Abstract

Motivated by several observations of the degree of linear polarization of skylight in the oxygen A (O2A) band that do not yet have a quantitative explanation, we analyze the influence of aerosol altitude, microphysics, and optical thickness on the degree of linear polarization of the zenith skylight in the spectral region of the O2A band, between 755 to 775nm. It is shown that the degree of linear polarization inside the O2A band is particularly sensitive to aerosol altitude. The sensitivity is strongest for aerosols within the troposphere and depends also on their microphysical properties and optical thickness. The polarization of the O2A band can be larger than the polarization of the continuum, which typically occurs for strongly polarizing aerosols in an elevated layer, or smaller, which typically occurs for depolarizing aerosols or cirrus clouds in an elevated layer. We show that in the case of a single aerosol layer in the atmosphere a determination of the aerosol layer altitude may be obtained. Furthermore, we show limitations of the aerosol layer altitude determination in case of multiple aerosol layers. To perform these simulations we developed a fast method for multiple scattering radiative transfer calculations in gaseous absorption bands including polarization. The method is a combination of doubling-adding and k-binning methods. We present an error estimation of this method by comparing with accurate line-by-line radiative transfer simulations. For the O2A band, the errors in the degree of linear polarization are less than 0.11% for transmitted light, and less than 0.31% for reflected light.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  25. M. Rast and J. L. Bezy, “ESA medium resolution imaging spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 20, 1681-1702 (1999).
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  27. O. P. Hasekamp, J. Landgraf, and R. van Oss, “The need of polarization modeling for ozone profile retrieval from backscattered sunlight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4692 (2002).
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  28. D. M. Stam, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, and I. Aben, “Detecting radiances in the O2A band using polarization sensitive satellite instruments, with application to GOME,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 22379-22392 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. van Diedenhoven, O. P. Hasekamp, and I. Aben, “Surface pressure retrieval from SCIAMACHY measurements in the O2A band: validation of the measurements and sensitivity on aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 1469-1499(2005).
  30. H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noel, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, and A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127-150 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  31. N. A. J. Schutgens, and P. Stammes, “Parameterization of Earth's polarization spectrum in the ultra-violet,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 75, 239-255 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  32. L. Duforet, R. Frouin, and P. Dubuisson, “Importance and estimation of aerosol vertical structure in satellite ocean-color remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1107-1119 (2007).
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  33. J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Marchand, G. Perry, S. Susana, and D. Tanre, “Estimate of the aerosol properties over the ocean with POLDER on ADEOS-1,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15329-15346 (2000).
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  35. D. M. O'Brien and P. J. Rayner, “Global observations of the carbon budget, 2, CO2 column from differential absorption of reflected sunlight in the 1.61 μm band of CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4354 (2002).
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  36. D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, E. C. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  37. R. E. Haring, R. Pollock, B. M. Sutin, and D. Crisp, “Development status of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory instrument optical design,” Proc. SPIE 5883, 61-702005).

2007 (3)

R. Bennartz and R. Preusker, “k-binning: a new approach to simulate narrow band satellite channels in layered atmospheres with variable gas absorption,” submitted to J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2007).

L. Duforet, R. Frouin, and P. Dubuisson, “Importance and estimation of aerosol vertical structure in satellite ocean-color remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1107-1119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mischchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Precise and accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory Mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677-691(2007).

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

W. H. Knap, L. C. Labonnote, G. Brogniez, and P. Stammes, “Modeling total and polarized reflectances of ice clouds: evaluation by means of POLDER and ATSR-2 measurements,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4060-4073 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. van Diedenhoven, O. P. Hasekamp, and I. Aben, “Surface pressure retrieval from SCIAMACHY measurements in the O2A band: validation of the measurements and sensitivity on aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 1469-1499(2005).

R. E. Haring, R. Pollock, B. M. Sutin, and D. Crisp, “Development status of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory instrument optical design,” Proc. SPIE 5883, 61-702005).

