Abstract

Human error is the most significant factor attributed to incompatible blood transfusions. A spectrophotometric approach to blood typing has been developed by examining the spectral slopes of dilute red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in saline, in the presence and absence of various antibodies, offering a technique for the quantitative determination of agglutination intensity [Transfusion 39, 1051, 1999]. We offer direct theoretical prediction of the observed change in slope in the 6601000nm range through the use of the T-matrix approach and Lorenz–Mie theory for light scattering by dilute RBC suspensions. Following a numerical simulation using the T-matrix code, we present a simplified sensing method for detecting agglutination. The sensor design has been prototyped, fully characterized, and evaluated through a complete set of tests with over 60 RBC samples and compared with the full spectrophotometric method. The LED and photodiode pairs are found to successfully reproduce the spectroscopic determination of red blood cell agglutination.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. A. Myhre and D. McRuer, “Human error: a significant cause of transfusion mortality,” Transfusion 40, 879-885 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Murakami, “Present state of transfusion errors,” Rinsho byori 51(1), 43-49 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  4. K. Sazama, “Transfusion errors: scope of the problem, consequences, and solutions,” Curr. Hematol. Rep. 2(6), 518-521(2003).
    [PubMed]
  5. W. Dzik, “Emily Cooley Lecture 2002: transfusion safety in the hospital,” Transfusion 43, 1190-1199 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. A. Oberman, “The present and future crossmatch,” Transfusion 32, 794-796(1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Ingrand, N. Surer-Pierres, D. Houssay, and L. R. Salmi, “Reliability of the pretransfusion bedside compatibility test: association with transfusion practice and training,” Transfusion 38, 1030-1036 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. V. Migeot, I. Ingrand, R. L. Salmi, and P. Ingrand, “Reliability of bedside ABO testing before transfusion,” Transfusion 42, 1348-1355 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. P. Dujardin, L. R. Salmi, and P. Ingrand, “Errors in interpreting the pretransfusion bedside compatibility test,” Vox sanguinis 78, 37-43 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  30. J. A. Lambert, “A miniaturized device for blood typing using a simplified spectrophotometric approach,” M.S. thesis (North Carolina State University, 2006).

2006

I. Turcu, “Effective phase function for light scattered by blood,” Appl. Opt. 45, 639-647 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wriedt, J. Hellmers, E. Eremina, and R. Schuh, “Light scattering by single erythrocyte: comparison of different methods,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 444-456(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Lambert, “A miniaturized device for blood typing using a simplified spectrophotometric approach,” M.S. thesis (North Carolina State University, 2006).

2005

S. R. Anthony, “A simplified visible/near-infrared spectrophotometric approach to blood typing for automated transfusion safety,” M.S. thesis (North Carolina State University, 2005).

2004

2003

J. Murakami, “Present state of transfusion errors,” Rinsho byori 51(1), 43-49 (2003).
[PubMed]

K. Sazama, “Transfusion errors: scope of the problem, consequences, and solutions,” Curr. Hematol. Rep. 2(6), 518-521(2003).
[PubMed]

W. Dzik, “Emily Cooley Lecture 2002: transfusion safety in the hospital,” Transfusion 43, 1190-1199 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

V. Migeot, I. Ingrand, R. L. Salmi, and P. Ingrand, “Reliability of bedside ABO testing before transfusion,” Transfusion 42, 1348-1355 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Narayanan, L. Galloway, A. Nonoyama, G. Leparc, L. H. Garcia-Rubio, and R. L. Potter, “UV-visible spectrophotometric approach to blood typing II: phenotyping of subtype A2 and weak D and whole blood analysis,” Transfusion 42, 619-626 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge University Press, 2002).

2000

P. P. Dujardin, L. R. Salmi, and P. Ingrand, “Errors in interpreting the pretransfusion bedside compatibility test,” Vox sanguinis 78, 37-43 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. V. Linden, K. Wagner, A. E. Voytovich, and J. Sheehan, “Transfusion errors in New York State: an analysis of 10 years' experience,” Transfusion 40, 1207-1213 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Myhre and D. McRuer, “Human error: a significant cause of transfusion mortality,” Transfusion 40, 879-885 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

S. Narayanan, S. Orton, G. F. Leparc, L. H. Garcia-Rubio, and R. L. Potter, “Ultraviolet and visible light spectrophotometric approach to blood typing: objective analysis by agglutination index,” Transfusion 39, 1051-1059 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Burgess and T. Frost, Standards and Best Practice in Absorption Spectrometry (Blackwell Science, 1999).

