Abstract

Xenon short-arc discharge lamps exhibit ultrahigh radiance with substantial emission beyond the visible, primarily in the near infrared. Their radiance distributions are spatially and angularly inhomogeneous due to both the structure of the plasma arc and the infrared radiation from the electrodes. These characteristics are favorable for high-irradiance biomedical and high-temperature reactor applications that exploit both visible light and infrared radiation. For the affiliated optical designs, full-spectrum radiometry, rather than just visible photometry, is needed and not extensively available. We present experimental measurements for the spectral, spatial, and angular distributions of such 150 W lamps and relate the consequences for such novel applications.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. M. Gordon, R. Shaco-Levy, D. Feuermann, J. Ament, and S. Mizrahi, "Fiberoptic surgery by ultrabright lamp light," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 050509 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Feuermann, J. M. Gordon, and T. W. Ng, "Photonic surgery with noncoherent light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 11410 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. A. Lieber, S. Urayama, N. Rahim, R. Tu, R. Saroufeem, B. Reubner, and S. G. Demos, "Multimodal near infrared spectral imaging as an exploratory tool for dysplastic esophageal lesion identification," Opt. Express 14, 2211-2219 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. Guesdon, I. Alxneit, H. R. Tschudi, D. Wuillemin, J. Petrasch, Y. Brunner, L. Winkel, and M. Sturzenegger, "PSI's 1 kW imaging furnace--a tool for high-temperature chemical reactivity studies," Sol. Energy 80, 1344-1348 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Souptel, W. Löser, and G. Behr, "Vertical optical floating zone furnace: principles of irradiation profile formation," J. Cryst. Growth 300, 538-550 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Katzir, Lasers and Optical Fibers in Medicine (Academic, 1993).
  7. U. Weichmann, J. W. Cromwijk, G. Heusler, U. Mackens, H. Moench, and J. Pollman-Retsch, "Light sources for small-étendue applications," Proc. SPIE 5740, 13-26 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. U. Weichmann, H. Giese, U. Hechtfischer, G. Heusler, A. Koerber, H. Moench, F. C. Noertemann, P. Pekarski, J. Pollman-Retsch, and A. Ritz, "UHP lamps for projection systems," Proc. SPIE 5289, 255-265 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Hamamatsu Inc., Shimokanzo, Toyooka Village, Iwata-gun, Shizuoka-ken, 438-0193, Japan, technical brochures and private communications (2004).
  10. Additional radiometric and product information on short-arc discharge lamps is available from Osram GmbH, 1 Hellabrunnerstrasse, 81536 München, Germany; Philips Electronics N. V., 1 Groenewoudseweg, 5621 BA, Eindhoven, The Netherlands; and Ushio Inc., 6-1 Asahi Semei Otemachi Building, Otemachi 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0004, Japan (2005).
  11. J. Harp, "Short-arc lamps: fundamental characteristics," in Photonics Handbook (Laurin, 2005), pp. H250-H254.
  12. J. L. Emmett, A. L. Schawlow, and E. H. Weinberg, "Direct measurement of xenon flashtube opacity," J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2601-2604 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Schuda, "Cermax lamp engineering guide," PerkinElmer Optoelectronics Tech. Rep. (ILC Technology, Inc., 1998).
  14. L. Klein, "Measurements of spectral emission and absorption of a high pressure xenon arc in the stationary and the flashed modes," Appl. Opt. 7, 677-685 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

D. Souptel, W. Löser, and G. Behr, "Vertical optical floating zone furnace: principles of irradiation profile formation," J. Cryst. Growth 300, 538-550 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. M. Gordon, R. Shaco-Levy, D. Feuermann, J. Ament, and S. Mizrahi, "Fiberoptic surgery by ultrabright lamp light," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 050509 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feuermann, J. M. Gordon, and T. W. Ng, "Photonic surgery with noncoherent light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 11410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Lieber, S. Urayama, N. Rahim, R. Tu, R. Saroufeem, B. Reubner, and S. G. Demos, "Multimodal near infrared spectral imaging as an exploratory tool for dysplastic esophageal lesion identification," Opt. Express 14, 2211-2219 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Guesdon, I. Alxneit, H. R. Tschudi, D. Wuillemin, J. Petrasch, Y. Brunner, L. Winkel, and M. Sturzenegger, "PSI's 1 kW imaging furnace--a tool for high-temperature chemical reactivity studies," Sol. Energy 80, 1344-1348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

U. Weichmann, J. W. Cromwijk, G. Heusler, U. Mackens, H. Moench, and J. Pollman-Retsch, "Light sources for small-étendue applications," Proc. SPIE 5740, 13-26 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

U. Weichmann, H. Giese, U. Hechtfischer, G. Heusler, A. Koerber, H. Moench, F. C. Noertemann, P. Pekarski, J. Pollman-Retsch, and A. Ritz, "UHP lamps for projection systems," Proc. SPIE 5289, 255-265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1968