2004 (1)

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, E. C. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Van der Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, J. A. Ogren, A. A. Lacis, W. B. Rossow, J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, and O. Muñoz, “Aerosol retrievals from AVHRR radiances: effects of particle nonsphericity and absorption and an updated long-term global climatology of aerosol properties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79-80, 953-972 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, “Tropospheric ozone information from satellite-based polarization measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4326 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Hasekamp, J. Landgraf, and R. van Oss, “The need of polarization modeling for ozone profile retrieval from backscattered sunlight,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4692 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. A. J. Schutgens, and P. Stammes, “Parameterization of Earth's polarization spectrum in the ultra-violet,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 75, 239-255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. M. O'Brien and P. J. Rayner, “Global observations of the carbon budget, 2, CO2 column from differential absorption of reflected sunlight in the 1.61 μm band of CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Marchand, G. Perry, S. Susana, and D. Tanre, “Estimate of the aerosol properties over the ocean with POLDER on ADEOS-1,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15329-15346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Stam, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, and I. Aben, “Detecting radiances in the O2A band using polarization sensitive satellite instruments, with application to GOME,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 22379-22392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Bennartz and J. Fischer, “A modified k-distribution approach applied to narrow band water vapour and oxygen absorption estimates in the near infrared,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 539-553 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (6)

I. Aben, F. Helderman, D. M. Stam, and P. Stammes, “Spectral fine-structure in the polarisation of skylight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 591-594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Stam, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, and P. Stammes, “The degree of linear polarization of light emerging from the cloudless atmosphere in the O2A band,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16843-16858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Rast and J. L. Bezy, “ESA medium resolution imaging spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 20, 1681-1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K. U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, and D. Perner, “The global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noel, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, and A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127-150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noel, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, and A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127-150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Hess, R. B. A. Koelemeijer, and P. Stammes, “Scattering matrices of imperfect hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 301-308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

I. Aben, F. Helderman, D. M. Stam, and P. Stammes, “High-spectral resolution polarization measurements of the atmosphere with the GOME-BBM,” Proc. SPIE 3121, 446-453(1997).

1995 (1)

R. Preusker, U. Boetger, and J. Fischer, “Spectral and bidirectional measurements of the Stokes vector in the O2A band and their interpretation,” Proc. SPIE 2582, 13-20 (1995).

1989 (2)

K. Sassen, M. K. Griffin, and G. C. Dodd, “Optical scattering and microphysical properties of subvisible cirrus clouds, and climatic implications,” J. Appl. Meteor. 28, 91-98 (1989).

P. Stammes, J. F. De Haan, and J. W. Hovenier, “The polarized internal radiation field of a planetary atmosphere,” Astron. Astrophys. 225, 239-259 (1989).

1987 (1)

J. F. De Haan, P. B. Bosma, and J. W. Hovenier, “The adding method for multiple scattering calculations of polarized light,” Astron. Astrophys. 183, 371-391 (1987).

1984 (1)

W. A. De Rooij, and C. C. A. H. van der Stap, “Expansion of Mie scattering matrices in generalized spherical functions,” Astron. Astrophys. 131, 237-248 (1984).

Aben, I.

B. van Diedenhoven, O. P. Hasekamp, and I. Aben, “Surface pressure retrieval from SCIAMACHY measurements in the O2A band: validation of the measurements and sensitivity on aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 1469-1499(2005).

D. M. Stam, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, and I. Aben, “Detecting radiances in the O2A band using polarization sensitive satellite instruments, with application to GOME,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 22379-22392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Aben, F. Helderman, D. M. Stam, and P. Stammes, “Spectral fine-structure in the polarisation of skylight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 591-594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Aben, F. Helderman, D. M. Stam, and P. Stammes, “High-spectral resolution polarization measurements of the atmosphere with the GOME-BBM,” Proc. SPIE 3121, 446-453(1997).

Atlas, R. M.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, E. C. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Van der Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bennartz, R.

R. Bennartz and R. Preusker, “k-binning: a new approach to simulate narrow band satellite channels in layered atmospheres with variable gas absorption,” submitted to J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2007).

R. Bennartz and J. Fischer, “A modified k-distribution approach applied to narrow band water vapour and oxygen absorption estimates in the near infrared,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 539-553 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Van der Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bezy, J. L.

M. Rast and J. L. Bezy, “ESA medium resolution imaging spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 20, 1681-1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boesche, E.

Boetger, U.

R. Preusker, U. Boetger, and J. Fischer, “Spectral and bidirectional measurements of the Stokes vector in the O2A band and their interpretation,” Proc. SPIE 2582, 13-20 (1995).