S. V. Tsinopoulos and D. Polyzos, “Scattering of He-Ne laser light by an average sized red blood cell,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5499-5510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. G. Borovoi, E. I. Naats, and U. G. Oppel, “Scattering of light by a red blood cell,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 364-372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. K. Nilsson, P. Alsholm, A. Karlsson, and S. Andersson-Engels, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by red blood cells,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2735-2748 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Prakash and C. K. Arara, Physiology of Blood (Anmol, 1998).

E. D. Quinley, Immunohematology: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. (Lippincott-Raven, 1998).

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current fortran implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309-324(1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Ingrand, N. Surer-Pierres, D. Houssay, and L. R. Salmi, “Reliability of the pretransfusion bedside compatibility test: association with transfusion practice and training,” Transfusion 38, 1030-1036 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, B. Michel, E. Thamm, and A. Kolb, “Single scattering by red blood cells,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7410-7418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992

H. A. Oberman, “The present and future crossmatch,” Transfusion 32, 794-796(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

Alsholm, P.

Andersson-Engels, S.

Anthony, S. R.

S. R. Anthony, “A simplified visible/near-infrared spectrophotometric approach to blood typing for automated transfusion safety,” M.S. thesis (North Carolina State University, 2005).

Arara, C. K.

M. Prakash and C. K. Arara, Physiology of Blood (Anmol, 1998).

Borovoi, A. G.

A. G. Borovoi, E. I. Naats, and U. G. Oppel, “Scattering of light by a red blood cell,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 364-372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burgess, C.

C. Burgess and T. Frost, Standards and Best Practice in Absorption Spectrometry (Blackwell Science, 1999).

Dujardin, P. P.

P. P. Dujardin, L. R. Salmi, and P. Ingrand, “Errors in interpreting the pretransfusion bedside compatibility test,” Vox sanguinis 78, 37-43 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dzik, W.

W. Dzik, “Emily Cooley Lecture 2002: transfusion safety in the hospital,” Transfusion 43, 1190-1199 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eremina, E.

T. Wriedt, J. Hellmers, E. Eremina, and R. Schuh, “Light scattering by single erythrocyte: comparison of different methods,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 444-456(2006).
[CrossRef]

Frost, T.

C. Burgess and T. Frost, Standards and Best Practice in Absorption Spectrometry (Blackwell Science, 1999).

Galloway, L.

S. Narayanan, L. Galloway, A. Nonoyama, G. Leparc, L. H. Garcia-Rubio, and R. L. Potter, “UV-visible spectrophotometric approach to blood typing II: phenotyping of subtype A2 and weak D and whole blood analysis,” Transfusion 42, 619-626 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Rubio, L. H.

S. Narayanan, L. Galloway, A. Nonoyama, G. Leparc, L. H. Garcia-Rubio, and R. L. Potter, “UV-visible spectrophotometric approach to blood typing II: phenotyping of subtype A2 and weak D and whole blood analysis,” Transfusion 42, 619-626 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Narayanan, S. Orton, G. F. Leparc, L. H. Garcia-Rubio, and R. L. Potter, “Ultraviolet and visible light spectrophotometric approach to blood typing: objective analysis by agglutination index,” Transfusion 39, 1051-1059 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Garcia-Rubio, S. Narayanan, G. Leparc, R. Potter, and S. Orton, “Spectrophotometric method and apparatus for blood typing,” U.S. Patent 6,330,058 (11 December 2001).

Hammer, M.

He, J.

Hellmers, J.

T. Wriedt, J. Hellmers, E. Eremina, and R. Schuh, “Light scattering by single erythrocyte: comparison of different methods,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 444-456(2006).
[CrossRef]

Houssay, D.

P. Ingrand, N. Surer-Pierres, D. Houssay, and L. R. Salmi, “Reliability of the pretransfusion bedside compatibility test: association with transfusion practice and training,” Transfusion 38, 1030-1036 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ingrand, I.

V. Migeot, I. Ingrand, R. L. Salmi, and P. Ingrand, “Reliability of bedside ABO testing before transfusion,” Transfusion 42, 1348-1355 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ingrand, P.