1964

J. L. Emmett, A. L. Schawlow, and E. H. Weinberg, "Direct measurement of xenon flashtube opacity," J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2601-2604 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Feuermann, J. M. Gordon, and T. W. Ng, "Photonic surgery with noncoherent light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 11410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. L. Emmett, A. L. Schawlow, and E. H. Weinberg, "Direct measurement of xenon flashtube opacity," J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2601-2604 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. M. Gordon, R. Shaco-Levy, D. Feuermann, J. Ament, and S. Mizrahi, "Fiberoptic surgery by ultrabright lamp light," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 050509 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cryst. Growth

D. Souptel, W. Löser, and G. Behr, "Vertical optical floating zone furnace: principles of irradiation profile formation," J. Cryst. Growth 300, 538-550 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

U. Weichmann, J. W. Cromwijk, G. Heusler, U. Mackens, H. Moench, and J. Pollman-Retsch, "Light sources for small-étendue applications," Proc. SPIE 5740, 13-26 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Weichmann, H. Giese, U. Hechtfischer, G. Heusler, A. Koerber, H. Moench, F. C. Noertemann, P. Pekarski, J. Pollman-Retsch, and A. Ritz, "UHP lamps for projection systems," Proc. SPIE 5289, 255-265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy

C. Guesdon, I. Alxneit, H. R. Tschudi, D. Wuillemin, J. Petrasch, Y. Brunner, L. Winkel, and M. Sturzenegger, "PSI's 1 kW imaging furnace--a tool for high-temperature chemical reactivity studies," Sol. Energy 80, 1344-1348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Katzir, Lasers and Optical Fibers in Medicine (Academic, 1993).

Hamamatsu Inc., Shimokanzo, Toyooka Village, Iwata-gun, Shizuoka-ken, 438-0193, Japan, technical brochures and private communications (2004).

Additional radiometric and product information on short-arc discharge lamps is available from Osram GmbH, 1 Hellabrunnerstrasse, 81536 München, Germany; Philips Electronics N. V., 1 Groenewoudseweg, 5621 BA, Eindhoven, The Netherlands; and Ushio Inc., 6-1 Asahi Semei Otemachi Building, Otemachi 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0004, Japan (2005).

J. Harp, "Short-arc lamps: fundamental characteristics," in Photonics Handbook (Laurin, 2005), pp. H250-H254.

F. Schuda, "Cermax lamp engineering guide," PerkinElmer Optoelectronics Tech. Rep. (ILC Technology, Inc., 1998).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Short-arc discharge lamp. (a) Schematic [9]. (b) Typical radiance distribution from the arc of a 150 W xenon lamp, restricted to visible emission (relative to a maximum of 100% near the cathode tip) [9]. (c) Our photograph of the electrodes prior to ignition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Semilog plot of spectral irradiance E λ from the full lamp and from the plasma arc only, measured at zero polar angle, at a distance of 50 cm from the lamp.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of measuring lamp irradiance with a fiber-optic spectrometer for (a) the entire lamp and (b) the electrode gap only.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Measured dependence of the irradiance of the full lamp on polar angle θ. (a) A polar plot of relative irradiance integrated over the full spectrum (350 to 2500   nm ). Irradiance is normalized by its maximum value at θ = 0 . The solid curve indicates measured values. The dotted curves are based on the assumption of symmetry in both azimuthal and polar angle (for the latter, in the sense that irradiance is the same at θ and θ ). These assumptions are borne out, to within our experimental uncertainty, by manufacturer data for the visible spectrum [9]. (b) Angle-dependent irradiance of each spectral band E Δ λ (θ) relative to the spectrum-integrated E(0) [the same normalization as in Fig. 4(a) namely, the ordinate intercepts here sum to unity].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic for the measurement of the spatial and spectral distribution of the arc through a perforated screen. (b) Photograph of the plasma arc that forms around the 2.0   mm interelectrode gap, imaged (and magnified by a factor of 50 ) onto a perforated screen for mapping the spatial dependence of spectral radiance. For scale, the grid spacing is 5   mm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Measured radiance distribution in the plasma arc, integrated over the entire spectrum, and normalized by its peak value at the cathode tip. The superimposed black cylinder indicates the image of a remote target (the entrance of an optical fiber) onto which that part of the plasma is to be concentrated (taken from lamp surgery [1, 2]).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Spectral radiance L λ within the plasma arc for five points along the interelectrode axis from the cathode tip at point A to the anode tip at point E. The semilog format facilitates distinguishing how the difference in spectral radiance between the hottest and coldest plasma regions is reduced as wavelength increases. (The spectral curves in Figs. 2, 4, and 7 are available in a text file from the authors upon request.)

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Fractional Lamp Output in the Four Principal Spectral Windows, Including the Specific Contribution from the Plasma Arc a

Equations (1)

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E = i L i Ω i = L max i L i L max Ω i ,

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