Abstract

Nulling interferometry has been proposed for the direct detection of Earth-like planets. Deep stable nulls require careful control of the relative intensity and phase of the beams that are being combined. We present a novel compensator, the Adaptive Nuller, that corrects the intensity and phase as a function of wavelength from 8 to 12μm using a deformable mirror. This compensator has been used to produce rejection ratios of 820001 over a bandwidth of 3.2μm centered around 10μm.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Serabyn, “Nulling interferometry progress,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 594-608 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. V. M. Fridlund and P. Gondoin, “The Darwin mission,” Proc. SPIE 4852, 394-404 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. A. Beichman, N. J. Woolf, and C. A. Lindensmith, eds. Terrestrial Planet Finder (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1999).
  4. P. R. Lawson, A. Ahmed, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, D. P. Scharf, J. K. Wallace, and B. Ware, “Terrestrial planet finder technology status and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626828-626835 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Troung, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. P. Lay, “Removing instability noise in nulling interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62681A1-62681A3 (2006).
  7. R. D. Peters, A. Hirai, M. Jeganathan, and O. P. Lay, “Adaptive nulling with a deformable mirror in the near-IR,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590507-1-590507-8 (2005).
  8. A. Ksendzov, O. Lay, S. Martin, J. S. Sanghera, L. E. Busse, W. H. Kim, P. C. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Characterization of mid-infrared single mode fibers as modal filters,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7957-7962 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, 1986).

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

O. P. Lay, “Removing instability noise in nulling interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62681A1-62681A3 (2006).

P. R. Lawson, A. Ahmed, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, D. P. Scharf, J. K. Wallace, and B. Ware, “Terrestrial planet finder technology status and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626828-626835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

R. D. Peters, A. Hirai, M. Jeganathan, and O. P. Lay, “Adaptive nulling with a deformable mirror in the near-IR,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590507-1-590507-8 (2005).

2004 (1)

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Troung, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

E. Serabyn, “Nulling interferometry progress,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 594-608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. V. M. Fridlund and P. Gondoin, “The Darwin mission,” Proc. SPIE 4852, 394-404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Ahmed, A.

P. R. Lawson, A. Ahmed, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, D. P. Scharf, J. K. Wallace, and B. Ware, “Terrestrial planet finder technology status and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626828-626835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Babtiwale, V.

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Troung, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bartos, R.

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Troung, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bracewell, R. N.

R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, 1986).

Brown, K.

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Troung, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Busse, L. E.

Fridlund, C. V. M.

C. V. M. Fridlund and P. Gondoin, “The Darwin mission,” Proc. SPIE 4852, 394-404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gappinger, R.

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Troung, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gappinger, R. O.

P. R. Lawson, A. Ahmed, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, D. P. Scharf, J. K. Wallace, and B. Ware, “Terrestrial planet finder technology status and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626828-626835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gondoin, P.

C. V. M. Fridlund and P. Gondoin, “The Darwin mission,” Proc. SPIE 4852, 394-404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hirai, A.

R. D. Peters, A. Hirai, M. Jeganathan, and O. P. Lay, “Adaptive nulling with a deformable mirror in the near-IR,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590507-1-590507-8 (2005).

Jeganathan, M.

R. D. Peters, A. Hirai, M. Jeganathan, and O. P. Lay, “Adaptive nulling with a deformable mirror in the near-IR,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590507-1-590507-8 (2005).

Kim, W. H.

Ksendzov, A.

A. Ksendzov, O. Lay, S. Martin, J. S. Sanghera, L. E. Busse, W. H. Kim, P. C. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Characterization of mid-infrared single mode fibers as modal filters,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7957-7962 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Lawson, A. Ahmed, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, D. P. Scharf, J. K. Wallace, and B. Ware, “Terrestrial planet finder technology status and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626828-626835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, P. R.

P. R. Lawson, A. Ahmed, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, D. P. Scharf, J. K. Wallace, and B. Ware, “Terrestrial planet finder technology status and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626828-626835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lay, O.

Lay, O. P.

P. R. Lawson, A. Ahmed, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, D. P. Scharf, J. K. Wallace, and B. Ware, “Terrestrial planet finder technology status and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626828-626835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Lay, “Removing instability noise in nulling interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62681A1-62681A3 (2006).

R. D. Peters, A. Hirai, M. Jeganathan, and O. P. Lay, “Adaptive nulling with a deformable mirror in the near-IR,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590507-1-590507-8 (2005).

Loya, F.

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Troung, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, D.

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Troung, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martin, S.