Bosma, P. B.

J. F. De Haan, P. B. Bosma, and J. W. Hovenier, “The adding method for multiple scattering calculations of polarized light,” Astron. Astrophys. 183, 371-391 (1987).

Bovensmann, H.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noel, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, and A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127-150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noel, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, and A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127-150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bramstedt, K.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K. U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, and D. Perner, “The global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Breon, F.-M.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, E. C. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, G.

Brown, L. R.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, E. C. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Van der Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buchwitz, M.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K. U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, and D. Perner, “The global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Salawitch, R. J.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, E. C. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
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D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, E. C. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Van der Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, E. C. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
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M. I. Mischchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Precise and accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory Mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677-691(2007).

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D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, E. C. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Van der Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, E. C. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
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E. Boesche, P. Stammes, T. Ruhtz, R. Preusker, and J. Fischer, “Effect of aerosol microphysical properties on polarization of skylight: sensitivity study and measurements,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8790-8805 (2006).
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I. Aben, F. Helderman, D. M. Stam, and P. Stammes, “Spectral fine-structure in the polarisation of skylight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 591-594 (1999).
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D. Stam, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, and P. Stammes, “The degree of linear polarization of light emerging from the cloudless atmosphere in the O2A band,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16843-16858 (1999).
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P. Stammes, F. Kuik, and J. F. De Haanlsquor “Atmospheric polarization in the oxygen A and B bands,” in Proceedings of Progress in Electromagnetic Research Symposium (PIERS), B. Arbesser-Rastburg, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 1994), pp. 2255-2259. ISBN: 0-7923-3019-6

P. Stammes, “Spectral radiance modelling in the UV-visible range,” in IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith and Y. M. Timofeyev, eds. (Deepak, 2001), pp. 385-388.

Stephens, G. L.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, E. C. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
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R. E. Haring, R. Pollock, B. M. Sutin, and D. Crisp, “Development status of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory instrument optical design,” Proc. SPIE 5883, 61-702005).

Tang, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Van der Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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Tanre, D.

J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Marchand, G. Perry, S. Susana, and D. Tanre, “Estimate of the aerosol properties over the ocean with POLDER on ADEOS-1,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15329-15346 (2000).
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D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, E. C. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
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Timofeyev, Y. M.

P. Stammes, “Spectral radiance modelling in the UV-visible range,” in IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith and Y. M. Timofeyev, eds. (Deepak, 2001), pp. 385-388.

Toon, G. C.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, E. C. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Van der Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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M. I. Mischchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Precise and accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory Mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677-691(2007).

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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Van der Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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B. van Diedenhoven, O. P. Hasekamp, and I. Aben, “Surface pressure retrieval from SCIAMACHY measurements in the O2A band: validation of the measurements and sensitivity on aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 1469-1499(2005).

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M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, J. A. Ogren, A. A. Lacis, W. B. Rossow, J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, and O. Muñoz, “Aerosol retrievals from AVHRR radiances: effects of particle nonsphericity and absorption and an updated long-term global climatology of aerosol properties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79-80, 953-972 (2003).
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J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Richter, R. DeBeek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K. U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, and D. Perner, “The global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME): mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 151-175 (1999).
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Weiss, B.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, E. C. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
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Wennberg, P. O.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, E. C. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
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Wofsy, S. C.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, E. C. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Van der Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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Yung, Y. L.

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, E. C. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
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Adv. Space Res. (1)

D. Crisp, R. M. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, E. C. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, “The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission,” Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
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Appl. Opt. (3)

Astron. Astrophys. (3)

W. A. De Rooij, and C. C. A. H. van der Stap, “Expansion of Mie scattering matrices in generalized spherical functions,” Astron. Astrophys. 131, 237-248 (1984).

J. F. De Haan, P. B. Bosma, and J. W. Hovenier, “The adding method for multiple scattering calculations of polarized light,” Astron. Astrophys. 183, 371-391 (1987).

P. Stammes, J. F. De Haan, and J. W. Hovenier, “The polarized internal radiation field of a planetary atmosphere,” Astron. Astrophys. 225, 239-259 (1989).

Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (1)

B. van Diedenhoven, O. P. Hasekamp, and I. Aben, “Surface pressure retrieval from SCIAMACHY measurements in the O2A band: validation of the measurements and sensitivity on aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 1469-1499(2005).

