Abstract

The behavior of photochromic glasses during activation and bleaching is investigated. A two-state phenomenological model describing light-induced activation (darkening) and thermal bleaching is presented. The proposed model is based on first-order kinetics. We demonstrate that the time behavior in the activation process (acting simultaneously with the thermal fading) can be characterized by two relaxation times that depend on the intensity of the activating light. These characteristic times are lower than the decay times of the pure thermal bleaching process. We study the temporal evolution of the glass optical density and its dependence on the activating intensity. We also present a series of activation and bleaching experiments that validate the proposed model. Our approach may be used to gain more insight into the transmittance behavior of photosensitive glasses, which could be potentially relevant in a broad range of applications, e.g., real-time holography and reconfigurable optical memories.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. K. Megla, “Optical properties and applications of photochromic glass,” Appl. Opt. 5, 945-960 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. H. Armistead and S. D. Stookey, “Photochromic silicate glasses sensitized by silver halides,” Science 144, 150-154(1964).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Kawamoto, R. Kikuschi, and Y. Kimura, “Photochromic glasses containing silver chloride. Part 1. Effects of glass composition on photosensitivity,” and “Photochromic glasses containing silver chloride. Part 2. Effects of the addition of small amounts of oxides on photosensitivity,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 17, 23-29 (1976).
  4. A. V. Dotsenko, L. B. Glebov, and V. A. Tsekhomsky, Physics and Chemistry of Photochromic Glasses (CRC Press, 1998).
  5. G. K. Megla, “Exploitation of photochromic glass,” Opt. Laser Technol. 6, 61-68 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. P. Smith, “Photochromic glasses: properties and applications,” J. Mater. Sci. 2, 139-152 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Ciamberlini, F. Francini, G. Longobardi, P. Sansoni, and B. Tiribilli, “Defect detection in textured materials by optical filtering with structured detectors and self adaptable masks,” Opt. Eng. 35, 838-844 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S.-R. Kothapalli, P. Wu, C. S. Yelleswarapu, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Nonlinear optical Fourier filtering technique for medical image processing,” J Biomed. Opt. 10, 044028 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Tsujoka, T. Harada, M. Kume, K. Kuroki, and M. Irie, “Super-resolution with a photochromic mask layer in a optical memory,” Opt. Rev. 2, 181-186 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. R. J. Araujo, “Kinetics of bleaching of photochromic glass,” Appl. Opt. 7, 781-786 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. Mohn, “Kinetic characteristics of a solid photochromic film,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1570-1576 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. J. Tomlinson, “Dynamics of photochromic conversion on optically thick samples: theory,” Appl. Opt. 15, 821-826 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. W. Weisstein, “Levenberg-Marquardt method,” http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Levenberg-MarquardtMethod.html.

2005

S.-R. Kothapalli, P. Wu, C. S. Yelleswarapu, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Nonlinear optical Fourier filtering technique for medical image processing,” J Biomed. Opt. 10, 044028 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. Sumaru, S. Inui, and T. Yamanaka, “Preliminary investigation of self-organization pattern mapping system based on photochromism,” Opt. Eng. 38, 274-283 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

C. Ciamberlini, F. Francini, G. Longobardi, P. Sansoni, and B. Tiribilli, “Defect detection in textured materials by optical filtering with structured detectors and self adaptable masks,” Opt. Eng. 35, 838-844 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. Tsujoka, T. Harada, M. Kume, K. Kuroki, and M. Irie, “Super-resolution with a photochromic mask layer in a optical memory,” Opt. Rev. 2, 181-186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1976

T. Kawamoto, R. Kikuschi, and Y. Kimura, “Photochromic glasses containing silver chloride. Part 1. Effects of glass composition on photosensitivity,” and “Photochromic glasses containing silver chloride. Part 2. Effects of the addition of small amounts of oxides on photosensitivity,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 17, 23-29 (1976).

W. J. Tomlinson, “Dynamics of photochromic conversion on optically thick samples: theory,” Appl. Opt. 15, 821-826 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975

1974

G. K. Megla, “Exploitation of photochromic glass,” Opt. Laser Technol. 6, 61-68 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

1968

1967

G. P. Smith, “Photochromic glasses: properties and applications,” J. Mater. Sci. 2, 139-152 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966

1964

W. H. Armistead and S. D. Stookey, “Photochromic silicate glasses sensitized by silver halides,” Science 144, 150-154(1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Araujo, R. J.

Armistead, W. H.

W. H. Armistead and S. D. Stookey, “Photochromic silicate glasses sensitized by silver halides,” Science 144, 150-154(1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciamberlini, C.

C. Ciamberlini, F. Francini, G. Longobardi, P. Sansoni, and B. Tiribilli, “Defect detection in textured materials by optical filtering with structured detectors and self adaptable masks,” Opt. Eng. 35, 838-844 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dotsenko, A. V.

A. V. Dotsenko, L. B. Glebov, and V. A. Tsekhomsky, Physics and Chemistry of Photochromic Glasses (CRC Press, 1998).

Francini, F.

