Abstract

The high-speed optoelectronic memory system project is concerned with the reduction of latency within multiprocessor computer systems (a key problem) by the use of optoelectronics and associated packaging technologies. System demonstrators have been constructed to enable the evaluation of the technologies in terms of manufacturability. The system combines fiber, free space, and planar integrated optical waveguide technologies to augment the electronic memory and the processor components. Modeling and simulation techniques were developed toward the analysis and design of board-integrated waveguide transmission characteristics and optical interfacing. We describe the fabrication, assembly, and simulation of the major components within the system.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Kelly, P. Horan, F. A. P. Tooley, M. R. Taghizadeh, and J. Hegarty, “Optical lateral inhibition networks that use self-linearized self-electro-optic-effect devices: theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1372-1380 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Schrage and Th. Bierhoff, “Embedded optical waveguides for on-board interconnections,” in Frontiers in Optics, 87th OSA Annual Meeting Tucson, Arizona, USA, October 2003.
  5. J. Schrage, Y. Sönmez, and A. Wallrabenstein, “The optoelectronic interface issue in optical interconnects at printed circuit board level,” 3rd DGG Symposium on Novel Optical Technologies, Würzburg, Germany, May 2005.
  6. L. S. Stephens, K. W. Kelly, S. Simhadri, A. B. McCandless, and E. I. Meletis, “Mechanical property evaluation and failure analysis of cantilevered LIGA nickel microposts,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 10, 347-359 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Gruber and J. Jahns, “Planar-integrated free-space optics--from components to systems,” in Microoptics--From Technology to Applications, J. Jahns and K. -H. Brenner, eds., (Springer, 2004).
  8. M. Jarczynski, T. Seiler, and J. Jahns, “Integrated three-dimensional optical multilayer using free-space optics,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6335-6341 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Jarczynski and J. Jahns, “Planar integrated free-space optics for optical interconnects and fan-out/in operations,” Proc. SPIE 5556, 15-26 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. W. Lohmann, “Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing,” Opt. Commun. 86, 365-370 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, Microoptics, 2nd ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2003), Chap. 7.2.
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. Stübbe, T. Bierhoff, J. Schrage and G. Mrozynski, “Influence of surface roughness on the bandwidth of optical multimode waveguides analyzed by modal noise theory,” Proc. SPIE 5181, 178-186 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Schrage and Th. Bierhoff, “Simulation, design and implementation of optical interconnects at printed circuit board level,” Invited Talk at DATe04 Workshop on Parallel Optical Interconnects Inside Electronic Systems, Paris (2004).
    [PubMed]
  14. Th. Bierhoff, Y. Sönmez, J. Schrage, and G. Mrozynski, “Fundamental limits of the bandwidth-length product of board-integrated optical multimode waveguides due to intermode dispersion,” Optics in Computing (Swiss Society for Optics and Microscopy, 2004).
  15. O. Stübbe, T. Bierhoff, M. Jarczynski, J. Jahns, G. Mrozynski, J. Schrage, and A. Wallrabenstein, “Combined simulation of active and passive optical components,” MOC 2005, Tokyo, Japan (2005).
  16. J. Schrage and A. Koske, “Messtechnische charakterisierung optis wellenleiter Berlin,” Workshop des Kompetenznetwerks Mikrotechnische Produktion μTP, Germany (2004).
    [PubMed]
  17. A. Koske, J. Schrage, and G. Mrozynski, “Measurement of optical characteristics of printed circuit board-integrated multimodal waveguides with rectangular cross sections Jena,” MOC´04-10th Microoptics Conference, Germany (2004).
  18. J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, D. B. Barsky, A. V. Shafarenko, and C. R. Jesshope, “Optical interconnectivity in a scalable data-parallel system,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 120-130 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. I. Gourlay, P. M. Dew, K. Djemame, J. F. Snowdon, and G. A. Russell, “Supporting bulk synchronous parallelism with a high-bandwidth optical interconnect,” Concurrency Comput. Pract. Exper. 16, 1247-1270 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

M. Jarczynski and J. Jahns, “Planar integrated free-space optics for optical interconnects and fan-out/in operations,” Proc. SPIE 5556, 15-26 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Gourlay, P. M. Dew, K. Djemame, J. F. Snowdon, and G. A. Russell, “Supporting bulk synchronous parallelism with a high-bandwidth optical interconnect,” Concurrency Comput. Pract. Exper. 16, 1247-1270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

