chromium-scandium multilayer mirrors for the nitrogen kα line in the water window region,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2048-2052 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, and J. Birch, “Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion assisted sputter deposition,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2903-2909 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “Thermal stability of Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft x-ray range,” Proc. SPIE 4782, 285-291 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-Resolved Atomic Inner-Shell Spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Birch, F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, and H. M. Hertz, “Recent advances in ion-assisted growth of Cr/Sc multilayer x-ray mirrors for the water window,” Vacuum 68, 275-282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

F. Schäfers, M. Mertin, D. Abramsohn, A. Gaupp, H.-Ch. Mertins, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Cr/Sc nanolayers for the water window: improved performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 349-353 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Grimmer, O. Zaharko, H.-Ch. Mertins, and F. Schäfers, “Polarizing mirrors for soft x-ray radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 354-357 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Sae-Lao and C. Montcalm, “Molybdenum strontium multilayer mirrors for the 8-12 nm extreme-ultraviolet wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 26, 468-470 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

X. W. Zhou and H. N. G. Wadley, “Atomistic simulations of low energy ion assisted vapor deposition of metal multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2273-2281 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Borchers, P. Ricardo, and C. Michaelsen, “Interfacial wetting and percolation threshold in ultrathin Ni/C multilayer films,” Philos. Mag. A 80, 1669-1679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 197, 268-273 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

1998 (4)

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. N. Salashchenko, and E. A. Shamov, “Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 719-728 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, “IMD: software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360-370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawamura, J.-J. Delaunay, H. Takenaka, T. Hayashi, and Y. Watanabe, “High-performance EUV/soft x-ray ellipsometry system using multilayer mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 735-737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Svedberg, J. Birch, I. P. Ivanov, P. Münger, and J.-E. Sundgren, “Assymmetric interface broadening in epitaxial Mo/W(001) superlattices grown by magnetron sputtering on MgO(001) substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 633-638(1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1-5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

I. Petrov, F. Adibi, J. E. Greene, L. Hultman, and J.-E. Sundgren, “Average energy deposited per atom: a universal parameter for describing ion-assisted film growth?,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 36-38 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, and S. P. Vernon, “Normal-incidence x-ray mirror for 7 nm,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1283-1285(1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Puik, M. J. van der Wiel, H. Zeijlemaker, and J. Verhoeven, “Ion bombardment of x-ray multilayer coatings comparison of ion etching and ion assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 47, 251-260 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

J. A. Thornton, “Stress-related effects in thin films,” Thin Solid Films 171, 5-31 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Brice, J. Y. Tsao, and S. T. Picraux, “Partitioning of ion-induced surface and bulk displacements,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 44, 68-78 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

T. Takagi, “Ion-surface interactions during thin film deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 382-388 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Abramsohn, D.

F. Schäfers, M. Mertin, D. Abramsohn, A. Gaupp, H.-Ch. Mertins, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Cr/Sc nanolayers for the water window: improved performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 349-353 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, F.

I. Petrov, F. Adibi, J. E. Greene, L. Hultman, and J.-E. Sundgren, “Average energy deposited per atom: a universal parameter for describing ion-assisted film growth?,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 36-38 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A. L.

E. M. Gullikson, F. Salamassi, A. L. Aquila, and F. Dollar, “Progress in short period multilayer coatings for water window applications,” presented at The 8th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Sapporo, Japan, (12-16 March 2006).

Batson, P. J.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1-5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bennet, H. E.

H. E. Bennet and J. M. Bennet, Physics of Thin Films (Academic, 1969).

Bennet, J. M.

H. E. Bennet and J. M. Bennet, Physics of Thin Films (Academic, 1969).

Berglund, M.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 197, 268-273 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birch, J.

