Abstract

An optical temperature sensor was created using a femtosecond micromachined diffraction grating inside transparent bulk 6H-SiC, and to the best of our knowledge, this is a novel technique of measuring temperature. Other methods of measuring temperature using fiber Bragg gratings have been devised by other groups such as Zhang and Kahrizi [in MEMS, NANO, and Smart Systems (IEEE, 2005)]. This temperature sensor was, to the best of our knowledge, also used for a novel method of measuring the linear and nonlinear coefficients of the thermal expansion of transparent and nontransparent materials by means of the grating first-order diffracted beam. Furthermore the coefficient of thermal expansion of 6H-SiC was measured using this new technique. A He–Ne laser beam was used with the SiC grating to produce a first-order diffracted beam where the change in deflection height was measured as a function of temperature. The grating was micromachined with a 20μm spacing and has dimensions of approximately 500μm×500μm (l×w) and is roughly 0.5μm deep into the 6H-SiC bulk. A minimum temperature of 26.7°C and a maximum temperature of 399°C were measured, which gives a ΔT of 372.3°C. The sensitivity of the technique is ΔT=5°C. A maximum deflection angle of 1.81° was measured in the first-order diffracted beam. The trend of the deflection with increasing temperature is a nonlinear polynomial of the second-order. This optical SiC thermal sensor has many high-temperature electronic applications such as aircraft turbine and gas tank monitoring for commercial and military applications.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. DesAutels, C. Brewer, M. Walker, S. Juhl, M. Finet, and P. Powers, “Femtosecond micromachining in transparent bulk materials using an anamorphic lens,” Opt. Express 15, 13139-13148 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Copper, Purdue Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Device Research Program, http://www.ecn.purdue.edu/WBG/Index.html, Purdue University College of Engineering.
  3. D. Bath and E. Ness, “Applying silicon carbide to optics,” Optics Photonics News 19, 10-13 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Serway, Physics For Scientists & Engineers, 3rd ed.(Saunders, 1999), pp. 513-515.
  5. C. Palmer, Diffraction Grating Handbook (Richardson Grating Laboratory, 2002).
  6. R. T. Bhatt and A. R. Palczer, “Effects of thermal cycling on thermal expansion and mechanical properties of SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded Si3N4 composites,” NASA Technical Memorandum 106665 (Army Research Laboratory, 1992), pp. 1-15.
  7. Z. Li and R. Bradt, “Thermal expansion of the hexagonal (4H) polytype of SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 612-614 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. N. Talwar and J. C. Sherbondy, “Thermal expansion coefficient of 3C-SiC,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3301-3303 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts and Company, 2005).

2008 (1)

D. Bath and E. Ness, “Applying silicon carbide to optics,” Optics Photonics News 19, 10-13 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

1995 (1)

D. N. Talwar and J. C. Sherbondy, “Thermal expansion coefficient of 3C-SiC,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3301-3303 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Z. Li and R. Bradt, “Thermal expansion of the hexagonal (4H) polytype of SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 612-614 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bath, D.

D. Bath and E. Ness, “Applying silicon carbide to optics,” Optics Photonics News 19, 10-13 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bhatt, R. T.

R. T. Bhatt and A. R. Palczer, “Effects of thermal cycling on thermal expansion and mechanical properties of SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded Si3N4 composites,” NASA Technical Memorandum 106665 (Army Research Laboratory, 1992), pp. 1-15.

Bradt, R.

Z. Li and R. Bradt, “Thermal expansion of the hexagonal (4H) polytype of SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 612-614 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, C.

Copper, J.

J. Copper, Purdue Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Device Research Program, http://www.ecn.purdue.edu/WBG/Index.html, Purdue University College of Engineering.

DesAutels, L.

Finet, M.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts and Company, 2005).

Juhl, S.

Li, Z.

Z. Li and R. Bradt, “Thermal expansion of the hexagonal (4H) polytype of SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 612-614 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ness, E.

