Abstract

A simple and sensitive photothermal technique—photothermal detuning, in which the spectral shift of an optical coating caused by absorption-induced temperature rise is used to measure the photothermal signal—and its application for the absorption measurement of coated optical components are developed theoretically and experimentally in detail for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The theoretical description of the photothermal detuning signal with a continuous-wave modulated laser beam excitation is presented. Experiments are conducted with a highly reflective coating used at 532  nm to measure the photothermal detuning signal and to evaluate the absorption at 532  nm by detecting the spectral shift with a probe beam at a wavelength of 632.8  nm. By optimizing the incident angle of the probe beam, the amplitude of the photothermal detuning signal is maximized. Good agreement is obtained between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Cimma, D. Forest, P. Ganau, B. Lagrange, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Pignard, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, "Ion beam sputtering coatings on large substrates toward an improvement of the mechanical and optical performances," Appl. Opt. 45, 1436-1439 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. The VIRGO collaboration, "Low loss coatings for the VIRGO large mirrors," Proc. SPIE 5250, 483-492 (2004).
  3. E. Welsch and D. Ristau, "Photothermal measurements on optical thin films," Appl. Opt. 34, 7239-7253 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz and M. Kozlowski, "Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings," Opt. Eng. 36, 251-262 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Li, H. Blaschke, and D. Ristau, "Combined laser calorimetry and photothermal technique for absorption measurement of optical coatings," Appl. Opt. 45, 5827-5831 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. Gallais and M. Commandré, "Photothermal deflection in multilayer coatings: modeling and experiment," Appl. Opt. 44, 5230-5238 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Welsch and M. Reichling, "Micrometer resolved photothermal displacement inspection of optical coatings," J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1455-1475 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Li, S. Martin, and E. Welsch, "In situ measurement on ultraviolet dielectric components by a pulsed top-hat beam thermal lens," Appl. Opt. 39, 4690-4697 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. F. Pellicori and H. L. Heittich, "Reversible spectral shift in coatings," Appl. Opt. 27, 3061-3062 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Takashashi, "Temperature stability of thin-film narrow-bandpass filters produced by ion-assisited deposition," Appl. Opt. 34, 667-675 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S.-H. Kim and C. K. Hwangbo, "Derivation of the center-wavelength shift of narrow-bandpass filters under temperature change," Opt. Express 12, 5634-5639 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Sakaguchi, "Temperature dependence of transmission characteristics of multilayer film narrow bandpass filters," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6362-6368 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. A. Macleod, Thin-film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (Institute of Physics, 2002).
  14. X. Chen, B. Li, and Y. Yang, "Theory of surface thermal lens signal in optical coating with cw modulated top-hat beam excitation," Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 4673-4678 (2006) (Chinese).
  15. T.-C. Chen, J.-I. Kuo, W.-L. Lee, and C.-C. Lee, "Influences of temperature and stress on transmission characteristics of multilayer thin-film narrow bandpass filters," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4087-4096 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Drouard, P. Huguet-Chantôme, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory, "∂n/∂T measurements performed with guided waves and their application to the temperature sensitivity of wavelength-division multiplexing filters," Appl. Opt. 41, 3132-3136 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Y.-X. Nie and L. Bertrand, "Separation of surface and volume absorption by photothermal deflection," J. Appl. Phys. 65, 438-447 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

T.-C. Chen, J.-I. Kuo, W.-L. Lee, and C.-C. Lee, "Influences of temperature and stress on transmission characteristics of multilayer thin-film narrow bandpass filters," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4087-4096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

S. Sakaguchi, "Temperature dependence of transmission characteristics of multilayer film narrow bandpass filters," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6362-6368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz and M. Kozlowski, "Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings," Opt. Eng. 36, 251-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1993 (1)

E. Welsch and M. Reichling, "Micrometer resolved photothermal displacement inspection of optical coatings," J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1455-1475 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Y.-X. Nie and L. Bertrand, "Separation of surface and volume absorption by photothermal deflection," J. Appl. Phys. 65, 438-447 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Acta Phys. Sin. (1)

X. Chen, B. Li, and Y. Yang, "Theory of surface thermal lens signal in optical coating with cw modulated top-hat beam excitation," Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 4673-4678 (2006) (Chinese).