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, P. O. Å. Persson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of ion-assisted growth on the layer definition in Cr/Sc multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 516, 982-990 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Birch, T. Joelsson, F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, and L. Hultman, “Single crystal CrN/ScN superlattice soft x-ray mirrors: epitaxial growth, structure and properties,” Thin Solid Films 514, 10-19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, F. Schäfers, E. M. Gullikson, and J. Birch, “Interface engineering of short-period Ni/V multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Thin Solid Films 500, 84-95 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kreissig, and J. Birch, “14.5% near-normal incidence reflectance of Cr/Sc x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2494-2496 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, and J. Birch, “Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion assisted sputter deposition,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2903-2909 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Birch, F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, and H. M. Hertz, “Recent advances in ion-assisted growth of Cr/Sc multilayer x-ray mirrors for the water window,” Vacuum 68, 275-282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Svedberg, J. Birch, I. P. Ivanov, P. Münger, and J.-E. Sundgren, “Assymmetric interface broadening in epitaxial Mo/W(001) superlattices grown by magnetron sputtering on MgO(001) substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 633-638(1998).
[CrossRef]

Borchers, C.

C. Borchers, P. Ricardo, and C. Michaelsen, “Interfacial wetting and percolation threshold in ultrathin Ni/C multilayer films,” Philos. Mag. A 80, 1669-1679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brice, D. K.

D. K. Brice, J. Y. Tsao, and S. T. Picraux, “Partitioning of ion-induced surface and bulk displacements,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 44, 68-78 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chaker, M.

Chenyan, M.

C. Mingqi, W. Zhanshan, S. Lijuan, Z. Jie, C. Kai, Y. Fen, Z. Kejin, M. Chenyan, Z. Lei, Z. Yidong, Z. Jingtao, and Z. Zhong, “Multilayer-based soft x-ray polarimetry research with SR at BSRF,” presented at The 9th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Big Sky Resort, Montana, USA (3-7 February 2008).

Delaunay, J.-J.

T. Kawamura, J.-J. Delaunay, H. Takenaka, T. Hayashi, and Y. Watanabe, “High-performance EUV/soft x-ray ellipsometry system using multilayer mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 735-737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Denham, P. E.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1-5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Di Fonzo, S.

Dollar, F.

E. M. Gullikson, F. Salamassi, A. L. Aquila, and F. Dollar, “Progress in short period multilayer coatings for water window applications,” presented at The 8th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Sapporo, Japan, (12-16 March 2006).

Drescher, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-Resolved Atomic Inner-Shell Spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duguay, S.

Eriksson, F.

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, P. O. Å. Persson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of ion-assisted growth on the layer definition in Cr/Sc multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 516, 982-990 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, F. Schäfers, E. M. Gullikson, and J. Birch, “Interface engineering of short-period Ni/V multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Thin Solid Films 500, 84-95 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Birch, T. Joelsson, F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, and L. Hultman, “Single crystal CrN/ScN superlattice soft x-ray mirrors: epitaxial growth, structure and properties,” Thin Solid Films 514, 10-19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kreissig, and J. Birch, “14.5% near-normal incidence reflectance of Cr/Sc x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2494-2496 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Birch, F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, and H. M. Hertz, “Recent advances in ion-assisted growth of Cr/Sc multilayer x-ray mirrors for the water window,” Vacuum 68, 275-282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, and J. Birch, “Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion assisted sputter deposition,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2903-2909 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, M.

Feigl, T.

Fen, Y.

C. Mingqi, W. Zhanshan, S. Lijuan, Z. Jie, C. Kai, Y. Fen, Z. Kejin, M. Chenyan, Z. Lei, Z. Yidong, Z. Jingtao, and Z. Zhong, “Multilayer-based soft x-ray polarimetry research with SR at BSRF,” presented at The 9th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Big Sky Resort, Montana, USA (3-7 February 2008).

Franck, K. D.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1-5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gaupp, A.

F. Schäfers, M. Mertin, D. Abramsohn, A. Gaupp, H.-Ch. Mertins, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Cr/Sc nanolayers for the water window: improved performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 349-353 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullié, W. Jark, R. Walker, X. Le Cann, R. Nyholm, and M. Eriksson, “Soft x-ray polarimeter with multilayer optics: complete analysis of the polarization state of light,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4074-4088(1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. MacDonald, F. Schäfers, R. Pohl, I. B. Poole, A. Gaupp, and F. M. Quinn, “A W/B4C multilayer phase retarder for broad-band polarisation analysis of soft x-ray radiation,” presented at The 9th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Big Sky Resort, Montana, USA (3-7 February 2008).

