Abstract

Chemical frosting is used as a surface decorating method by many glass package producers. After immersion in an acid frosting bath, glass items present the desired frosted effect. The perception of this particular effect is due to the formation of a microscopic crystalline pattern on the glass surface, which scatters light passing through the glass surface. The chemical composition of the frosting bath influences these properties by modifying the surface roughness, the depth, and the average slopes of the crystalline pattern. Perception of the final aspect can be modified according to the chemical composition of the frosting bath. Different correlations between all these parameters exist and have been quantified.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  2. N. I. Min'ko, V. S. Bessmertnyi, V. A. Panasenko, S. V. Semenenko, S. N. Zubenko, and N. I. Voloshko, “Frosting as a contemporary method of glass decoration,” Glass Ceram. 60, 161-163 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. A. Vereshchagina, M. Y. Gadalova, and A. M. Butaev, “Composition for frosting glass articles,” EU patent SU1404482 (23 June 1998).
  4. H. Zhang and X. Qi, “Frosting chemical for silicate glass,” EU patent CN1327958 (26 December 2001).
  5. Y. Bessoles, F. Guy, and G. Trouve, “Composition for roughening glass, etching bath, process for roughening glass and roughened objects,” EU patent EP1108773 (20 June 2001).
  6. J. Frayret, A. Castetbon, M. Potin-Gautier, C. Guimon, M. F. Guimon, Y. Bessoles, G. Trouve, and H. De Roulhac, “A study of the process conditions that lead to an unusual frosted glass,” in 7th ESG Conference on Glass Science and Technology (Glass Technology, 2004), pp. 103-108.
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  15. P. B. Greer and T. Van Doorn, “Evaluation of an algorithm for the assessment of the MTF using an edge method,” Med. Phys. 27, 2048-2059 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. D'zmura, P. Colantoni, K. Knoblauch, and B. Laget, “Color transparency,” Perception 26, 471-492 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. F. Metelli, “The perception of transparency,” Sci. Am. 230, 90-98 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. Simonot, “Etude expérimentale et modélisation de la diffusion de la lumière dans une couche de peinture colorée et translucide. Application à l'effet visuel des glacis et des vernis,” These de Doctorate (Université Pierre et Marie Curie--Paris VI, 2002).
  19. E. J. Abbott and F. A. Firestone, “Specifying surface quality: a method based on accurate measurement and comparison,” Mech. Eng. (Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.) 55, 568-572 (1933).
  20. F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, and T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance, NBS Monograph 160 (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977).
  21. S.-M. F. Nee, R. V. Dewees, T.-W. Nee, L. F. Johnson, and M. Moran, “Slope distribution of a rough surface measured by transmission scattering and polarization,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1561-1569 (2000).
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  22. E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, and J. M. Zavada, “Relation between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125-136 (1979).
  23. B. I. Raju, “Encoding and decoding of shape in tactile sensing,” M.S. thesis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1998).
  24. J. Biggs and M. A. Srinivasan, “Tangential versus normal displacements of skin: relative effectiveness for producing tactile sensations,” in 10th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (IEEE Computer Society, 2002), pp. 121-128.
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. A. Srinivasan and R. H. Lamotte, “Tactual discrimination of softness,” J. Neurophysiol. 73, 88-101.
    [PubMed]
  26. S. Lederman, “Tactile roughness of grooved surface: the touching process and effect of macro- and microsurface structure,” Percept. Psychophys. 16, 385-395 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Guest and C. Spence, “What role does multisensory integration play in visiotactile perception of texture?” Int. J. Psychophysiol. 50, 63-80 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. S. Guest and C. Spence, “Tactile dominance in speeded discrimination of textures,” Exp. Brain Res. 150, 201-207(2003).
    [PubMed]
  29. Y. Hatwell, “Neurophysiologie et psychologie cognitive du toucher,” in 4ème Rencontre Internationale Science-Industrie : Bio-sensoriel aujourd'hui et demain (Institut Français du Textile et de l'Habillement, 2000).
  30. S. J. Lederman and S. G. Abott, “Texture perception: studies of intersensory organization using a discrepancy paradigm, and visual versus tactual psychophysics,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 7, 902-915 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