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

M. I. Mischchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Precise and accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory Mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677-691(2007).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

I. Aben, F. Helderman, D. M. Stam, and P. Stammes, “Spectral fine-structure in the polarisation of skylight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 591-594 (1999).
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Int. J. Remote Sensing (1)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ground-based measurements of the degree of linear polarization P s of the cloud free sky as a function of wavelength. (a) As measured at the Institute for Space Sciences, in Berlin, Germany ( 52.5 ° N , 13.3 E ) on 11 May 1994 with the spectrometer OVID (solid line) with a spectral resolution of 2.0 nm , and as measured on 24 June 1994 with the spectrometer HiRES (dotted line) with a spectral resolution of 0.3 nm [2]. Geometry on both days: solar zenith angle θ 0 40 , viewing zenith angle θ = 60 , azimuth angle ϕ ϕ 0 = 180 , and scattering angle Θ = 100 . (b) As measured at SRON, Utrecht, the Netherlands ( 52.1 N , 5.2 E ) on 7 April 1997 with the spectrometer GOME BBM with a spectral resolution of 0.33 nm at a solar zenith angle of θ 0 = 79 , viewing zenith angle of θ = 0 , and scattering angle of Θ = 79 (dotted line) [3], and as measured on 19 October 1993 at KNMI, in De Bilt, the Netherlands ( 52.1 N , 5.2 E ) with a Jarrell Ash Monospec 18 spectrometer with a spectral resolution of 0.3 nm at a solar zenith angle of θ 0 = 66 , viewing zenith angle of θ = 0 , and scattering angle of Θ = 66 (solid line) [1].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulations of the O 2 A band as a function of wavelength for the zenith sky at a solar zenith angle of θ 0 = 65 for different aerosol types (see Table 1) using line-by-line calculations with a spectral resolution of 0.01 nm (thin lines), and the spectrum convolved using a slit function with a spectral resolution of 0.36 nm at FWHM and an equal spacing of 0.21 nm (thick lines). The aerosol is located in the BL of the atmosphere with an aerosol optical thickness of τ BL = 0.048 in the case of Aerosol 1 and τ BL = 0.350 in the case of Aerosol 2 . The asterisk (*) indicates the convolved spectrum. The surface albedo is A s = 0.20 . (a) Transmitted radiance. (b) Degree of linear polarization P s of transmitted light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of line-by-line (LBL) and combined method calculations (COM) of radiance and degree of linear polarization P s within the O 2 A band as a function of wavelength for zenith/nadir view at a solar zenith angle of θ 0 = 65 . The surface albedo is A s = 0.20 . The BL contains Aerosol 1 with τ BL = 0.048 . (a) Transmitted radiance of zenith skylight. (b) Degree of linear polarization of the zenith skylight. (c) Error of the transmitted radiance ε I [see Eq. (8)]. The dotted line shows ε I without slope-correction and the solid line with slope-correction. (d) Error of the degree of linear polarization of the zenith skylight ε P [see Eq. (7)]. The dotted line shows ε P without slope-correction and the solid line with slope-correction. (e) As in (c), but for reflected light at top-of-the-atmosphere in nadir view. (f) As in (d), but for reflected light in nadir viewing direction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scattering matrix elements F 11 and F 12 / F 11 as computed at λ = 765 nm for different types of scatterers (see Tables 1, 2). Mie-theory was used for the simulations of the spherical aerosols and the GO approximation method for the nonspherical ice crystal. (a) Phase function F 11 as a function of scattering angle. (b) Single scattering polarization F 12 / F 11 as a function of scattering angle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Degree of linear polarization of zenith skylight as a function of wavelength at a solar zenith angle of θ 0 = 65 showing processes that determine the polarization in the O 2 A band: pure Rayleigh scattering (solid line) without surface reflection; inclusion of Aerosol 2 to the boundary layer with a geometric thickness of 1 km and an optical thickness of 0.1 (dotted line); adding a surface albedo of A s = 0.02 (dashed line) and of A s = 0.20 (dash–dotted line); elevation of the aerosol layer up to 16 km (dashed double dotted line); and inclusion of Aerosol 2 to the boundary layer with an optical thickness of 0.35 (long dashed line).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic representation of the model atmosphere. The model atmosphere comprises molecules, aerosols, and ice crystals (see Tables 1, 2). The molecules are homogeneously mixed throughout the atmosphere according to the pressure profile, while the aerosols are located within the boundary layer, between 0 and 1 km , and inside an elevated layer. The aerosols in the elevated layer can be replaced by ice crystals and the altitude of the elevated layer is variable between 2 and 16 km . Furthermore, the optical thicknesses of the boundary layer and the elevated layer are variable. The atmosphere is bounded by a Lambertian surface.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Degree of linear polarization of the zenith skylight as a function of wavelength at a solar zenith angle of θ 0 = 65 ° for a pure Rayleigh atmosphere and for an atmosphere including an elevated scattering layer at different altitudes. The elevated layer contains different types of scatterers, while the boundary layer contains no aerosol. The surface albedo is A s = 0.20 . The circles indicate continuum polarization P c , selected at 757.9 nm , and O 2 A band polarization P b , selected at 760.6 nm . (b) Continuum polarization (asterisk) and difference between band and continuum polarization P b P c as a function of the elevated layer altitude.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Continuum polarization P c (asterisk) and band-continuum polarization P b P c as a function of the elevated layer altitude for zenith skylight at a solar zenith angle of θ 0 = 65 ° with a surface albedo of A s = 0.20 and different optical thicknesses of the boundary and elevated layer. The boundary and elevated layers contain aerosols of the same type. The boundary layer optical thickness of τ BL = 0.048 resembles clear sky conditions and a thickness of τ BL = 0.350 resembles hazy sky conditions. (a) and (b) BL and EL comprise Aerosol 1 . (c) and (d) BL and EL comprise Aerosol 2 . Here we also included results using scatterer C 1 in the elevated layer with an optical thickness of τ BL = 0.10 (denoted by diamonds).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

