Abstract

Design methods of a light barrier consisting of a reciprocally placed transmitter–receiver system with a continuous directional light beam are considered. An optical diagram is designed. Usage of multiple lasers in the transmitter is proposed to form a rectangular detection area. A sequential pulsed driving method is used. A detection method to find the detectors blocked by an object existing in the detection area is proposed. Light barrier detection area determination, line laser placements, photodetector array design principles, a common operation principle of sequentially pulsed lasers, reaction time obtainment, a simplified diagram, the structure of the light barrier using two line lasers, and the time diagrams explaining the operation principle are given.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Nakazaki, S. Shimokawa, I. Kondo, Y. Miyake, and N. Kawaike, “Light curtain generating device,” European patent 1,180,697 (20 February 2002).
  2. Sick AG, “Schutzeinrichtung, insbesondere lichtgitter,” DE patent DE202004003810U (17 June 2004).
  3. R. W. Lea, “Improvements in or relating to a light curtain,” GB patent 2,364,773 (6 February 2002).
  4. R. Friedrich, “Protective light barrier,” U.S. patent 5,201,086 (15 September 2005).
  5. W. Ludolf and L. Greisl, “Optoelektronische vorrichtung zum erfassen von gegensstnden in einem uberwachungsbereich,” DE patent 4,422,497 (4 January 1996).
  6. H. Ruprecht , “Verfahren zum betrieb eines lichtgitters und lichtgitter,” DE patent 4,424,537 (18 January 1996).
  7. M. Lering, S. Hahn, and M. Schulz “Light curtain system for establishing a protective light curtain, tool and system for processing objects and method for loading/unloading a tool,” European patent 1,113,214 (4 July 2001).
  8. S. Hahn, M. Lering, and M. Schulz, “Light curtain system for establishing a protective light curtain, tool and system for processing objects and method for loading/unloading a tool,” U.S. patent 6,791,074 (14 September 2004).
  9. M. Kudo and T. Inoue, “Multi-optical-path photoelectric safety apparatus,” European patent 1, 331,433 (30 July 2003).
  10. M. Kudo and T. Inoue, “Multi-optical-path photoelectric safety apparatus,” European patent 1,342,946 (10 September 2003).
  11. T. A. Feltner, “Light curtain safety system for semiconductor device handler,” U.S. patent 6,856,862 (15 February 2005).
  12. “Safety light curtain,” Omron Scientific Technologies Inc., http://www.sti.com/curtains/cudatash.htm.
  13. Y-Z. Wang and J. Lin, “Characterization of the laser cleaving on glass sheets with a line-shape laser beam,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 892-899 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Photonic Products Ltd., “Compact 58° line laser diode module 650 nm,” http://www.photonic-products.com/products/laser_diode_modules/compact/650nm_compact_58line.pdf
  15. StockerYale, Inc., “Line generators for biomedical applications,” http://www.stockeryale.com/i/lasers/applications/biomedical.htm.
  16. E. Musayev, “Optoelectronic methods and devices for measuring bullet velocity,” Meas. Tech. , 49, 270-275 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Musayev, “Laser based large detection area speed measurement methods and systems,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 1049-1054(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. W. Park and S. Rhee, “Study of a line width estimation model for laser micro material processing using a photodiode,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1461-1471 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. Chehura, C-C. Ye, and R. P. Tatam, “In-line laser Doppler velocimeter using fibre-optic Bragg grating interferometric filters,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 724-735 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Pan, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, and N. Chigarev, “Identification of laser-generated ultrasounds in the response of the cylinder over time and space,” Ultrasonics , 44, e1249-e1253(2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Pan, L. Li, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, and N. Chigarev, “Acoustic waves generated by a laser line pulse in a hollow cylinder,” Ultrasonics 44, e843-e847 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. Chang, “3D imager using dual color-balanced lights,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 46, 62-68 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. Musayev, “Optoelectronic nondestructive testing techniques of cocoon properties and applications,” NDT&E Int. 38, 59-68 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. E. Musayev, “Conversion method and system,” Sens. Actuators A 125, 234-241 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Chang, “3D imager using dual color-balanced lights,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 46, 62-68 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

Y-Z. Wang and J. Lin, “Characterization of the laser cleaving on glass sheets with a line-shape laser beam,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 892-899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Musayev, “Laser based large detection area speed measurement methods and systems,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 1049-1054(2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Park and S. Rhee, “Study of a line width estimation model for laser micro material processing using a photodiode,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1461-1471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