N. I. Min'ko, V. S. Bessmertnyi, V. A. Panasenko, S. V. Semenenko, S. N. Zubenko, and N. I. Voloshko, “Frosting as a contemporary method of glass decoration,” Glass Ceram. 60, 161-163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Guest and C. Spence, “What role does multisensory integration play in visiotactile perception of texture?” Int. J. Psychophysiol. 50, 63-80 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Guest and C. Spence, “Tactile dominance in speeded discrimination of textures,” Exp. Brain Res. 150, 201-207(2003).
[PubMed]

2000 (2)

1997 (1)

M. D'zmura, P. Colantoni, K. Knoblauch, and B. Laget, “Color transparency,” Perception 26, 471-492 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

S. J. Lederman and S. G. Abott, “Texture perception: studies of intersensory organization using a discrepancy paradigm, and visual versus tactual psychophysics,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 7, 902-915 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, and J. M. Zavada, “Relation between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125-136 (1979).

1974 (2)

S. Lederman, “Tactile roughness of grooved surface: the touching process and effect of macro- and microsurface structure,” Percept. Psychophys. 16, 385-395 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. Metelli, “The perception of transparency,” Sci. Am. 230, 90-98 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

R. A. Jones, “An automated technique for deriving MTF from edge traces,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 7, 102-106 (1967).

1933 (1)

E. J. Abbott and F. A. Firestone, “Specifying surface quality: a method based on accurate measurement and comparison,” Mech. Eng. (Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.) 55, 568-572 (1933).

Abbott, E. J.

E. J. Abbott and F. A. Firestone, “Specifying surface quality: a method based on accurate measurement and comparison,” Mech. Eng. (Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.) 55, 568-572 (1933).

Abott, S. G.

S. J. Lederman and S. G. Abott, “Texture perception: studies of intersensory organization using a discrepancy paradigm, and visual versus tactual psychophysics,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 7, 902-915 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bessmertnyi, V. S.

N. I. Min'ko, V. S. Bessmertnyi, V. A. Panasenko, S. V. Semenenko, S. N. Zubenko, and N. I. Voloshko, “Frosting as a contemporary method of glass decoration,” Glass Ceram. 60, 161-163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bessoles, Y.

Y. Bessoles, F. Guy, and G. Trouve, “Composition for roughening glass, etching bath, process for roughening glass and roughened objects,” EU patent EP1108773 (20 June 2001).

J. Frayret, A. Castetbon, M. Potin-Gautier, C. Guimon, M. F. Guimon, Y. Bessoles, G. Trouve, and H. De Roulhac, “A study of the process conditions that lead to an unusual frosted glass,” in 7th ESG Conference on Glass Science and Technology (Glass Technology, 2004), pp. 103-108.

Y. Bessoles, F. Guy, and G. Trouve, “Composition for roughening glass, etching bath, process for roughening glass and roughened objects,” EU patent EP1108773 (20 June 2001).

Biggs, J.

J. Biggs and M. A. Srinivasan, “Tangential versus normal displacements of skin: relative effectiveness for producing tactile sensations,” in 10th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (IEEE Computer Society, 2002), pp. 121-128.
[CrossRef]

Butaev, A. M.

N. A. Vereshchagina, M. Y. Gadalova, and A. M. Butaev, “Composition for frosting glass articles,” EU patent SU1404482 (23 June 1998).

Castetbon, A.

J. Frayret, A. Castetbon, M. Potin-Gautier, C. Guimon, M. F. Guimon, Y. Bessoles, G. Trouve, and H. De Roulhac, “A study of the process conditions that lead to an unusual frosted glass,” in 7th ESG Conference on Glass Science and Technology (Glass Technology, 2004), pp. 103-108.

Chernyakova, T. G.

H. Schicht, R. Leuteritz, M. Krueger, E. V. Sobolev, O. V. Shcheglova, N. E. Tikhomirova, and T. G. Chernyakova, “Mattierungspaste guer Glas [Frosting paste for glass],” EU patent DD153360 (6 January 1982).

Church, E. L.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, and J. M. Zavada, “Relation between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125-136 (1979).

Colantoni, P.

M. D'zmura, P. Colantoni, K. Knoblauch, and B. Laget, “Color transparency,” Perception 26, 471-492 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Roulhac, H.