V. Migeot, I. Ingrand, R. L. Salmi, and P. Ingrand, “Reliability of bedside ABO testing before transfusion,” Transfusion 42, 1348-1355 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Dujardin, L. R. Salmi, and P. Ingrand, “Errors in interpreting the pretransfusion bedside compatibility test,” Vox sanguinis 78, 37-43 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ingrand, N. Surer-Pierres, D. Houssay, and L. R. Salmi, “Reliability of the pretransfusion bedside compatibility test: association with transfusion practice and training,” Transfusion 38, 1030-1036 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karlsson, A.

Kolb, A.

Lacis, A. A.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge University Press, 2002).

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, FORTRAN Code http://www.giss.nasa.gov/~crmim.

Lambert, J. A.

J. A. Lambert, “A miniaturized device for blood typing using a simplified spectrophotometric approach,” M.S. thesis (North Carolina State University, 2006).

Leparc, G.

S. Narayanan, L. Galloway, A. Nonoyama, G. Leparc, L. H. Garcia-Rubio, and R. L. Potter, “UV-visible spectrophotometric approach to blood typing II: phenotyping of subtype A2 and weak D and whole blood analysis,” Transfusion 42, 619-626 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Garcia-Rubio, S. Narayanan, G. Leparc, R. Potter, and S. Orton, “Spectrophotometric method and apparatus for blood typing,” U.S. Patent 6,330,058 (11 December 2001).

Leparc, G. F.

S. Narayanan, S. Orton, G. F. Leparc, L. H. Garcia-Rubio, and R. L. Potter, “Ultraviolet and visible light spectrophotometric approach to blood typing: objective analysis by agglutination index,” Transfusion 39, 1051-1059 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, J. V.

J. V. Linden, K. Wagner, A. E. Voytovich, and J. Sheehan, “Transfusion errors in New York State: an analysis of 10 years' experience,” Transfusion 40, 1207-1213 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McRuer, D.

B. A. Myhre and D. McRuer, “Human error: a significant cause of transfusion mortality,” Transfusion 40, 879-885 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michel, B.

Migeot, V.

V. Migeot, I. Ingrand, R. L. Salmi, and P. Ingrand, “Reliability of bedside ABO testing before transfusion,” Transfusion 42, 1348-1355 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge University Press, 2002).

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current fortran implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309-324(1998).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, FORTRAN Code http://www.giss.nasa.gov/~crmim.

Murakami, J.

J. Murakami, “Present state of transfusion errors,” Rinsho byori 51(1), 43-49 (2003).
[PubMed]

Myhre, B. A.

B. A. Myhre and D. McRuer, “Human error: a significant cause of transfusion mortality,” Transfusion 40, 879-885 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naats, E. I.

A. G. Borovoi, E. I. Naats, and U. G. Oppel, “Scattering of light by a red blood cell,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 364-372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Narayanan, S.

S. Narayanan, L. Galloway, A. Nonoyama, G. Leparc, L. H. Garcia-Rubio, and R. L. Potter, “UV-visible spectrophotometric approach to blood typing II: phenotyping of subtype A2 and weak D and whole blood analysis,” Transfusion 42, 619-626 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Narayanan, S. Orton, G. F. Leparc, L. H. Garcia-Rubio, and R. L. Potter, “Ultraviolet and visible light spectrophotometric approach to blood typing: objective analysis by agglutination index,” Transfusion 39, 1051-1059 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Garcia-Rubio, S. Narayanan, G. Leparc, R. Potter, and S. Orton, “Spectrophotometric method and apparatus for blood typing,” U.S. Patent 6,330,058 (11 December 2001).

Nilsson, A. M. K.

Nonoyama, A.

S. Narayanan, L. Galloway, A. Nonoyama, G. Leparc, L. H. Garcia-Rubio, and R. L. Potter, “UV-visible spectrophotometric approach to blood typing II: phenotyping of subtype A2 and weak D and whole blood analysis,” Transfusion 42, 619-626 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oberman, H. A.

H. A. Oberman, “The present and future crossmatch,” Transfusion 32, 794-796(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oppel, U. G.

A. G. Borovoi, E. I. Naats, and U. G. Oppel, “Scattering of light by a red blood cell,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 364-372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Orton, S.

S. Narayanan, S. Orton, G. F. Leparc, L. H. Garcia-Rubio, and R. L. Potter, “Ultraviolet and visible light spectrophotometric approach to blood typing: objective analysis by agglutination index,” Transfusion 39, 1051-1059 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Garcia-Rubio, S. Narayanan, G. Leparc, R. Potter, and S. Orton, “Spectrophotometric method and apparatus for blood typing,” U.S. Patent 6,330,058 (11 December 2001).