E. Musayev, “Optoelectronic methods and devices for measuring bullet velocity,” Meas. Tech. , 49, 270-275 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pan, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, and N. Chigarev, “Identification of laser-generated ultrasounds in the response of the cylinder over time and space,” Ultrasonics , 44, e1249-e1253(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, L. Li, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, and N. Chigarev, “Acoustic waves generated by a laser line pulse in a hollow cylinder,” Ultrasonics 44, e843-e847 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Musayev, “Conversion method and system,” Sens. Actuators A 125, 234-241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

E. Musayev, “Optoelectronic nondestructive testing techniques of cocoon properties and applications,” NDT&E Int. 38, 59-68 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

E. Chehura, C-C. Ye, and R. P. Tatam, “In-line laser Doppler velocimeter using fibre-optic Bragg grating interferometric filters,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 724-735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

AG, Sick

Sick AG, “Schutzeinrichtung, insbesondere lichtgitter,” DE patent DE202004003810U (17 June 2004).

Audoin, B.

Y. Pan, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, and N. Chigarev, “Identification of laser-generated ultrasounds in the response of the cylinder over time and space,” Ultrasonics , 44, e1249-e1253(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, L. Li, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, and N. Chigarev, “Acoustic waves generated by a laser line pulse in a hollow cylinder,” Ultrasonics 44, e843-e847 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S.

S. Chang, “3D imager using dual color-balanced lights,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 46, 62-68 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chehura, E.

E. Chehura, C-C. Ye, and R. P. Tatam, “In-line laser Doppler velocimeter using fibre-optic Bragg grating interferometric filters,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 724-735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chigarev, N.

Y. Pan, L. Li, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, and N. Chigarev, “Acoustic waves generated by a laser line pulse in a hollow cylinder,” Ultrasonics 44, e843-e847 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, and N. Chigarev, “Identification of laser-generated ultrasounds in the response of the cylinder over time and space,” Ultrasonics , 44, e1249-e1253(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feltner, T. A.

T. A. Feltner, “Light curtain safety system for semiconductor device handler,” U.S. patent 6,856,862 (15 February 2005).

Friedrich, R.

R. Friedrich, “Protective light barrier,” U.S. patent 5,201,086 (15 September 2005).

Greisl, L.

W. Ludolf and L. Greisl, “Optoelektronische vorrichtung zum erfassen von gegensstnden in einem uberwachungsbereich,” DE patent 4,422,497 (4 January 1996).

Hahn, S.

M. Lering, S. Hahn, and M. Schulz “Light curtain system for establishing a protective light curtain, tool and system for processing objects and method for loading/unloading a tool,” European patent 1,113,214 (4 July 2001).

S. Hahn, M. Lering, and M. Schulz, “Light curtain system for establishing a protective light curtain, tool and system for processing objects and method for loading/unloading a tool,” U.S. patent 6,791,074 (14 September 2004).

Inoue, T.

M. Kudo and T. Inoue, “Multi-optical-path photoelectric safety apparatus,” European patent 1, 331,433 (30 July 2003).

M. Kudo and T. Inoue, “Multi-optical-path photoelectric safety apparatus,” European patent 1,342,946 (10 September 2003).

Kawaike, N.

T. Nakazaki, S. Shimokawa, I. Kondo, Y. Miyake, and N. Kawaike, “Light curtain generating device,” European patent 1,180,697 (20 February 2002).

Kondo, I.

T. Nakazaki, S. Shimokawa, I. Kondo, Y. Miyake, and N. Kawaike, “Light curtain generating device,” European patent 1,180,697 (20 February 2002).

Kudo, M.

M. Kudo and T. Inoue, “Multi-optical-path photoelectric safety apparatus,” European patent 1,342,946 (10 September 2003).

M. Kudo and T. Inoue, “Multi-optical-path photoelectric safety apparatus,” European patent 1, 331,433 (30 July 2003).

Lea, R. W.

R. W. Lea, “Improvements in or relating to a light curtain,” GB patent 2,364,773 (6 February 2002).

Lering, M.

M. Lering, S. Hahn, and M. Schulz “Light curtain system for establishing a protective light curtain, tool and system for processing objects and method for loading/unloading a tool,” European patent 1,113,214 (4 July 2001).

S. Hahn, M. Lering, and M. Schulz, “Light curtain system for establishing a protective light curtain, tool and system for processing objects and method for loading/unloading a tool,” U.S. patent 6,791,074 (14 September 2004).

Li, L.

Y. Pan, L. Li, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, and N. Chigarev, “Acoustic waves generated by a laser line pulse in a hollow cylinder,” Ultrasonics 44, e843-e847 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, J.

