Abstract

A method for 3D mapping of scattering particle concentration in a gaseous medium based on the backscattered light in a single direction has been demonstrated. The technique is originally developed for microscopy but now implemented on larger-scale samples. The technique used is known as structured illumination, where a sinusoidal grid pattern is projected onto the medium, thus marking the in-focus plane. This makes it possible to discriminate against light originating from the out-of-focus parts of the sample, which usually makes it difficult to detect inner structures of the medium. In this study a flow of nitrogen was introduced into a flow of water droplets, with the aim to optically select only the plane where nitrogen was present. The results indicate that the technique could be used to study, e.g., combustion devices with limited optical access.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Gordon and Breach, 1996).
  2. K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J. B. Jefries, Applied Combustion Diagnostics (Taylor & Francis, 2002).
  3. K. Kohse-Höinghaus, R. S. Barlow, M. Aldén, and J. Wolfrum, “Combustion at the focus: laser diagnostics and control,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institue (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 89-123.
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Olofsson, H. Seyfried, M. Richter, M. Aldén, A. Vressner, A. Hultqvist, B. Johansson, and K. Lombaert, “High-speed LIF imaging for cycle-resolved formaldehyde visualization in HCCI combustion,” SAE 2005-01-0641 (2005).
  5. R. Sadanandan, M. Stöhr, and W. Meier, “Simultaneous OH-PLIF and PIV measurements in a gas turbine model combustor,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 609-618 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. T. Sanders, T. Kim, and J. B. Ghandhi, “Gas temperature measurements during ignition in an HCCI engine,” SAE2003-01-0744 (2003).
  7. A. C. Eckbreth and J. W. Davis, “Spatial resolution enhancement in coaxial light scattering geometries,” Appl. Opt. 16, 804-806 (1977).
    [PubMed]
  8. B. Kaldvee, A. Ehn, J. Bood, and M. Aldén, “Development of a Picosecond-LIDAR System for Combustion Diagnostics,” in Laser Applications to Chemical, Security and Environmental Analysis, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper LWC5.
  9. M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskatitis, and T. Wilson, “Method of obtaining optical sectioning by using structured light in a conventional microscope,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1905-1907 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203, 246-257(2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1898-1907 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2008

R. Sadanandan, M. Stöhr, and W. Meier, “Simultaneous OH-PLIF and PIV measurements in a gas turbine model combustor,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 609-618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1898-1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203, 246-257(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1977

Aldén, M.

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, R. S. Barlow, M. Aldén, and J. Wolfrum, “Combustion at the focus: laser diagnostics and control,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institue (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 89-123.
[CrossRef]

J. Olofsson, H. Seyfried, M. Richter, M. Aldén, A. Vressner, A. Hultqvist, B. Johansson, and K. Lombaert, “High-speed LIF imaging for cycle-resolved formaldehyde visualization in HCCI combustion,” SAE 2005-01-0641 (2005).

B. Kaldvee, A. Ehn, J. Bood, and M. Aldén, “Development of a Picosecond-LIDAR System for Combustion Diagnostics,” in Laser Applications to Chemical, Security and Environmental Analysis, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper LWC5.

Barlow, R. S.

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, R. S. Barlow, M. Aldén, and J. Wolfrum, “Combustion at the focus: laser diagnostics and control,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institue (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 89-123.
[CrossRef]

Bood, J.

B. Kaldvee, A. Ehn, J. Bood, and M. Aldén, “Development of a Picosecond-LIDAR System for Combustion Diagnostics,” in Laser Applications to Chemical, Security and Environmental Analysis, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper LWC5.

Cole, M. J.

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1898-1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203, 246-257(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, J. W.

Dayel, M. J.

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203, 246-257(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dowling, K.

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1898-1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203, 246-257(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth and J. W. Davis, “Spatial resolution enhancement in coaxial light scattering geometries,” Appl. Opt. 16, 804-806 (1977).
[PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Gordon and Breach, 1996).

Ehn, A.

B. Kaldvee, A. Ehn, J. Bood, and M. Aldén, “Development of a Picosecond-LIDAR System for Combustion Diagnostics,” in Laser Applications to Chemical, Security and Environmental Analysis, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper LWC5.

French, P. M. W.