D. Bath and E. Ness, “Applying silicon carbide to optics,” Optics Photonics News 19, 10-13 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Palczer, A. R.

R. T. Bhatt and A. R. Palczer, “Effects of thermal cycling on thermal expansion and mechanical properties of SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded Si3N4 composites,” NASA Technical Memorandum 106665 (Army Research Laboratory, 1992), pp. 1-15.

Palmer, C.

C. Palmer, Diffraction Grating Handbook (Richardson Grating Laboratory, 2002).

Powers, P.

Serway, R.

R. Serway, Physics For Scientists & Engineers, 3rd ed.(Saunders, 1999), pp. 513-515.

Sherbondy, J. C.

D. N. Talwar and J. C. Sherbondy, “Thermal expansion coefficient of 3C-SiC,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3301-3303 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Talwar, D. N.

D. N. Talwar and J. C. Sherbondy, “Thermal expansion coefficient of 3C-SiC,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3301-3303 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Walker, M.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. N. Talwar and J. C. Sherbondy, “Thermal expansion coefficient of 3C-SiC,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3301-3303 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Z. Li and R. Bradt, “Thermal expansion of the hexagonal (4H) polytype of SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 612-614 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Optics Photonics News (1)

D. Bath and E. Ness, “Applying silicon carbide to optics,” Optics Photonics News 19, 10-13 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

R. Serway, Physics For Scientists & Engineers, 3rd ed.(Saunders, 1999), pp. 513-515.

C. Palmer, Diffraction Grating Handbook (Richardson Grating Laboratory, 2002).

R. T. Bhatt and A. R. Palczer, “Effects of thermal cycling on thermal expansion and mechanical properties of SiC fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded Si3N4 composites,” NASA Technical Memorandum 106665 (Army Research Laboratory, 1992), pp. 1-15.

J. Copper, Purdue Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Device Research Program, http://www.ecn.purdue.edu/WBG/Index.html, Purdue University College of Engineering.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts and Company, 2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SiC temperature sensor experimental setup. The incident angle to the grating is zero, and the diffraction angle is clockwise from the zero order.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(top) Deflection ( Δ x ) as a function of temperature. (bottom) The Δ x / x ratio as a function of temperature, which is a common way of displaying the material expansion. The charts show a maximum of 5 % error bars.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

6H-SiC thermal coefficient as a function of temperature with a maximum of 5% error bars. The second-order polynomial is given in Eq. (1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(left) SiC grating at 10 × magnification. (right) The SiC grating after 50 × magnification. The images were processed for easier viewing and obtained using Nomarski DIC on an optical microscope [2].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(top) Theoretical Fraunhofer diffraction pattern with a line-out of two of the orders. (bottom) The experimental Fraunhofer diffraction pattern with a line-out of two of the orders. The horizontal axes only represent the number of points in the matrix calculation for the theoretical plot, and for the experimental plot it represents the number of points taken from a line-out (both performed in MATLAB).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of a Semi-Insulating-Type SiC Sample a

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ d = α d Δ T ,
m λ = d ( sin ( θ ) + sin ( β ) ) .
Δ x = [ tan ( θ ) L ] [ tan ( Δ θ ) L ] ,
Δ θ = sin 1 ( λ ( d + ( α d Δ T ) ) sin ( β ) ) .
tan ( λ d + Δ d ) = x Δ x L ,
Δ d = λ tan 1 ( x Δ x L ) tan 1 ( x Δ x L ) d ,
α = 1.38 × 10 11 Δ T 2 + 1.23 × 10 8 Δ T + 3.84 × 10 6 .
t a ( x , y ) = [ { e π ( x 2 A 2 + y 2 B 2 ) + e π ( ( x ± x 0 ) 2 A 2 + y 2 B 2 ) } { [ 1 L comb ( y L ) δ ( x ) ] rect ( y N L ) } ] × e π · r 2 ω o 2 ] .

Metrics