A. Ksendzov, O. Lay, S. Martin, J. S. Sanghera, L. E. Busse, W. H. Kim, P. C. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Characterization of mid-infrared single mode fibers as modal filters,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7957-7962 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Troung, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martin, S. R.

P. R. Lawson, A. Ahmed, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, D. P. Scharf, J. K. Wallace, and B. Ware, “Terrestrial planet finder technology status and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626828-626835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Negron, J.

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Troung, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. Q.

Peters, R. D.

P. R. Lawson, A. Ahmed, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, D. P. Scharf, J. K. Wallace, and B. Ware, “Terrestrial planet finder technology status and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626828-626835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Peters, A. Hirai, M. Jeganathan, and O. P. Lay, “Adaptive nulling with a deformable mirror in the near-IR,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590507-1-590507-8 (2005).

Pureza, P. C.

Sanghera, J. S.

Scharf, D. P.

P. R. Lawson, A. Ahmed, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, D. P. Scharf, J. K. Wallace, and B. Ware, “Terrestrial planet finder technology status and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626828-626835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Serabyn, E.

E. Serabyn, “Nulling interferometry progress,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 594-608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Troung, T.

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Troung, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vasisht, G.

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Troung, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, J. K.

P. R. Lawson, A. Ahmed, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, D. P. Scharf, J. K. Wallace, and B. Ware, “Terrestrial planet finder technology status and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626828-626835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Troung, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ware, B.

P. R. Lawson, A. Ahmed, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, D. P. Scharf, J. K. Wallace, and B. Ware, “Terrestrial planet finder technology status and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626828-626835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Proc. SPIE (6)

E. Serabyn, “Nulling interferometry progress,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 594-608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. V. M. Fridlund and P. Gondoin, “The Darwin mission,” Proc. SPIE 4852, 394-404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Lawson, A. Ahmed, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, D. P. Scharf, J. K. Wallace, and B. Ware, “Terrestrial planet finder technology status and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626828-626835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Troung, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Lay, “Removing instability noise in nulling interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62681A1-62681A3 (2006).

R. D. Peters, A. Hirai, M. Jeganathan, and O. P. Lay, “Adaptive nulling with a deformable mirror in the near-IR,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590507-1-590507-8 (2005).

Other (2)

C. A. Beichman, N. J. Woolf, and C. A. Lindensmith, eds. Terrestrial Planet Finder (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1999).

R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, 1986).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic starlight nulling pair used in the Terrestrial Planet Finder. The interference between the two telescopes creates a response pattern on the sky of constructive and destructive fringes. The star is located in the central destructive fringe, and the planet appears in the constructive fringe.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the Adaptive Nuller. Light in one arm of a nulling interferometer is balanced by splitting the polarizations and dispersing the wavelength, then adjusting the phases in each part of the spectrum with a deformable mirror prior to recombining the polarizations and wavelengths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Side view of phase control with a single wavelength channel on the DM using piston. (b) Amplitude control of a single wavelength channel on the DM using tilt.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic layout for the mid-IR demonstration. The Adaptive Nuller is in one (right) arm, and a “reference” Adaptive Nuller in the other (left) arm. The reference has all the same optics as the Adaptive Nuller with the exception of a fixed mirror in place of the deformable mirror.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Picture of the laboratory setup showing the source and the two arms of the interferometer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

RMS phase and intensity mismatch as a function of iteration. Because of cross coupling between the phase and the intensity adjustment as well as the influence function of the continuous face sheet, it takes several iterations to converge. This could potentially be improved by a better model of the mirror response.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Intensity dispersion for the three data sets taken (a) before the correction is applied and (b) after the correction is applied.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Correction of the phase dispersion for each data set (a) before the correction was made and (b) after the correction was complete.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

RMS intensity stability as a function of time for data sets (a) 1, (b) 2, and (c) 3.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

RMS phase dispersion as a function of time for data sets (a) 1, (b) 2, and (c) 3.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Suppression of the signal after the correction to phase and intensity imbalance has been made.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Start Times and Duration for Each of the Three Data Sets Taken

Equations (3)

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I ( k ) = a ( k ) ( 1 V cos [ k X k x e ( k ) ] ) ,
I ( k ) = a ( k ) 1 2 V a ( k ) e i k X i k x e ( k ) 1 2 V a ( k ) e i k X + i k x e ( k ) .
F { I ( k ) } = F { a ( k ) } 1 2 V F { a ( k ) e i k x e ( k ) } × δ ( λ + X ) 1 2 V F { a ( k ) e i k x e ( k ) } × δ ( λ X ) ,

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