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1898-1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203, 246-257(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghandhi, J. B.

S. T. Sanders, T. Kim, and J. B. Ghandhi, “Gas temperature measurements during ignition in an HCCI engine,” SAE2003-01-0744 (2003).

Gu, Y.

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1898-1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hultqvist, A.

J. Olofsson, H. Seyfried, M. Richter, M. Aldén, A. Vressner, A. Hultqvist, B. Johansson, and K. Lombaert, “High-speed LIF imaging for cycle-resolved formaldehyde visualization in HCCI combustion,” SAE 2005-01-0641 (2005).

Jefries, J. B.

K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J. B. Jefries, Applied Combustion Diagnostics (Taylor & Francis, 2002).

Johansson, B.

J. Olofsson, H. Seyfried, M. Richter, M. Aldén, A. Vressner, A. Hultqvist, B. Johansson, and K. Lombaert, “High-speed LIF imaging for cycle-resolved formaldehyde visualization in HCCI combustion,” SAE 2005-01-0641 (2005).

Jones, R.

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1898-1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203, 246-257(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juškaitis, R.

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1898-1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203, 246-257(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juskatitis, R.

Kaldvee, B.

B. Kaldvee, A. Ehn, J. Bood, and M. Aldén, “Development of a Picosecond-LIDAR System for Combustion Diagnostics,” in Laser Applications to Chemical, Security and Environmental Analysis, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper LWC5.

Kim, T.

S. T. Sanders, T. Kim, and J. B. Ghandhi, “Gas temperature measurements during ignition in an HCCI engine,” SAE2003-01-0744 (2003).

Kohse-Höinghaus, K.

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, R. S. Barlow, M. Aldén, and J. Wolfrum, “Combustion at the focus: laser diagnostics and control,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institue (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 89-123.
[CrossRef]

K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J. B. Jefries, Applied Combustion Diagnostics (Taylor & Francis, 2002).

Lévêque-Fort, S.

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1898-1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lever, M. J.

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1898-1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203, 246-257(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lombaert, K.

J. Olofsson, H. Seyfried, M. Richter, M. Aldén, A. Vressner, A. Hultqvist, B. Johansson, and K. Lombaert, “High-speed LIF imaging for cycle-resolved formaldehyde visualization in HCCI combustion,” SAE 2005-01-0641 (2005).

Meier, W.

R. Sadanandan, M. Stöhr, and W. Meier, “Simultaneous OH-PLIF and PIV measurements in a gas turbine model combustor,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 609-618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neil, M. A. A.

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1898-1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203, 246-257(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskatitis, and T. Wilson, “Method of obtaining optical sectioning by using structured light in a conventional microscope,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1905-1907 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Olofsson, J.

J. Olofsson, H. Seyfried, M. Richter, M. Aldén, A. Vressner, A. Hultqvist, B. Johansson, and K. Lombaert, “High-speed LIF imaging for cycle-resolved formaldehyde visualization in HCCI combustion,” SAE 2005-01-0641 (2005).

Parsons-Karavassilis, D.

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203, 246-257(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, M.

J. Olofsson, H. Seyfried, M. Richter, M. Aldén, A. Vressner, A. Hultqvist, B. Johansson, and K. Lombaert, “High-speed LIF imaging for cycle-resolved formaldehyde visualization in HCCI combustion,” SAE 2005-01-0641 (2005).

Sadanandan, R.

R. Sadanandan, M. Stöhr, and W. Meier, “Simultaneous OH-PLIF and PIV measurements in a gas turbine model combustor,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 609-618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, S. T.

S. T. Sanders, T. Kim, and J. B. Ghandhi, “Gas temperature measurements during ignition in an HCCI engine,” SAE2003-01-0744 (2003).

Seyfried, H.

J. Olofsson, H. Seyfried, M. Richter, M. Aldén, A. Vressner, A. Hultqvist, B. Johansson, and K. Lombaert, “High-speed LIF imaging for cycle-resolved formaldehyde visualization in HCCI combustion,” SAE 2005-01-0641 (2005).

Siegel, J.

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1898-1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203, 246-257(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stöhr, M.

R. Sadanandan, M. Stöhr, and W. Meier, “Simultaneous OH-PLIF and PIV measurements in a gas turbine model combustor,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 609-618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sucharov, L. O. D.