Appl. Opt. (8)

E. Drouard, P. Huguet-Chantôme, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory, "∂n/∂T measurements performed with guided waves and their application to the temperature sensitivity of wavelength-division multiplexing filters," Appl. Opt. 41, 3132-3136 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Li, H. Blaschke, and D. Ristau, "Combined laser calorimetry and photothermal technique for absorption measurement of optical coatings," Appl. Opt. 45, 5827-5831 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gallais and M. Commandré, "Photothermal deflection in multilayer coatings: modeling and experiment," Appl. Opt. 44, 5230-5238 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cimma, D. Forest, P. Ganau, B. Lagrange, J.-M. Mackowski, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Pignard, L. Pinard, and A. Remillieux, "Ion beam sputtering coatings on large substrates toward an improvement of the mechanical and optical performances," Appl. Opt. 45, 1436-1439 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Welsch and D. Ristau, "Photothermal measurements on optical thin films," Appl. Opt. 34, 7239-7253 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Li, S. Martin, and E. Welsch, "In situ measurement on ultraviolet dielectric components by a pulsed top-hat beam thermal lens," Appl. Opt. 39, 4690-4697 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Pellicori and H. L. Heittich, "Reversible spectral shift in coatings," Appl. Opt. 27, 3061-3062 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takashashi, "Temperature stability of thin-film narrow-bandpass filters produced by ion-assisited deposition," Appl. Opt. 34, 667-675 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y.-X. Nie and L. Bertrand, "Separation of surface and volume absorption by photothermal deflection," J. Appl. Phys. 65, 438-447 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

E. Welsch and M. Reichling, "Micrometer resolved photothermal displacement inspection of optical coatings," J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1455-1475 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Sakaguchi, "Temperature dependence of transmission characteristics of multilayer film narrow bandpass filters," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6362-6368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T.-C. Chen, J.-I. Kuo, W.-L. Lee, and C.-C. Lee, "Influences of temperature and stress on transmission characteristics of multilayer thin-film narrow bandpass filters," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4087-4096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz and M. Kozlowski, "Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings," Opt. Eng. 36, 251-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

The VIRGO collaboration, "Low loss coatings for the VIRGO large mirrors," Proc. SPIE 5250, 483-492 (2004).

Other (1)

H. A. Macleod, Thin-film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (Institute of Physics, 2002).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Reflection spectrum of a HR coating at temperatures T 0 and T 0 + Δ T . (b) Difference between reflectivity at temperatures T 0 and T 0 + Δ T versus wavelength at incident angles of 0°, 10°, and 20°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optimal probe wavelength versus the incident angle of the probe beam at the (a) left and (b) right edges of the reflection band of a HR multilayer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured reflection spectra of the HR coating at two incident angles of 0° and 27°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated reflectivity of the HR coating versus temperature at probe wavelength 632.8   nm and incident angle 27°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photothermal detuning signal amplitude versus the relative position between the pump and the probe beams. The chopping frequency is 200   Hz .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Chopping frequency dependence of the photothermal detuning signal amplitude.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Maximum amplitude of the photothermal detuning signal as a function of the pump power.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Photothermal detuning signal amplitude versus incident angle of the probe beam.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical and Thermophysical Properties of Substrate and Film Layers

Equations (11)

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n f T = n f 0 + { ( d n d T ) f Δ T + [ 1 n f 0 ( d n d T ) f Δ T ] × ( A f Δ T 1 + ( 3 α f + A f ) Δ T ) } ,
d f T = d f 0 { 1 + ( α f B f ) Δ T } ,
A f = 2 ( 1 2 v f ) ( 1 v f ) ( α s α f ) , B f = 2 v f ( 1 v f ) ( α s α f ) ,
[ M j ] = [ cos   δ j i η j   sin   δ j i η j   sin   δ j cos   δ j ] ,
δ j = 2 π λ n f T d f T   cos   φ f .
  M = [ B C ] = [ cos   δ 1 i η 1   sin   δ 1 i η 1   sin   δ 1 cos   δ 1 ] × [ cos   δ 2 i η 2   sin   δ 2 i η 2   sin   δ 2 cos   δ 2 ] × [ cos   δ j i η j   sin   δ j i η j   sin   δ j cos   δ j ] [ 1 N b ] .
R ( λ , T ) = ( N 0 B C N 0 B + C ) ( N 0 B C N 0 B + C ) * ,
d R d T = | R ( λ , T ) T | T = T 0 .
S ( r ) = 1 R 0 d R d T Δ T ( r ) ,
Δ T ( r ) = A 0 P 2 π K t h 0 J 0 ( δ r ) β   exp ( a 2 δ 2 4 ) δ d δ
β 2 = δ 2 + i ( ω / D ) ,

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