J. Frayret, A. Castetbon, M. Potin-Gautier, C. Guimon, M. F. Guimon, Y. Bessoles, G. Trouve, and H. De Roulhac, “A study of the process conditions that lead to an unusual frosted glass,” in 7th ESG Conference on Glass Science and Technology (Glass Technology, 2004), pp. 103-108.

Dewees, R. V.

D'zmura, M.

M. D'zmura, P. Colantoni, K. Knoblauch, and B. Laget, “Color transparency,” Perception 26, 471-492 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firestone, F. A.

E. J. Abbott and F. A. Firestone, “Specifying surface quality: a method based on accurate measurement and comparison,” Mech. Eng. (Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.) 55, 568-572 (1933).

Frayret, J.

J. Frayret, “Preliminary research on the actual frosting glass processes,” internal SEPPIC proprietary report (2003).

J. Frayret, A. Castetbon, M. Potin-Gautier, C. Guimon, M. F. Guimon, Y. Bessoles, G. Trouve, and H. De Roulhac, “A study of the process conditions that lead to an unusual frosted glass,” in 7th ESG Conference on Glass Science and Technology (Glass Technology, 2004), pp. 103-108.

Gadalova, M. Y.

N. A. Vereshchagina, M. Y. Gadalova, and A. M. Butaev, “Composition for frosting glass articles,” EU patent SU1404482 (23 June 1998).

Ginsberg, I. W.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, and T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance, NBS Monograph 160 (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977).

Greer, P. B.

P. B. Greer and T. Van Doorn, “Evaluation of an algorithm for the assessment of the MTF using an edge method,” Med. Phys. 27, 2048-2059 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guest, S.

S. Guest and C. Spence, “What role does multisensory integration play in visiotactile perception of texture?” Int. J. Psychophysiol. 50, 63-80 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Guest and C. Spence, “Tactile dominance in speeded discrimination of textures,” Exp. Brain Res. 150, 201-207(2003).
[PubMed]

Guimon, C.

J. Frayret, A. Castetbon, M. Potin-Gautier, C. Guimon, M. F. Guimon, Y. Bessoles, G. Trouve, and H. De Roulhac, “A study of the process conditions that lead to an unusual frosted glass,” in 7th ESG Conference on Glass Science and Technology (Glass Technology, 2004), pp. 103-108.

Guimon, M. F.

J. Frayret, A. Castetbon, M. Potin-Gautier, C. Guimon, M. F. Guimon, Y. Bessoles, G. Trouve, and H. De Roulhac, “A study of the process conditions that lead to an unusual frosted glass,” in 7th ESG Conference on Glass Science and Technology (Glass Technology, 2004), pp. 103-108.

Guy, F.

Y. Bessoles, F. Guy, and G. Trouve, “Composition for roughening glass, etching bath, process for roughening glass and roughened objects,” EU patent EP1108773 (20 June 2001).

Y. Bessoles, F. Guy, and G. Trouve, “Composition for roughening glass, etching bath, process for roughening glass and roughened objects,” EU patent EP1108773 (20 June 2001).

Hatwell, Y.

Y. Hatwell, “Neurophysiologie et psychologie cognitive du toucher,” in 4ème Rencontre Internationale Science-Industrie : Bio-sensoriel aujourd'hui et demain (Institut Français du Textile et de l'Habillement, 2000).

Hsia, J. J.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, and T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance, NBS Monograph 160 (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977).

Jenkinson, H. A.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, and J. M. Zavada, “Relation between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125-136 (1979).

Johnson, L. F.

Jones, R. A.

R. A. Jones, “An automated technique for deriving MTF from edge traces,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 7, 102-106 (1967).

Knoblauch, K.

M. D'zmura, P. Colantoni, K. Knoblauch, and B. Laget, “Color transparency,” Perception 26, 471-492 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krueger, M.

H. Schicht, R. Leuteritz, M. Krueger, E. V. Sobolev, O. V. Shcheglova, N. E. Tikhomirova, and T. G. Chernyakova, “Mattierungspaste guer Glas [Frosting paste for glass],” EU patent DD153360 (6 January 1982).

Laget, B.

M. D'zmura, P. Colantoni, K. Knoblauch, and B. Laget, “Color transparency,” Perception 26, 471-492 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamotte, R. H.