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1898-1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203, 246-257(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vressner, A.

J. Olofsson, H. Seyfried, M. Richter, M. Aldén, A. Vressner, A. Hultqvist, B. Johansson, and K. Lombaert, “High-speed LIF imaging for cycle-resolved formaldehyde visualization in HCCI combustion,” SAE 2005-01-0641 (2005).

Webb, S. E. D.

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1898-1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203, 246-257(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, T.

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1898-1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203, 246-257(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskatitis, and T. Wilson, “Method of obtaining optical sectioning by using structured light in a conventional microscope,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1905-1907 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolfrum, J.

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, R. S. Barlow, M. Aldén, and J. Wolfrum, “Combustion at the focus: laser diagnostics and control,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institue (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 89-123.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

R. Sadanandan, M. Stöhr, and W. Meier, “Simultaneous OH-PLIF and PIV measurements in a gas turbine model combustor,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 609-618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc.

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203, 246-257(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1898-1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. T. Sanders, T. Kim, and J. B. Ghandhi, “Gas temperature measurements during ignition in an HCCI engine,” SAE2003-01-0744 (2003).

B. Kaldvee, A. Ehn, J. Bood, and M. Aldén, “Development of a Picosecond-LIDAR System for Combustion Diagnostics,” in Laser Applications to Chemical, Security and Environmental Analysis, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper LWC5.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Gordon and Breach, 1996).

K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J. B. Jefries, Applied Combustion Diagnostics (Taylor & Francis, 2002).

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, R. S. Barlow, M. Aldén, and J. Wolfrum, “Combustion at the focus: laser diagnostics and control,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institue (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 89-123.
[CrossRef]

J. Olofsson, H. Seyfried, M. Richter, M. Aldén, A. Vressner, A. Hultqvist, B. Johansson, and K. Lombaert, “High-speed LIF imaging for cycle-resolved formaldehyde visualization in HCCI combustion,” SAE 2005-01-0641 (2005).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of structured illumination. In (a) and (b) two of the three spatially modulated images, I 1 , I 2 , and I 3 , are shown. The conventional image I C is shown in (c), and the optically sectioned image I S is shown in (d). The sample contains two planes, one in focus (upper plane), where the intensity modulation is visible, and one positioned either in front of or behind the focus plane (lower plane). As can be seen in (c), conventional backscattered imaging gives no depth resolution, since the intensity is equally large in both planes. The out-of-focus light is removed by studying the differences between the spatially modulated images, i.e., implementing Eq. (3).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup. L = lens , A = aperture , M = mirror , R = Ronchi ruling , SF = spatial filter , G = glass plate , BS = beam splitter .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Close-up of the nebulizer, where the different flows (water droplets and nitrogen) are indicated as dashed cylinders. The approximate area of investigation ( 16 × 14 mm 2 ) is indicated with the gray shaded area.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In (a) and (d) I 1 is shown for 1 and 20 accumulations, respectively, where the superimposed grating pattern can be seen. (b) and (e) Conventional backscattered images for the same number of accumulations. The internal structure created by the flow of nitrogen is extremely smeared out in both of these cases. When the out-of-focus light is removed by means of structured illumination, the internal structure is clearly visible, as shown in (c) and (f).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Determination of the depth resolution of the imaging system. A reflecting test object is moved through the focus, and the modulation depth is measured. This was done by dividing the first order frequency, i.e., the modulation strength, by the zero order frequency, and here it is presented as a function of the position of the test object.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Planar Mie scattering from the nebulizer.  Cross section (a) when the flow is turned on and (b) when it is turned off. The planar Mie scattering image, where the nitrogen is turned on, can be seen in (c), where the dashed lines indicate the heights above the outlet between which the cross section has been calculated.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

s ( x , y ) = 1 + m · cos ( 2 π ν x + ϕ 0 ) ,
I ( x , y ) = I C + I S · cos ( 2 π ν x + ϕ 0 ) .
I S = 2 3 [ ( I 1 I 2 ) 2 + ( I 1 I 3 ) 2 + ( I 2 I 3 ) 2 ] 1 / 2
I C = I 1 + I 2 + I 3 3 .

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