O. Stübbe, T. Bierhoff, J. Schrage and G. Mrozynski, “Influence of surface roughness on the bandwidth of optical multimode waveguides analyzed by modal noise theory,” Proc. SPIE 5181, 178-186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

L. S. Stephens, K. W. Kelly, S. Simhadri, A. B. McCandless, and E. I. Meletis, “Mechanical property evaluation and failure analysis of cantilevered LIGA nickel microposts,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 10, 347-359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1312-1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, D. B. Barsky, A. V. Shafarenko, and C. R. Jesshope, “Optical interconnectivity in a scalable data-parallel system,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 120-130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

A. W. Lohmann, “Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing,” Opt. Commun. 86, 365-370 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, R.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barsky, D. B.

J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, D. B. Barsky, A. V. Shafarenko, and C. R. Jesshope, “Optical interconnectivity in a scalable data-parallel system,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 120-130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Benabes, P.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bierhoff, T.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Stübbe, T. Bierhoff, J. Schrage and G. Mrozynski, “Influence of surface roughness on the bandwidth of optical multimode waveguides analyzed by modal noise theory,” Proc. SPIE 5181, 178-186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Stübbe, T. Bierhoff, M. Jarczynski, J. Jahns, G. Mrozynski, J. Schrage, and A. Wallrabenstein, “Combined simulation of active and passive optical components,” MOC 2005, Tokyo, Japan (2005).

Bierhoff, Th.

J. Schrage and Th. Bierhoff, “Simulation, design and implementation of optical interconnects at printed circuit board level,” Invited Talk at DATe04 Workshop on Parallel Optical Interconnects Inside Electronic Systems, Paris (2004).
[PubMed]

Th. Bierhoff, Y. Sönmez, J. Schrage, and G. Mrozynski, “Fundamental limits of the bandwidth-length product of board-integrated optical multimode waveguides due to intermode dispersion,” Optics in Computing (Swiss Society for Optics and Microscopy, 2004).

J. Schrage and Th. Bierhoff, “Embedded optical waveguides for on-board interconnections,” in Frontiers in Optics, 87th OSA Annual Meeting Tucson, Arizona, USA, October 2003.

Desmulliez, M. P. Y.

J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, D. B. Barsky, A. V. Shafarenko, and C. R. Jesshope, “Optical interconnectivity in a scalable data-parallel system,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 120-130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dew, P. M.

I. Gourlay, P. M. Dew, K. Djemame, J. F. Snowdon, and G. A. Russell, “Supporting bulk synchronous parallelism with a high-bandwidth optical interconnect,” Concurrency Comput. Pract. Exper. 16, 1247-1270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dines, J. A. B.

J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, D. B. Barsky, A. V. Shafarenko, and C. R. Jesshope, “Optical interconnectivity in a scalable data-parallel system,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 120-130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Djemame, K.

I. Gourlay, P. M. Dew, K. Djemame, J. F. Snowdon, and G. A. Russell, “Supporting bulk synchronous parallelism with a high-bandwidth optical interconnect,” Concurrency Comput. Pract. Exper. 16, 1247-1270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, A.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gourlay, I.

I. Gourlay, P. M. Dew, K. Djemame, J. F. Snowdon, and G. A. Russell, “Supporting bulk synchronous parallelism with a high-bandwidth optical interconnect,” Concurrency Comput. Pract. Exper. 16, 1247-1270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, M.

M. Gruber and J. Jahns, “Planar-integrated free-space optics--from components to systems,” in Microoptics--From Technology to Applications, J. Jahns and K. -H. Brenner, eds., (Springer, 2004).

Hegarty, J.

Horan, P.

Jahns, J.

M. Jarczynski, T. Seiler, and J. Jahns, “Integrated three-dimensional optical multilayer using free-space optics,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6335-6341 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jarczynski and J. Jahns, “Planar integrated free-space optics for optical interconnects and fan-out/in operations,” Proc. SPIE 5556, 15-26 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Gruber and J. Jahns, “Planar-integrated free-space optics--from components to systems,” in Microoptics--From Technology to Applications, J. Jahns and K. -H. Brenner, eds., (Springer, 2004).

S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, Microoptics, 2nd ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2003), Chap. 7.2.
[CrossRef]

O. Stübbe, T. Bierhoff, M. Jarczynski, J. Jahns, G. Mrozynski, J. Schrage, and A. Wallrabenstein, “Combined simulation of active and passive optical components,” MOC 2005, Tokyo, Japan (2005).