Ghafoor, N.

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, P. O. Å. Persson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of ion-assisted growth on the layer definition in Cr/Sc multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 516, 982-990 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Birch, T. Joelsson, F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, and L. Hultman, “Single crystal CrN/ScN superlattice soft x-ray mirrors: epitaxial growth, structure and properties,” Thin Solid Films 514, 10-19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, F. Schäfers, E. M. Gullikson, and J. Birch, “Interface engineering of short-period Ni/V multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Thin Solid Films 500, 84-95 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gorelik, T.

Greene, J. E.

I. Petrov, F. Adibi, J. E. Greene, L. Hultman, and J.-E. Sundgren, “Average energy deposited per atom: a universal parameter for describing ion-assisted film growth?,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 36-38 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grimmer, H.

H. Grimmer, O. Zaharko, H.-Ch. Mertins, and F. Schäfers, “Polarizing mirrors for soft x-ray radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 354-357 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gudat, W.

Gullikson, E.

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, F. Schäfers, E. M. Gullikson, and J. Birch, “Interface engineering of short-period Ni/V multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Thin Solid Films 500, 84-95 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kreissig, and J. Birch, “14.5% near-normal incidence reflectance of Cr/Sc x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2494-2496 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1-5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, F. Salamassi, A. L. Aquila, and F. Dollar, “Progress in short period multilayer coatings for water window applications,” presented at The 8th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Sapporo, Japan, (12-16 March 2006).

Hayashi, T.

T. Kawamura, J.-J. Delaunay, H. Takenaka, T. Hayashi, and Y. Watanabe, “High-performance EUV/soft x-ray ellipsometry system using multilayer mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 735-737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-Resolved Atomic Inner-Shell Spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-Resolved Atomic Inner-Shell Spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertz, H. M.

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kreissig, and J. Birch, “14.5% near-normal incidence reflectance of Cr/Sc x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2494-2496 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Birch, F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, and H. M. Hertz, “Recent advances in ion-assisted growth of Cr/Sc multilayer x-ray mirrors for the water window,” Vacuum 68, 275-282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, and J. Birch, “Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion assisted sputter deposition,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2903-2909 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 197, 268-273 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hultman, L.

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, P. O. Å. Persson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of ion-assisted growth on the layer definition in Cr/Sc multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 516, 982-990 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Birch, T. Joelsson, F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, and L. Hultman, “Single crystal CrN/ScN superlattice soft x-ray mirrors: epitaxial growth, structure and properties,” Thin Solid Films 514, 10-19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Petrov, F. Adibi, J. E. Greene, L. Hultman, and J.-E. Sundgren, “Average energy deposited per atom: a universal parameter for describing ion-assisted film growth?,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 36-38 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, I. P.

E. B. Svedberg, J. Birch, I. P. Ivanov, P. Münger, and J.-E. Sundgren, “Assymmetric interface broadening in epitaxial Mo/W(001) superlattices grown by magnetron sputtering on MgO(001) substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 633-638(1998).
[CrossRef]

Jark, W.

Jie, Z.

C. Mingqi, W. Zhanshan, S. Lijuan, Z. Jie, C. Kai, Y. Fen, Z. Kejin, M. Chenyan, Z. Lei, Z. Yidong, Z. Jingtao, and Z. Zhong, “Multilayer-based soft x-ray polarimetry research with SR at BSRF,” presented at The 9th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Big Sky Resort, Montana, USA (3-7 February 2008).

Jingtao, Z.

C. Mingqi, W. Zhanshan, S. Lijuan, Z. Jie, C. Kai, Y. Fen, Z. Kejin, M. Chenyan, Z. Lei, Z. Yidong, Z. Jingtao, and Z. Zhong, “Multilayer-based soft x-ray polarimetry research with SR at BSRF,” presented at The 9th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Big Sky Resort, Montana, USA (3-7 February 2008).