M. A. Srinivasan and R. H. Lamotte, “Tactual discrimination of softness,” J. Neurophysiol. 73, 88-101.
[PubMed]

Lederman, S.

S. Lederman, “Tactile roughness of grooved surface: the touching process and effect of macro- and microsurface structure,” Percept. Psychophys. 16, 385-395 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Lederman, S. J.

S. J. Lederman and S. G. Abott, “Texture perception: studies of intersensory organization using a discrepancy paradigm, and visual versus tactual psychophysics,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 7, 902-915 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuteritz, R.

H. Schicht, R. Leuteritz, M. Krueger, E. V. Sobolev, O. V. Shcheglova, N. E. Tikhomirova, and T. G. Chernyakova, “Mattierungspaste guer Glas [Frosting paste for glass],” EU patent DD153360 (6 January 1982).

Limperis, T.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, and T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance, NBS Monograph 160 (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977).

Metelli, F.

F. Metelli, “The perception of transparency,” Sci. Am. 230, 90-98 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min'ko, N. I.

N. I. Min'ko, V. S. Bessmertnyi, V. A. Panasenko, S. V. Semenenko, S. N. Zubenko, and N. I. Voloshko, “Frosting as a contemporary method of glass decoration,” Glass Ceram. 60, 161-163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moran, M.

Nee, S.-M. F.

Nee, T.-W.

Nicodemus, F. E.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, and T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance, NBS Monograph 160 (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977).

Panasenko, V. A.

N. I. Min'ko, V. S. Bessmertnyi, V. A. Panasenko, S. V. Semenenko, S. N. Zubenko, and N. I. Voloshko, “Frosting as a contemporary method of glass decoration,” Glass Ceram. 60, 161-163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Potin-Gautier, M.

J. Frayret, A. Castetbon, M. Potin-Gautier, C. Guimon, M. F. Guimon, Y. Bessoles, G. Trouve, and H. De Roulhac, “A study of the process conditions that lead to an unusual frosted glass,” in 7th ESG Conference on Glass Science and Technology (Glass Technology, 2004), pp. 103-108.

Qi, X.

H. Zhang and X. Qi, “Frosting chemical for silicate glass,” EU patent CN1327958 (26 December 2001).

Raju, B. I.

B. I. Raju, “Encoding and decoding of shape in tactile sensing,” M.S. thesis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1998).

Richmond, J. C.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, and T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance, NBS Monograph 160 (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977).

Schicht, H.

H. Schicht, R. Leuteritz, M. Krueger, E. V. Sobolev, O. V. Shcheglova, N. E. Tikhomirova, and T. G. Chernyakova, “Mattierungspaste guer Glas [Frosting paste for glass],” EU patent DD153360 (6 January 1982).

Semenenko, S. V.

N. I. Min'ko, V. S. Bessmertnyi, V. A. Panasenko, S. V. Semenenko, S. N. Zubenko, and N. I. Voloshko, “Frosting as a contemporary method of glass decoration,” Glass Ceram. 60, 161-163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shcheglova, O. V.

H. Schicht, R. Leuteritz, M. Krueger, E. V. Sobolev, O. V. Shcheglova, N. E. Tikhomirova, and T. G. Chernyakova, “Mattierungspaste guer Glas [Frosting paste for glass],” EU patent DD153360 (6 January 1982).

Simonot, L.

L. Simonot, “Etude expérimentale et modélisation de la diffusion de la lumière dans une couche de peinture colorée et translucide. Application à l'effet visuel des glacis et des vernis,” These de Doctorate (Université Pierre et Marie Curie--Paris VI, 2002).

Sobolev, E. V.

H. Schicht, R. Leuteritz, M. Krueger, E. V. Sobolev, O. V. Shcheglova, N. E. Tikhomirova, and T. G. Chernyakova, “Mattierungspaste guer Glas [Frosting paste for glass],” EU patent DD153360 (6 January 1982).

Spence, C.

S. Guest and C. Spence, “Tactile dominance in speeded discrimination of textures,” Exp. Brain Res. 150, 201-207(2003).
[PubMed]

S. Guest and C. Spence, “What role does multisensory integration play in visiotactile perception of texture?” Int. J. Psychophysiol. 50, 63-80 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, M. A.