C. Ciamberlini, F. Francini, G. Longobardi, P. Sansoni, and B. Tiribilli, “Defect detection in textured materials by optical filtering with structured detectors and self adaptable masks,” Opt. Eng. 35, 838-844 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, L. B.

A. V. Dotsenko, L. B. Glebov, and V. A. Tsekhomsky, Physics and Chemistry of Photochromic Glasses (CRC Press, 1998).

Harada, T.

T. Tsujoka, T. Harada, M. Kume, K. Kuroki, and M. Irie, “Super-resolution with a photochromic mask layer in a optical memory,” Opt. Rev. 2, 181-186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Inui, S.

K. Sumaru, S. Inui, and T. Yamanaka, “Preliminary investigation of self-organization pattern mapping system based on photochromism,” Opt. Eng. 38, 274-283 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Irie, M.

T. Tsujoka, T. Harada, M. Kume, K. Kuroki, and M. Irie, “Super-resolution with a photochromic mask layer in a optical memory,” Opt. Rev. 2, 181-186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kawamoto, T.

T. Kawamoto, R. Kikuschi, and Y. Kimura, “Photochromic glasses containing silver chloride. Part 1. Effects of glass composition on photosensitivity,” and “Photochromic glasses containing silver chloride. Part 2. Effects of the addition of small amounts of oxides on photosensitivity,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 17, 23-29 (1976).

Kikuschi, R.

T. Kawamoto, R. Kikuschi, and Y. Kimura, “Photochromic glasses containing silver chloride. Part 1. Effects of glass composition on photosensitivity,” and “Photochromic glasses containing silver chloride. Part 2. Effects of the addition of small amounts of oxides on photosensitivity,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 17, 23-29 (1976).

Kimura, Y.

T. Kawamoto, R. Kikuschi, and Y. Kimura, “Photochromic glasses containing silver chloride. Part 1. Effects of glass composition on photosensitivity,” and “Photochromic glasses containing silver chloride. Part 2. Effects of the addition of small amounts of oxides on photosensitivity,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 17, 23-29 (1976).

Kothapalli, S.-R.

S.-R. Kothapalli, P. Wu, C. S. Yelleswarapu, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Nonlinear optical Fourier filtering technique for medical image processing,” J Biomed. Opt. 10, 044028 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kume, M.

T. Tsujoka, T. Harada, M. Kume, K. Kuroki, and M. Irie, “Super-resolution with a photochromic mask layer in a optical memory,” Opt. Rev. 2, 181-186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuroki, K.

T. Tsujoka, T. Harada, M. Kume, K. Kuroki, and M. Irie, “Super-resolution with a photochromic mask layer in a optical memory,” Opt. Rev. 2, 181-186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Longobardi, G.

C. Ciamberlini, F. Francini, G. Longobardi, P. Sansoni, and B. Tiribilli, “Defect detection in textured materials by optical filtering with structured detectors and self adaptable masks,” Opt. Eng. 35, 838-844 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Megla, G. K.

G. K. Megla, “Exploitation of photochromic glass,” Opt. Laser Technol. 6, 61-68 (1974).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Megla, “Optical properties and applications of photochromic glass,” Appl. Opt. 5, 945-960 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohn, E.

Rao, D. V. G. L. N.

S.-R. Kothapalli, P. Wu, C. S. Yelleswarapu, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Nonlinear optical Fourier filtering technique for medical image processing,” J Biomed. Opt. 10, 044028 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sansoni, P.

C. Ciamberlini, F. Francini, G. Longobardi, P. Sansoni, and B. Tiribilli, “Defect detection in textured materials by optical filtering with structured detectors and self adaptable masks,” Opt. Eng. 35, 838-844 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. P.

G. P. Smith, “Photochromic glasses: properties and applications,” J. Mater. Sci. 2, 139-152 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Stookey, S. D.

W. H. Armistead and S. D. Stookey, “Photochromic silicate glasses sensitized by silver halides,” Science 144, 150-154(1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sumaru, K.

K. Sumaru, S. Inui, and T. Yamanaka, “Preliminary investigation of self-organization pattern mapping system based on photochromism,” Opt. Eng. 38, 274-283 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tiribilli, B.

C. Ciamberlini, F. Francini, G. Longobardi, P. Sansoni, and B. Tiribilli, “Defect detection in textured materials by optical filtering with structured detectors and self adaptable masks,” Opt. Eng. 35, 838-844 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, W. J.

Tsekhomsky, V. A.

A. V. Dotsenko, L. B. Glebov, and V. A. Tsekhomsky, Physics and Chemistry of Photochromic Glasses (CRC Press, 1998).

Tsujoka, T.

T. Tsujoka, T. Harada, M. Kume, K. Kuroki, and M. Irie, “Super-resolution with a photochromic mask layer in a optical memory,” Opt. Rev. 2, 181-186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weisstein, E. W.