Joelsson, T.

J. Birch, T. Joelsson, F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, and L. Hultman, “Single crystal CrN/ScN superlattice soft x-ray mirrors: epitaxial growth, structure and properties,” Thin Solid Films 514, 10-19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, G. A.

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kreissig, and J. Birch, “14.5% near-normal incidence reflectance of Cr/Sc x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2494-2496 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Birch, F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, and H. M. Hertz, “Recent advances in ion-assisted growth of Cr/Sc multilayer x-ray mirrors for the water window,” Vacuum 68, 275-282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, and J. Birch, “Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion assisted sputter deposition,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2903-2909 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, S. M.

D. L. Windt, S. M. Kahn, and G. E. Sommargren, “Diffraction-limited astronomical x-ray imaging and x-ray interferometry using normal incidence multilayer optics,” Proc. SPIE 4851, 441-450 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kai, C.

C. Mingqi, W. Zhanshan, S. Lijuan, Z. Jie, C. Kai, Y. Fen, Z. Kejin, M. Chenyan, Z. Lei, Z. Yidong, Z. Jingtao, and Z. Zhong, “Multilayer-based soft x-ray polarimetry research with SR at BSRF,” presented at The 9th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Big Sky Resort, Montana, USA (3-7 February 2008).

Kaiser, N.

Kaiser, U.

Kawamura, T.

T. Kawamura, J.-J. Delaunay, H. Takenaka, T. Hayashi, and Y. Watanabe, “High-performance EUV/soft x-ray ellipsometry system using multilayer mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 735-737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kejin, Z.

C. Mingqi, W. Zhanshan, S. Lijuan, Z. Jie, C. Kai, Y. Fen, Z. Kejin, M. Chenyan, Z. Lei, Z. Yidong, Z. Jingtao, and Z. Zhong, “Multilayer-based soft x-ray polarimetry research with SR at BSRF,” presented at The 9th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Big Sky Resort, Montana, USA (3-7 February 2008).

Kienberger, R.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-Resolved Atomic Inner-Shell Spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-Resolved Atomic Inner-Shell Spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knulst, W.

W. Knulst, M. J. van der Wiel, O. J. Luiten, and J. Verhoeven, “High-brightness, narrowband, and compact soft x-ray cherenkov sources in the water window,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4050-4052 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koike, M.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1-5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-Resolved Atomic Inner-Shell Spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreissig, U.

Kuhlmann, T.

Le Cann, X.

Lei, Z.

C. Mingqi, W. Zhanshan, S. Lijuan, Z. Jie, C. Kai, Y. Fen, Z. Kejin, M. Chenyan, Z. Lei, Z. Yidong, Z. Jingtao, and Z. Zhong, “Multilayer-based soft x-ray polarimetry research with SR at BSRF,” presented at The 9th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Big Sky Resort, Montana, USA (3-7 February 2008).

Lijuan, S.

C. Mingqi, W. Zhanshan, S. Lijuan, Z. Jie, C. Kai, Y. Fen, Z. Kejin, M. Chenyan, Z. Lei, Z. Yidong, Z. Jingtao, and Z. Zhong, “Multilayer-based soft x-ray polarimetry research with SR at BSRF,” presented at The 9th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Big Sky Resort, Montana, USA (3-7 February 2008).

Luiten, O. J.

W. Knulst, M. J. van der Wiel, O. J. Luiten, and J. Verhoeven, “High-brightness, narrowband, and compact soft x-ray cherenkov sources in the water window,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4050-4052 (2003).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, M. A.

M. A. MacDonald, F. Schäfers, R. Pohl, I. B. Poole, A. Gaupp, and F. M. Quinn, “A W/B4C multilayer phase retarder for broad-band polarisation analysis of soft x-ray radiation,” presented at The 9th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Big Sky Resort, Montana, USA (3-7 February 2008).

Mertin, M.