As in Fig. 8, but now the boundary and elevated layer contain different types of aerosol. (a) and (b) BL comprises Aerosol 1 and EL comprises Aerosol 2 ; here we also included results using scatterer C 1 in the elevated layer with an optical thickness of τ BL = 0.10 (denoted by diamonds). (c) and (d) BL comprises Aerosol 2 and EL comprises Aerosol 1 .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Degree of linear polarization of zenith skylight as a function of wavelength for different solar zenith angles θ 0 and different altitudes of the elevated scattering layer. The elevated layer is shifted through the atmosphere from 2 to 16 km in steps of two kilometers. The surface albedo is A s = 0.20 . (a) BL comprises Aerosol 1 and EL comprises C 1 . P b decreases with increasing altitude of the elevated layer. (b) BL comprises Aerosol 2 and EL comprises Aerosol 1 . P b increases with increasing altitude of the elevated layer.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Degree of linear polarization of zenith skylight as a function of wavelength at a solar zenith angle of θ 0 = 65 for two different spectral response functions and different altitudes of the elevated scattering layer. The boundary layer comprises Aerosol 1 and optical thickness of τ BL = 0.048 and the elevated layer comprises scatterer C 1 with τ EL = 0.100 . The elevated layer is shifted through the atmosphere from 2 to 16 km in steps of two kilometers, resulting in a decrease of P b with increasing altitude of the elevated layer.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Aerosol Model Parameters Used in the Radiative Transfer Simulations a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Ice Crystal Model Parameters Used in the Radiative Transfer Simulations a

Tables Icon

Table 3 K-Binning Parameters

Equations (11)

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I = ( I Q U V ) = ( I 0 + I 90 I 0 I 90 I 45 I 135 I + I ) ,
P = ( Q 2 + U 2 ) 1 / 2 I .
P s = Q I .
( I sca Q sca U sca V sca ) = [ F 11 F 12 0 0 F 12 F 22 0 0 0 0 F 33 F 34 0 0 F 34 F 44 ] ( I in Q in U in V in ) ,
w i = Δ γ i f ( B 1 ( γ ) ) d γ .
I = i = 1 N w i I i ,
ε P = P s com P s lbl
ε I = ( I com I lbl ) / I lbl .
r eff = ( 9 3 8 π r 2 L ) 1 / 3 .
I b ( h ) I BL , b + I mol , b + I EL , b ( h ) ,
Q b ( h ) Q BL , b + Q mol , b + Q EL , b ( h ) .

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