J. Biggs and M. A. Srinivasan, “Tangential versus normal displacements of skin: relative effectiveness for producing tactile sensations,” in 10th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (IEEE Computer Society, 2002), pp. 121-128.
[CrossRef]

M. A. Srinivasan and R. H. Lamotte, “Tactual discrimination of softness,” J. Neurophysiol. 73, 88-101.
[PubMed]

Tikhomirova, N. E.

H. Schicht, R. Leuteritz, M. Krueger, E. V. Sobolev, O. V. Shcheglova, N. E. Tikhomirova, and T. G. Chernyakova, “Mattierungspaste guer Glas [Frosting paste for glass],” EU patent DD153360 (6 January 1982).

Trouve, G.

Y. Bessoles, F. Guy, and G. Trouve, “Composition for roughening glass, etching bath, process for roughening glass and roughened objects,” EU patent EP1108773 (20 June 2001).

Y. Bessoles, F. Guy, and G. Trouve, “Composition for roughening glass, etching bath, process for roughening glass and roughened objects,” EU patent EP1108773 (20 June 2001).

J. Frayret, A. Castetbon, M. Potin-Gautier, C. Guimon, M. F. Guimon, Y. Bessoles, G. Trouve, and H. De Roulhac, “A study of the process conditions that lead to an unusual frosted glass,” in 7th ESG Conference on Glass Science and Technology (Glass Technology, 2004), pp. 103-108.

Van Doorn, T.

P. B. Greer and T. Van Doorn, “Evaluation of an algorithm for the assessment of the MTF using an edge method,” Med. Phys. 27, 2048-2059 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vereshchagina, N. A.

N. A. Vereshchagina, M. Y. Gadalova, and A. M. Butaev, “Composition for frosting glass articles,” EU patent SU1404482 (23 June 1998).

Voloshko, N. I.

N. I. Min'ko, V. S. Bessmertnyi, V. A. Panasenko, S. V. Semenenko, S. N. Zubenko, and N. I. Voloshko, “Frosting as a contemporary method of glass decoration,” Glass Ceram. 60, 161-163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zavada, J. M.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, and J. M. Zavada, “Relation between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125-136 (1979).

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang and X. Qi, “Frosting chemical for silicate glass,” EU patent CN1327958 (26 December 2001).

Zubenko, S. N.

N. I. Min'ko, V. S. Bessmertnyi, V. A. Panasenko, S. V. Semenenko, S. N. Zubenko, and N. I. Voloshko, “Frosting as a contemporary method of glass decoration,” Glass Ceram. 60, 161-163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Exp. Brain Res. (1)

S. Guest and C. Spence, “Tactile dominance in speeded discrimination of textures,” Exp. Brain Res. 150, 201-207(2003).
[PubMed]

Glass Ceram. (1)

N. I. Min'ko, V. S. Bessmertnyi, V. A. Panasenko, S. V. Semenenko, S. N. Zubenko, and N. I. Voloshko, “Frosting as a contemporary method of glass decoration,” Glass Ceram. 60, 161-163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Psychophysiol. (1)

S. Guest and C. Spence, “What role does multisensory integration play in visiotactile perception of texture?” Int. J. Psychophysiol. 50, 63-80 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. (1)

S. J. Lederman and S. G. Abott, “Texture perception: studies of intersensory organization using a discrepancy paradigm, and visual versus tactual psychophysics,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 7, 902-915 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

M. A. Srinivasan and R. H. Lamotte, “Tactual discrimination of softness,” J. Neurophysiol. 73, 88-101.
[PubMed]

Mech. Eng. (Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.) (1)

E. J. Abbott and F. A. Firestone, “Specifying surface quality: a method based on accurate measurement and comparison,” Mech. Eng. (Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.) 55, 568-572 (1933).

Med. Phys. (1)

P. B. Greer and T. Van Doorn, “Evaluation of an algorithm for the assessment of the MTF using an edge method,” Med. Phys. 27, 2048-2059 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, and J. M. Zavada, “Relation between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125-136 (1979).