F. Schäfers, M. Mertin, D. Abramsohn, A. Gaupp, H.-Ch. Mertins, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Cr/Sc nanolayers for the water window: improved performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 349-353 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullié, W. Jark, R. Walker, X. Le Cann, R. Nyholm, and M. Eriksson, “Soft x-ray polarimeter with multilayer optics: complete analysis of the polarization state of light,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4074-4088(1999).
[CrossRef]

Mertins, H.-Ch.

H. Grimmer, O. Zaharko, H.-Ch. Mertins, and F. Schäfers, “Polarizing mirrors for soft x-ray radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 354-357 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, M. Mertin, D. Abramsohn, A. Gaupp, H.-Ch. Mertins, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Cr/Sc nanolayers for the water window: improved performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 349-353 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullié, W. Jark, R. Walker, X. Le Cann, R. Nyholm, and M. Eriksson, “Soft x-ray polarimeter with multilayer optics: complete analysis of the polarization state of light,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4074-4088(1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. N. Salashchenko, and E. A. Shamov, “Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 719-728 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michaelsen, C.

C. Borchers, P. Ricardo, and C. Michaelsen, “Interfacial wetting and percolation threshold in ultrathin Ni/C multilayer films,” Philos. Mag. A 80, 1669-1679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mingqi, C.

C. Mingqi, W. Zhanshan, S. Lijuan, Z. Jie, C. Kai, Y. Fen, Z. Kejin, M. Chenyan, Z. Lei, Z. Yidong, Z. Jingtao, and Z. Zhong, “Multilayer-based soft x-ray polarimetry research with SR at BSRF,” presented at The 9th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Big Sky Resort, Montana, USA (3-7 February 2008).

Montcalm, C.

Münger, P.

E. B. Svedberg, J. Birch, I. P. Ivanov, P. Münger, and J.-E. Sundgren, “Assymmetric interface broadening in epitaxial Mo/W(001) superlattices grown by magnetron sputtering on MgO(001) substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 633-638(1998).
[CrossRef]

Nastasi, M.

J. R. Tesmer and M. Nastasi, Handbook of Modern Ion Beam Materials Analysis (Materials Research Society, 1995).

Nyholm, R.

Packe, I.

Pepin, H.

Persson, P. O. Å.

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, P. O. Å. Persson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Effects of ion-assisted growth on the layer definition in Cr/Sc multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 516, 982-990 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, I.

I. Petrov, F. Adibi, J. E. Greene, L. Hultman, and J.-E. Sundgren, “Average energy deposited per atom: a universal parameter for describing ion-assisted film growth?,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 36-38 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peuker, M.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 197, 268-273 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Picraux, S. T.

D. K. Brice, J. Y. Tsao, and S. T. Picraux, “Partitioning of ion-induced surface and bulk displacements,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 44, 68-78 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, R.

M. A. MacDonald, F. Schäfers, R. Pohl, I. B. Poole, A. Gaupp, and F. M. Quinn, “A W/B4C multilayer phase retarder for broad-band polarisation analysis of soft x-ray radiation,” presented at The 9th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Big Sky Resort, Montana, USA (3-7 February 2008).

Poole, I. B.

M. A. MacDonald, F. Schäfers, R. Pohl, I. B. Poole, A. Gaupp, and F. M. Quinn, “A W/B4C multilayer phase retarder for broad-band polarisation analysis of soft x-ray radiation,” presented at The 9th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Big Sky Resort, Montana, USA (3-7 February 2008).

Puik, E. J.

E. J. Puik, M. J. van der Wiel, H. Zeijlemaker, and J. Verhoeven, “Ion bombardment of x-ray multilayer coatings comparison of ion etching and ion assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 47, 251-260 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, F. M.

M. A. MacDonald, F. Schäfers, R. Pohl, I. B. Poole, A. Gaupp, and F. M. Quinn, “A W/B4C multilayer phase retarder for broad-band polarisation analysis of soft x-ray radiation,” presented at The 9th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Big Sky Resort, Montana, USA (3-7 February 2008).

Ranger, M.