Jarczynski, M.

M. Jarczynski, T. Seiler, and J. Jahns, “Integrated three-dimensional optical multilayer using free-space optics,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6335-6341 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jarczynski and J. Jahns, “Planar integrated free-space optics for optical interconnects and fan-out/in operations,” Proc. SPIE 5556, 15-26 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Stübbe, T. Bierhoff, M. Jarczynski, J. Jahns, G. Mrozynski, J. Schrage, and A. Wallrabenstein, “Combined simulation of active and passive optical components,” MOC 2005, Tokyo, Japan (2005).

Jesshope, C. R.

J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, D. B. Barsky, A. V. Shafarenko, and C. R. Jesshope, “Optical interconnectivity in a scalable data-parallel system,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 120-130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, B.

Kelly, K. W.

L. S. Stephens, K. W. Kelly, S. Simhadri, A. B. McCandless, and E. I. Meletis, “Mechanical property evaluation and failure analysis of cantilevered LIGA nickel microposts,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 10, 347-359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koske, A.

J. Schrage and A. Koske, “Messtechnische charakterisierung optis wellenleiter Berlin,” Workshop des Kompetenznetwerks Mikrotechnische Produktion μTP, Germany (2004).
[PubMed]

A. Koske, J. Schrage, and G. Mrozynski, “Measurement of optical characteristics of printed circuit board-integrated multimodal waveguides with rectangular cross sections Jena,” MOC´04-10th Microoptics Conference, Germany (2004).

Lohmann, A. W.

A. W. Lohmann, “Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing,” Opt. Commun. 86, 365-370 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lukowicz, P.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McCandless, A. B.

L. S. Stephens, K. W. Kelly, S. Simhadri, A. B. McCandless, and E. I. Meletis, “Mechanical property evaluation and failure analysis of cantilevered LIGA nickel microposts,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 10, 347-359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meletis, E. I.

L. S. Stephens, K. W. Kelly, S. Simhadri, A. B. McCandless, and E. I. Meletis, “Mechanical property evaluation and failure analysis of cantilevered LIGA nickel microposts,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 10, 347-359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1312-1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mrozynski, G.

O. Stübbe, T. Bierhoff, J. Schrage and G. Mrozynski, “Influence of surface roughness on the bandwidth of optical multimode waveguides analyzed by modal noise theory,” Proc. SPIE 5181, 178-186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Th. Bierhoff, Y. Sönmez, J. Schrage, and G. Mrozynski, “Fundamental limits of the bandwidth-length product of board-integrated optical multimode waveguides due to intermode dispersion,” Optics in Computing (Swiss Society for Optics and Microscopy, 2004).

O. Stübbe, T. Bierhoff, M. Jarczynski, J. Jahns, G. Mrozynski, J. Schrage, and A. Wallrabenstein, “Combined simulation of active and passive optical components,” MOC 2005, Tokyo, Japan (2005).

A. Koske, J. Schrage, and G. Mrozynski, “Measurement of optical characteristics of printed circuit board-integrated multimodal waveguides with rectangular cross sections Jena,” MOC´04-10th Microoptics Conference, Germany (2004).

Russell, G. A.

I. Gourlay, P. M. Dew, K. Djemame, J. F. Snowdon, and G. A. Russell, “Supporting bulk synchronous parallelism with a high-bandwidth optical interconnect,” Concurrency Comput. Pract. Exper. 16, 1247-1270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schrage, J.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Stübbe, T. Bierhoff, J. Schrage and G. Mrozynski, “Influence of surface roughness on the bandwidth of optical multimode waveguides analyzed by modal noise theory,” Proc. SPIE 5181, 178-186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Th. Bierhoff, Y. Sönmez, J. Schrage, and G. Mrozynski, “Fundamental limits of the bandwidth-length product of board-integrated optical multimode waveguides due to intermode dispersion,” Optics in Computing (Swiss Society for Optics and Microscopy, 2004).

J. Schrage and Th. Bierhoff, “Simulation, design and implementation of optical interconnects at printed circuit board level,” Invited Talk at DATe04 Workshop on Parallel Optical Interconnects Inside Electronic Systems, Paris (2004).
[PubMed]

J. Schrage and A. Koske, “Messtechnische charakterisierung optis wellenleiter Berlin,” Workshop des Kompetenznetwerks Mikrotechnische Produktion μTP, Germany (2004).
[PubMed]

O. Stübbe, T. Bierhoff, M. Jarczynski, J. Jahns, G. Mrozynski, J. Schrage, and A. Wallrabenstein, “Combined simulation of active and passive optical components,” MOC 2005, Tokyo, Japan (2005).