Polyzos, D.

Potter, R.

L. H. Garcia-Rubio, S. Narayanan, G. Leparc, R. Potter, and S. Orton, “Spectrophotometric method and apparatus for blood typing,” U.S. Patent 6,330,058 (11 December 2001).

Potter, R. L.

S. Narayanan, L. Galloway, A. Nonoyama, G. Leparc, L. H. Garcia-Rubio, and R. L. Potter, “UV-visible spectrophotometric approach to blood typing II: phenotyping of subtype A2 and weak D and whole blood analysis,” Transfusion 42, 619-626 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Narayanan, S. Orton, G. F. Leparc, L. H. Garcia-Rubio, and R. L. Potter, “Ultraviolet and visible light spectrophotometric approach to blood typing: objective analysis by agglutination index,” Transfusion 39, 1051-1059 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prakash, M.

M. Prakash and C. K. Arara, Physiology of Blood (Anmol, 1998).

Quinley, E. D.

E. D. Quinley, Immunohematology: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. (Lippincott-Raven, 1998).

Salmi, L. R.

P. P. Dujardin, L. R. Salmi, and P. Ingrand, “Errors in interpreting the pretransfusion bedside compatibility test,” Vox sanguinis 78, 37-43 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ingrand, N. Surer-Pierres, D. Houssay, and L. R. Salmi, “Reliability of the pretransfusion bedside compatibility test: association with transfusion practice and training,” Transfusion 38, 1030-1036 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salmi, R. L.

V. Migeot, I. Ingrand, R. L. Salmi, and P. Ingrand, “Reliability of bedside ABO testing before transfusion,” Transfusion 42, 1348-1355 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sazama, K.

K. Sazama, “Transfusion errors: scope of the problem, consequences, and solutions,” Curr. Hematol. Rep. 2(6), 518-521(2003).
[PubMed]

Schuh, R.

T. Wriedt, J. Hellmers, E. Eremina, and R. Schuh, “Light scattering by single erythrocyte: comparison of different methods,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 444-456(2006).
[CrossRef]

Schweitzer, D.

Sheehan, J.

J. V. Linden, K. Wagner, A. E. Voytovich, and J. Sheehan, “Transfusion errors in New York State: an analysis of 10 years' experience,” Transfusion 40, 1207-1213 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shepherd, A. P.

Steinke, J. M.

Surer-Pierres, N.

P. Ingrand, N. Surer-Pierres, D. Houssay, and L. R. Salmi, “Reliability of the pretransfusion bedside compatibility test: association with transfusion practice and training,” Transfusion 38, 1030-1036 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swartling, J.

Thamm, E.

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge University Press, 2002).

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current fortran implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309-324(1998).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, FORTRAN Code http://www.giss.nasa.gov/~crmim.

Tsinopoulos, S. V.

Turcu, I.

Voytovich, A. E.

J. V. Linden, K. Wagner, A. E. Voytovich, and J. Sheehan, “Transfusion errors in New York State: an analysis of 10 years' experience,” Transfusion 40, 1207-1213 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, K.

J. V. Linden, K. Wagner, A. E. Voytovich, and J. Sheehan, “Transfusion errors in New York State: an analysis of 10 years' experience,” Transfusion 40, 1207-1213 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wriedt, T.

T. Wriedt, J. Hellmers, E. Eremina, and R. Schuh, “Light scattering by single erythrocyte: comparison of different methods,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 444-456(2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Curr. Hematol. Rep.

K. Sazama, “Transfusion errors: scope of the problem, consequences, and solutions,” Curr. Hematol. Rep. 2(6), 518-521(2003).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. G. Borovoi, E. I. Naats, and U. G. Oppel, “Scattering of light by a red blood cell,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 364-372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

T. Wriedt, J. Hellmers, E. Eremina, and R. Schuh, “Light scattering by single erythrocyte: comparison of different methods,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 444-456(2006).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current fortran implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309-324(1998).
[CrossRef]