Ricardo, P.

C. Borchers, P. Ricardo, and C. Michaelsen, “Interfacial wetting and percolation threshold in ultrathin Ni/C multilayer films,” Philos. Mag. A 80, 1669-1679 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richter, W.

Rosen, R. S.

Rymell, L.

M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 197, 268-273 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sae-Lao, B.

Sakano, K.

K. Sakano and M. Yamamoto, “Development of soft x-ray multilayer mirrors for a wavelength of 3 nm,” Proc. SPIE 3767, 238-241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salamassi, F.

E. M. Gullikson, F. Salamassi, A. L. Aquila, and F. Dollar, “Progress in short period multilayer coatings for water window applications,” presented at The 8th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Sapporo, Japan, (12-16 March 2006).

Salashchenko, N. N.

F. Schäfers, M. Mertin, D. Abramsohn, A. Gaupp, H.-Ch. Mertins, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Cr/Sc nanolayers for the water window: improved performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 349-353 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. N. Salashchenko, and E. A. Shamov, “Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 719-728 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schäfers, F.

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, F. Schäfers, E. M. Gullikson, and J. Birch, “Interface engineering of short-period Ni/V multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Thin Solid Films 500, 84-95 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Grimmer, O. Zaharko, H.-Ch. Mertins, and F. Schäfers, “Polarizing mirrors for soft x-ray radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 354-357 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, M. Mertin, D. Abramsohn, A. Gaupp, H.-Ch. Mertins, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Cr/Sc nanolayers for the water window: improved performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 349-353 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullié, W. Jark, R. Walker, X. Le Cann, R. Nyholm, and M. Eriksson, “Soft x-ray polarimeter with multilayer optics: complete analysis of the polarization state of light,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4074-4088(1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. N. Salashchenko, and E. A. Shamov, “Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 719-728 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. MacDonald, F. Schäfers, R. Pohl, I. B. Poole, A. Gaupp, and F. M. Quinn, “A W/B4C multilayer phase retarder for broad-band polarisation analysis of soft x-ray radiation,” presented at The 9th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Big Sky Resort, Montana, USA (3-7 February 2008).

Schmolla, F.

Scrinzi, A.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-Resolved Atomic Inner-Shell Spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shamov, E. A.

Sommargren, G. E.

D. L. Windt, S. M. Kahn, and G. E. Sommargren, “Diffraction-limited astronomical x-ray imaging and x-ray interferometry using normal incidence multilayer optics,” Proc. SPIE 4851, 441-450 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soullié, G.

Stearns, D. G.

Steele, W. F.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1-5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steffens, W.

Sullivan, B. T.

Sundgren, J.-E.

E. B. Svedberg, J. Birch, I. P. Ivanov, P. Münger, and J.-E. Sundgren, “Assymmetric interface broadening in epitaxial Mo/W(001) superlattices grown by magnetron sputtering on MgO(001) substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 633-638(1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Petrov, F. Adibi, J. E. Greene, L. Hultman, and J.-E. Sundgren, “Average energy deposited per atom: a universal parameter for describing ion-assisted film growth?,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 36-38 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Svedberg, E. B.

E. B. Svedberg, J. Birch, I. P. Ivanov, P. Münger, and J.-E. Sundgren, “Assymmetric interface broadening in epitaxial Mo/W(001) superlattices grown by magnetron sputtering on MgO(001) substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 633-638(1998).
[CrossRef]

Tackaberry, R. E.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1-5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, T.

T. Takagi, “Ion-surface interactions during thin film deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 382-388 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Takenaka, H.

T. Kawamura, J.-J. Delaunay, H. Takenaka, T. Hayashi, and Y. Watanabe, “High-performance EUV/soft x-ray ellipsometry system using multilayer mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 735-737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tesmer, J. R.

J. R. Tesmer and M. Nastasi, Handbook of Modern Ion Beam Materials Analysis (Materials Research Society, 1995).

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton, “Stress-related effects in thin films,” Thin Solid Films 171, 5-31 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, J. Y.