E. W. Weisstein, “Levenberg-Marquardt method,” http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Levenberg-MarquardtMethod.html.

Wu, P.

S.-R. Kothapalli, P. Wu, C. S. Yelleswarapu, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Nonlinear optical Fourier filtering technique for medical image processing,” J Biomed. Opt. 10, 044028 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, T.

K. Sumaru, S. Inui, and T. Yamanaka, “Preliminary investigation of self-organization pattern mapping system based on photochromism,” Opt. Eng. 38, 274-283 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yelleswarapu, C. S.

S.-R. Kothapalli, P. Wu, C. S. Yelleswarapu, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Nonlinear optical Fourier filtering technique for medical image processing,” J Biomed. Opt. 10, 044028 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J Biomed. Opt.

S.-R. Kothapalli, P. Wu, C. S. Yelleswarapu, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Nonlinear optical Fourier filtering technique for medical image processing,” J Biomed. Opt. 10, 044028 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci.

G. P. Smith, “Photochromic glasses: properties and applications,” J. Mater. Sci. 2, 139-152 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

C. Ciamberlini, F. Francini, G. Longobardi, P. Sansoni, and B. Tiribilli, “Defect detection in textured materials by optical filtering with structured detectors and self adaptable masks,” Opt. Eng. 35, 838-844 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Sumaru, S. Inui, and T. Yamanaka, “Preliminary investigation of self-organization pattern mapping system based on photochromism,” Opt. Eng. 38, 274-283 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol.

G. K. Megla, “Exploitation of photochromic glass,” Opt. Laser Technol. 6, 61-68 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev.

T. Tsujoka, T. Harada, M. Kume, K. Kuroki, and M. Irie, “Super-resolution with a photochromic mask layer in a optical memory,” Opt. Rev. 2, 181-186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Glasses

T. Kawamoto, R. Kikuschi, and Y. Kimura, “Photochromic glasses containing silver chloride. Part 1. Effects of glass composition on photosensitivity,” and “Photochromic glasses containing silver chloride. Part 2. Effects of the addition of small amounts of oxides on photosensitivity,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 17, 23-29 (1976).

Science

W. H. Armistead and S. D. Stookey, “Photochromic silicate glasses sensitized by silver halides,” Science 144, 150-154(1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. V. Dotsenko, L. B. Glebov, and V. A. Tsekhomsky, Physics and Chemistry of Photochromic Glasses (CRC Press, 1998).

E. W. Weisstein, “Levenberg-Marquardt method,” http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Levenberg-MarquardtMethod.html.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic description of the proposed model.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup. AL is the activating light source (violet laser, 405 nm ), SF is a spatial filter, L is a collimating lens, He–Ne is a 633 nm probe laser, AT is an attenuator, F is a 633 nm interferometric filter, PD is a photodiode, and PG is a photochromic glass sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal evolution of the light-induced optical density. The squares, triangles (pointing right, left, up, and down), circles, and diamonds denote the experimental data corresponding to the activating intensities 0.44, 1.5, 2.5, 4.0, 5.4, 7.1, and 9.9 mW / cm 2 , respectively. The continuous curves are the optical densities obtained using the proposed two-state model.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal evolution of the pure thermal bleaching. The squares, triangles (pointing up and down), and diamonds denote the experimental data corresponding to the activating intensities 0.44, 1.5, 2.5, and 9.9 mW / cm 2 , respectively. The continuous curves are the optical densities obtained using the proposed model.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Maximum achieved optical density as a function of the activating intensity. The circles are the experimental data, and the continuous curve is the theoretical prediction.

Equations (14)

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k A = σ A ( λ Act ) ϕ A ( λ Act ) ,
k B = σ B ( λ Act ) ϕ B ( λ Act ) ,
d N A d t = k A I 0 ( N 0 A N A ) N A / τ A ,
d N B d t = k B I 0 ( N 0 B N B ) N B / τ B .
N A ( t ) = N 0 A k A τ A I 0 1 + k A τ A I 0 + C A exp ( t / τ 1 ) ) ,
N B ( t ) = N 0 B k B τ B I 0 1 + k B τ B I 0 + C B exp ( t / τ 2 ) ,
τ 1 = τ A / ( 1 + k A τ A I 0 ) ,
τ 2 = τ B / ( 1 + k B τ B I 0 ) .
N A ( t ) = N A ( 0 ) exp ( t / τ A ) ,
N B ( t ) = N B ( 0 ) exp ( t / τ B ) .
N A ( t ) = N 0 A k A τ A I 0 1 + k A τ A I 0 [ 1 exp ( t / τ 1 ) ] ,
N B ( t ) = N 0 B k B τ B I 0 1 + k B τ B I 0 [ 1 exp ( t / τ 2 ) ] .
D ( t ) = σ A ( λ P ) L N A ( t ) + σ B ( λ P ) L N B ( t ) ,
ε 2 n 0 t f ( D n Theo ( t ) D n Meas ( t ) ) 2 d t ,

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