Rinsho byori

J. Murakami, “Present state of transfusion errors,” Rinsho byori 51(1), 43-49 (2003).
[PubMed]

Transfusion

J. V. Linden, K. Wagner, A. E. Voytovich, and J. Sheehan, “Transfusion errors in New York State: an analysis of 10 years' experience,” Transfusion 40, 1207-1213 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Myhre and D. McRuer, “Human error: a significant cause of transfusion mortality,” Transfusion 40, 879-885 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Dzik, “Emily Cooley Lecture 2002: transfusion safety in the hospital,” Transfusion 43, 1190-1199 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Oberman, “The present and future crossmatch,” Transfusion 32, 794-796(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ingrand, N. Surer-Pierres, D. Houssay, and L. R. Salmi, “Reliability of the pretransfusion bedside compatibility test: association with transfusion practice and training,” Transfusion 38, 1030-1036 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Migeot, I. Ingrand, R. L. Salmi, and P. Ingrand, “Reliability of bedside ABO testing before transfusion,” Transfusion 42, 1348-1355 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Narayanan, S. Orton, G. F. Leparc, L. H. Garcia-Rubio, and R. L. Potter, “Ultraviolet and visible light spectrophotometric approach to blood typing: objective analysis by agglutination index,” Transfusion 39, 1051-1059 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Narayanan, L. Galloway, A. Nonoyama, G. Leparc, L. H. Garcia-Rubio, and R. L. Potter, “UV-visible spectrophotometric approach to blood typing II: phenotyping of subtype A2 and weak D and whole blood analysis,” Transfusion 42, 619-626 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vox sanguinis

P. P. Dujardin, L. R. Salmi, and P. Ingrand, “Errors in interpreting the pretransfusion bedside compatibility test,” Vox sanguinis 78, 37-43 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Prakash and C. K. Arara, Physiology of Blood (Anmol, 1998).

E. D. Quinley, Immunohematology: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. (Lippincott-Raven, 1998).

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized optical density (OD) plot as a function of wavelength [15].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmission spectra of A packed donor RBCs in the presence of anti-A and anti-B antibody. (b) Transmission spectra of B + packed donor RBCs in the presence of anti-A and anti-B antibody.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Saline sample, RBC in saline, A + RBC with anti-A antibody (reactive).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Diluted A + RBCs in saline. (b) Diluted A + RBCs with anti-A in saline. ( 100 × magnification).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurements of particle size distributions in agglutinated blood sample ( 200 × magnification).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Extinction cross section per particle, C ext in μm 2 versus incident wavelength as a function of particle size distribution.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Slope of the extinction coefficient line between 650 and 950 nm .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized total extinction cross section versus wavelength for increasing particle sizes.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Slope of the normalized total extinction cross section as a function of wavelength as a function of average particle radii.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Particle extinction cross section versus aspect ratio for a 3 μm particle at 800 nm and 1000 nm .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Extinction cross section per particle versus aspect ratio for monodisperse particles.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

LED-photodiode agglutination sensing optical system.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Photodiode positioning experiment optical path.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Optical density versus distance of the detector from the sample cuvette for various aperture entrance diameters.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Agglutination index versus sample concentration.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Spectra of diluted A + , A , and B + RBC suspensions in the presence of anti-A, anti-B, and anti-D antibody using the spectraphotometer.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Spectra of diluted A + , A , and B + RBC suspensions in the presence of anti-A, anti-B, and anti-D antibody using the LED agglutination sensor.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Block diagram of semi-automated blood typing system.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Collimated fiber optic sensor system for blood typing.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Agglutination Index Results of 30 Positive Reactive Samples

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Table 2 Agglutination Index Results of 60 Negative Reactive Samples

Tables Icon

Table 3 Agglutination Index Thresholds for Various Confidence Intervals and Slope Calculation Intervals

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Table 4 Results of Semi-Automated Full ABO Typing for Various Slope Calculation Points and Threshold Confidence Intervals

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T = ( I I 0 ) , OD = log 10 T ,
AI = 100 Slope of test sample Slope of control sample × 100.
C abs = C ext C sca .
2 π { a 2 + b 2 sin ( Ω ) ln ( cos ( Ω ) 1 sin ( Ω ) ) } ,
Ω = arccos ( b a ) = 2 arctan ( a b a + b ) ,
V = 4 3 π a 2 b .
< C sca > = r 1 r 2 d r n ( r ) C sca ( r ) ,
< C ext > = r 1 r 2 d r n ( r ) C ext ( r ) ,
N × 4 3 π r 3 = N 0 × 4 3 π r 0 3 .
t otal extinction cross section = C ext × N 0 r 0 3 r 3 .

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