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

S. Lederman, “Tactile roughness of grooved surface: the touching process and effect of macro- and microsurface structure,” Percept. Psychophys. 16, 385-395 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Perception (1)

M. D'zmura, P. Colantoni, K. Knoblauch, and B. Laget, “Color transparency,” Perception 26, 471-492 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photograph. Sci. Eng. (1)

R. A. Jones, “An automated technique for deriving MTF from edge traces,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 7, 102-106 (1967).

Sci. Am. (1)

F. Metelli, “The perception of transparency,” Sci. Am. 230, 90-98 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (17)

L. Simonot, “Etude expérimentale et modélisation de la diffusion de la lumière dans une couche de peinture colorée et translucide. Application à l'effet visuel des glacis et des vernis,” These de Doctorate (Université Pierre et Marie Curie--Paris VI, 2002).

H. Schicht, R. Leuteritz, M. Krueger, E. V. Sobolev, O. V. Shcheglova, N. E. Tikhomirova, and T. G. Chernyakova, “Mattierungspaste guer Glas [Frosting paste for glass],” EU patent DD153360 (6 January 1982).

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, and T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance, NBS Monograph 160 (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Frosted glass surface as seen under the optical microscope (transmitted white unpolarized light).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Principle of chromatic confocal profilometry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microtopographic structure of a frosted surface (obtained by chromatic confocal profilometry).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Side view of the geometry used for optical measurements with the goniospectrometer (perpendicular to the illumination plane). Thin gray lines, detection angles; thick black curve: envelope curve of transmitted intensity vectors.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Estimation of contrast and sharpness from images with flask reference AF(L)Cl(L)W(L) (right) and without a flask (left). Upper row, fragment of images of the black-and-white checkered pattern. Bottom row, relative intensity values of pixels versus pixel coordinates along a horizontal profile in the middle of the frames.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Determination of the A98 parameter from the Abbott curve.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plot of FWMH (degrees) versus transmittance (percent). See Section 3 for details.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Plot of FWMH (degrees) versus roughness Sa (micrometers). See Section 3 for details.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Plot of transmittance (percent) versus roughness Sa (micrometers). See Section 3 for details.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Probability densities of slope distributions for three samples. Histogram bars range from 90 ° to 90 ° by steps of 5 ° . Histograms correspond to high (left) to low (right) FWMH of the transmitted light peak.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Principal component analysis variables, first factor map ( F 1 × F 2 ) of 19 roughness, sensory, and viewing variables based on our data set. CONT, contrast; SHAR, sharpness; TRAN, perceived transparency; RESI, perceived resistance to finger movement; HOMO, perceived texture homogeneity; AOPR, absence of perceived roughness; OPAC, perceived opacity; FWMH, full width at mid-height of photometric transmittance peak; Tpc, transmittance as defined in text; others are roughness parameters.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Values of Roughness Parameters Measured for Each Sample

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Table 2 Mean Sensory Evaluation of 4 Samples by 11 Subjects

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Table 3 Viewing Parameters

Equations (5)

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Ssc = 1 2 n 1 n ( δ 2 z ( x , y ) δ x 2 ) + ( δ 2 z ( x , y ) δ y 2 ) ,
Sdq = [ 1 ( M 1 ) ( N 1 ) k = 0 M 1 l = 0 N 1 ( z ( x k , y l ) z ( x k 1 , y l ) δ x ) 2 + ( z ( x k , y l ) z ( x k , y l 1 ) δ y ) 2 ] 1 / 2 .
Sdr = ( k = 0 M 2 l = 0 N 2 A k , l ) ( M 1 ) ( N 1 ) δ x δ y ( M 1 ) ( N 1 ) δ x δ y
A k , l = 1 4 ( [ δ y 2 + ( z ( x k , y l ) z ( x k , y l + 1 ) ) 2 ] 1 / 2 + [ δ y 2 + ( z ( x k + 1 , y l ) z ( x k + 1 , y l + 1 ) ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ) ( [ δ x 2 + ( z ( x k , y l ) z ( x k + 1 , y l ) ) 2 ] 1 / 2 + [ δ x 2 + ( z ( x k , y l + 1 ) z ( x k + 1 , y l + 1 ) ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ) .
Sa = 1 M × N k = 0 M 1 l = 0 N 1 | z ( x k , y l ) μ | with     μ = 1 M × N k = 0 M 1 l = 0 N 1 z ( x k , y l ) .

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