D. K. Brice, J. Y. Tsao, and S. T. Picraux, “Partitioning of ion-induced surface and bulk displacements,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 44, 68-78 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

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W. Knulst, M. J. van der Wiel, O. J. Luiten, and J. Verhoeven, “High-brightness, narrowband, and compact soft x-ray cherenkov sources in the water window,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4050-4052 (2003).
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H. Grimmer, O. Zaharko, H.-Ch. Mertins, and F. Schäfers, “Polarizing mirrors for soft x-ray radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 354-357 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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E. J. Puik, M. J. van der Wiel, H. Zeijlemaker, and J. Verhoeven, “Ion bombardment of x-ray multilayer coatings comparison of ion etching and ion assisted deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 47, 251-260 (1991).
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C. Mingqi, W. Zhanshan, S. Lijuan, Z. Jie, C. Kai, Y. Fen, Z. Kejin, M. Chenyan, Z. Lei, Z. Yidong, Z. Jingtao, and Z. Zhong, “Multilayer-based soft x-ray polarimetry research with SR at BSRF,” presented at The 9th International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures (PXRMS), oral presentation, Big Sky Resort, Montana, USA (3-7 February 2008).

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[CrossRef]

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D. L. Windt, “IMD: software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360-370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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X. W. Zhou and H. N. G. Wadley, “Atomistic simulations of low energy ion assisted vapor deposition of metal multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2273-2281 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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M. Berglund, L. Rymell, M. Peuker, T. Wilhein, and H. M. Hertz, “Compact water-window transmission x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc. 197, 268-273 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Kawamura, J.-J. Delaunay, H. Takenaka, T. Hayashi, and Y. Watanabe, “High-performance EUV/soft x-ray ellipsometry system using multilayer mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 735-737 (1998).
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F. Schäfers, M. Mertin, D. Abramsohn, A. Gaupp, H.-Ch. Mertins, and N. N. Salashchenko, “Cr/Sc nanolayers for the water window: improved performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 349-353 (2001).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustrations of the ideal interface structures of multilayers expected when using (a) single-ion energy-assisted growth, which yields a trade-off between smoothening and intermixing, and (b) a modulated ion energy assistance. The vacancies symbolize a porous interface. Λ is the multilayer period, D A , B is the layer thicknesses of materials A and B, respectively, and subscripts i and f denotes the initial and final parts within each layer. The shown crystalline nature of the multilayers is for illustration purposes only.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Near-normal incidence soft x-ray reflectivity measurements and simulations of (a) a Cr/Sc multilayer mirror with multilayer period Λ = 1.59 nm , a nominal layer thickness ratio Γ = 0.38 , and an interface width σ = 0.1 0.39 nm ( δ = 8 · 10 6 nm / period ) and (b) a Ni/V multilayer mirror, Λ = 1.22 nm , Γ = 0.45 , and σ = 0.1 0.49 nm ( δ = 8 · 10 6 nm / period ). The 2 p absorption edges of Sc and V are included as dotted lines.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TEM images showing the microstructure and the nanostructure of (a) an N = 600 Cr/Sc multilayer with Λ = 1.59 nm and (b) an N = 600 Ni/V multilayer with Λ = 1.22 nm . The insets show the high-resolution images of the layered structure at different positions in the films: close to the substrate, in the middle of the multilayer, and close to the surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarizing properties at the Brewster angle of (a) a Cr/Sc multilayer, Λ 2.3 nm , and (b) a Ni/V multilayer, Λ 1.7 nm . Bragg scans for s- and p-polarization geometries ( R s , R p ) and extinction ratios ( R s / R p ) are shown. θ B is the Brewster angle and θ m is the angle for the peak reflectivity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Predicted realistic performance of normal incidence Cr/Sc and Ni/V multilayers in the energy range of 120 600 eV . The absorption edges of some elements are included together with state-of-the-art near-normal incidence multilayers reported in the literature as a comparison [34, 35, 36]. The Cr/Sc and Ni/V multilayers in Fig. 2 are shown as open circles.

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