A. Koske, J. Schrage, and G. Mrozynski, “Measurement of optical characteristics of printed circuit board-integrated multimodal waveguides with rectangular cross sections Jena,” MOC´04-10th Microoptics Conference, Germany (2004).

J. Schrage and Th. Bierhoff, “Embedded optical waveguides for on-board interconnections,” in Frontiers in Optics, 87th OSA Annual Meeting Tucson, Arizona, USA, October 2003.

J. Schrage, Y. Sönmez, and A. Wallrabenstein, “The optoelectronic interface issue in optical interconnects at printed circuit board level,” 3rd DGG Symposium on Novel Optical Technologies, Würzburg, Germany, May 2005.

Seiler, T.

Shafarenko, A. V.

J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, D. B. Barsky, A. V. Shafarenko, and C. R. Jesshope, “Optical interconnectivity in a scalable data-parallel system,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 120-130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Simhadri, S.

L. S. Stephens, K. W. Kelly, S. Simhadri, A. B. McCandless, and E. I. Meletis, “Mechanical property evaluation and failure analysis of cantilevered LIGA nickel microposts,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 10, 347-359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sinzinger, S.

S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, Microoptics, 2nd ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2003), Chap. 7.2.
[CrossRef]

Snowdon, J. F.

I. Gourlay, P. M. Dew, K. Djemame, J. F. Snowdon, and G. A. Russell, “Supporting bulk synchronous parallelism with a high-bandwidth optical interconnect,” Concurrency Comput. Pract. Exper. 16, 1247-1270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, D. B. Barsky, A. V. Shafarenko, and C. R. Jesshope, “Optical interconnectivity in a scalable data-parallel system,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 120-130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sönmez, Y.

Th. Bierhoff, Y. Sönmez, J. Schrage, and G. Mrozynski, “Fundamental limits of the bandwidth-length product of board-integrated optical multimode waveguides due to intermode dispersion,” Optics in Computing (Swiss Society for Optics and Microscopy, 2004).

J. Schrage, Y. Sönmez, and A. Wallrabenstein, “The optoelectronic interface issue in optical interconnects at printed circuit board level,” 3rd DGG Symposium on Novel Optical Technologies, Würzburg, Germany, May 2005.

Stephens, L. S.

L. S. Stephens, K. W. Kelly, S. Simhadri, A. B. McCandless, and E. I. Meletis, “Mechanical property evaluation and failure analysis of cantilevered LIGA nickel microposts,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 10, 347-359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stübbe, O.

O. Stübbe, T. Bierhoff, J. Schrage and G. Mrozynski, “Influence of surface roughness on the bandwidth of optical multimode waveguides analyzed by modal noise theory,” Proc. SPIE 5181, 178-186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Stübbe, T. Bierhoff, M. Jarczynski, J. Jahns, G. Mrozynski, J. Schrage, and A. Wallrabenstein, “Combined simulation of active and passive optical components,” MOC 2005, Tokyo, Japan (2005).

Sullau, W.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

Tooley, F. A. P.

Troster, G.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wallrabenstein, A.

J. Schrage, Y. Sönmez, and A. Wallrabenstein, “The optoelectronic interface issue in optical interconnects at printed circuit board level,” 3rd DGG Symposium on Novel Optical Technologies, Würzburg, Germany, May 2005.

O. Stübbe, T. Bierhoff, M. Jarczynski, J. Jahns, G. Mrozynski, J. Schrage, and A. Wallrabenstein, “Combined simulation of active and passive optical components,” MOC 2005, Tokyo, Japan (2005).

Wirz, M.

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Concurrency Comput. Pract. Exper. (1)

I. Gourlay, P. M. Dew, K. Djemame, J. F. Snowdon, and G. A. Russell, “Supporting bulk synchronous parallelism with a high-bandwidth optical interconnect,” Concurrency Comput. Pract. Exper. 16, 1247-1270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Troster, “Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1312-1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

L. S. Stephens, K. W. Kelly, S. Simhadri, A. B. McCandless, and E. I. Meletis, “Mechanical property evaluation and failure analysis of cantilevered LIGA nickel microposts,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 10, 347-359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. (1)

J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, D. B. Barsky, A. V. Shafarenko, and C. R. Jesshope, “Optical interconnectivity in a scalable data-parallel system,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 120-130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. W. Lohmann, “Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing,” Opt. Commun. 86, 365-370 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

O. Stübbe, T. Bierhoff, J. Schrage and G. Mrozynski, “Influence of surface roughness on the bandwidth of optical multimode waveguides analyzed by modal noise theory,” Proc. SPIE 5181, 178-186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Jarczynski and J. Jahns, “Planar integrated free-space optics for optical interconnects and fan-out/in operations,” Proc. SPIE 5556, 15-26 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

M. Gruber and J. Jahns, “Planar-integrated free-space optics--from components to systems,” in Microoptics--From Technology to Applications, J. Jahns and K. -H. Brenner, eds., (Springer, 2004).

J. Schrage and Th. Bierhoff, “Embedded optical waveguides for on-board interconnections,” in Frontiers in Optics, 87th OSA Annual Meeting Tucson, Arizona, USA, October 2003.

J. Schrage, Y. Sönmez, and A. Wallrabenstein, “The optoelectronic interface issue in optical interconnects at printed circuit board level,” 3rd DGG Symposium on Novel Optical Technologies, Würzburg, Germany, May 2005.

J. Schrage and Th. Bierhoff, “Simulation, design and implementation of optical interconnects at printed circuit board level,” Invited Talk at DATe04 Workshop on Parallel Optical Interconnects Inside Electronic Systems, Paris (2004).
[PubMed]

Th. Bierhoff, Y. Sönmez, J. Schrage, and G. Mrozynski, “Fundamental limits of the bandwidth-length product of board-integrated optical multimode waveguides due to intermode dispersion,” Optics in Computing (Swiss Society for Optics and Microscopy, 2004).

O. Stübbe, T. Bierhoff, M. Jarczynski, J. Jahns, G. Mrozynski, J. Schrage, and A. Wallrabenstein, “Combined simulation of active and passive optical components,” MOC 2005, Tokyo, Japan (2005).

J. Schrage and A. Koske, “Messtechnische charakterisierung optis wellenleiter Berlin,” Workshop des Kompetenznetwerks Mikrotechnische Produktion μTP, Germany (2004).
[PubMed]

A. Koske, J. Schrage, and G. Mrozynski, “Measurement of optical characteristics of printed circuit board-integrated multimodal waveguides with rectangular cross sections Jena,” MOC´04-10th Microoptics Conference, Germany (2004).

S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, Microoptics, 2nd ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2003), Chap. 7.2.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overall system architecture. There are six memory bank groups with two memory banks each. Each memory bank has four random-access memory (RAM) chips organized around a controller that is optically connected to the processor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

HOLMS optoelectronic packaging technology including the physical layout adopted in the last iteration during the run of the project under the IST program. An optoelectronic MCM containing a PIFSO free-space optical system is attached to a PCB containing an optical waveguide layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MMU diagram showing the key functions that must be implemented to interface to the optics.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

MCU diagram.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Layout of MMU (MCU is similar).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Amplifier diagram.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

VCSEL driver diagram.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Microlens arrangement showing the VCSEL and substrate.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

PIFSO interface module in a processor–memory–bus interconnect. (a) Three-dimensional visualization of the PIFSO module packaged with MCM multitermination (MT)-housed fiber bundles and PCB-embedded waveguides. (b) One part of several similar optical interconnects to explain the arrangement of optical elements. (c)  x z cross sections showing the specification of the free-space interconnect. A and B are the optical subsystems, LD is the laser diode, PD is the photodiode, and WG is the embedded polymer waveguide.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Photograph of the fabricated PIFSO-interface module.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Positioning tool for the alignment of the polymer structures onto a PIFSO.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Alignment structure for the coupling demonstrator manufactured by applying stereolithography.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Coupling of a PIFSO-to-board integrated waveguide at the laboratory.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

PIFSO inserted into the receptacle at a test board for the introduction of the assembly and passive alignment concept of PIFSO-to-board integrated waveguides.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Initial optoelectronic tracks.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Simulation environment supports the design of board-integrated optical waveguides.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Encoder block diagram.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Manchester encoder layout.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Time domain simulation results (worst case post layout).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Encoder Timing Characteristics

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