Y-Z. Wang and J. Lin, “Characterization of the laser cleaving on glass sheets with a line-shape laser beam,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 892-899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ludolf, W.

W. Ludolf and L. Greisl, “Optoelektronische vorrichtung zum erfassen von gegensstnden in einem uberwachungsbereich,” DE patent 4,422,497 (4 January 1996).

Miyake, Y.

T. Nakazaki, S. Shimokawa, I. Kondo, Y. Miyake, and N. Kawaike, “Light curtain generating device,” European patent 1,180,697 (20 February 2002).

Musayev, E.

E. Musayev, “Laser based large detection area speed measurement methods and systems,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 1049-1054(2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Musayev, “Optoelectronic methods and devices for measuring bullet velocity,” Meas. Tech. , 49, 270-275 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Musayev, “Conversion method and system,” Sens. Actuators A 125, 234-241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Musayev, “Optoelectronic nondestructive testing techniques of cocoon properties and applications,” NDT&E Int. 38, 59-68 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakazaki, T.

T. Nakazaki, S. Shimokawa, I. Kondo, Y. Miyake, and N. Kawaike, “Light curtain generating device,” European patent 1,180,697 (20 February 2002).

Pan, Y.

Y. Pan, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, and N. Chigarev, “Identification of laser-generated ultrasounds in the response of the cylinder over time and space,” Ultrasonics , 44, e1249-e1253(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, L. Li, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, and N. Chigarev, “Acoustic waves generated by a laser line pulse in a hollow cylinder,” Ultrasonics 44, e843-e847 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y. W.

Y. W. Park and S. Rhee, “Study of a line width estimation model for laser micro material processing using a photodiode,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1461-1471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, S.

Y. W. Park and S. Rhee, “Study of a line width estimation model for laser micro material processing using a photodiode,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1461-1471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rossignol, C.

Y. Pan, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, and N. Chigarev, “Identification of laser-generated ultrasounds in the response of the cylinder over time and space,” Ultrasonics , 44, e1249-e1253(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, L. Li, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, and N. Chigarev, “Acoustic waves generated by a laser line pulse in a hollow cylinder,” Ultrasonics 44, e843-e847 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruprecht, H.

H. Ruprecht , “Verfahren zum betrieb eines lichtgitters und lichtgitter,” DE patent 4,424,537 (18 January 1996).

Schulz, M.

S. Hahn, M. Lering, and M. Schulz, “Light curtain system for establishing a protective light curtain, tool and system for processing objects and method for loading/unloading a tool,” U.S. patent 6,791,074 (14 September 2004).

M. Lering, S. Hahn, and M. Schulz “Light curtain system for establishing a protective light curtain, tool and system for processing objects and method for loading/unloading a tool,” European patent 1,113,214 (4 July 2001).

Shimokawa, S.

T. Nakazaki, S. Shimokawa, I. Kondo, Y. Miyake, and N. Kawaike, “Light curtain generating device,” European patent 1,180,697 (20 February 2002).

Tatam, R. P.

E. Chehura, C-C. Ye, and R. P. Tatam, “In-line laser Doppler velocimeter using fibre-optic Bragg grating interferometric filters,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 724-735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y-Z.

Y-Z. Wang and J. Lin, “Characterization of the laser cleaving on glass sheets with a line-shape laser beam,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 892-899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C-C.

E. Chehura, C-C. Ye, and R. P. Tatam, “In-line laser Doppler velocimeter using fibre-optic Bragg grating interferometric filters,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 724-735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

E. Chehura, C-C. Ye, and R. P. Tatam, “In-line laser Doppler velocimeter using fibre-optic Bragg grating interferometric filters,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 724-735 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Tech. (1)

E. Musayev, “Optoelectronic methods and devices for measuring bullet velocity,” Meas. Tech. , 49, 270-275 (2006).
[CrossRef]

NDT&E Int. (1)

E. Musayev, “Optoelectronic nondestructive testing techniques of cocoon properties and applications,” NDT&E Int. 38, 59-68 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (2)

Y-Z. Wang and J. Lin, “Characterization of the laser cleaving on glass sheets with a line-shape laser beam,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 892-899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Park and S. Rhee, “Study of a line width estimation model for laser micro material processing using a photodiode,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1461-1471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (2)

S. Chang, “3D imager using dual color-balanced lights,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 46, 62-68 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Musayev, “Laser based large detection area speed measurement methods and systems,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 1049-1054(2007).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

E. Musayev, “Conversion method and system,” Sens. Actuators A 125, 234-241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ultrasonics (2)

Y. Pan, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, and N. Chigarev, “Identification of laser-generated ultrasounds in the response of the cylinder over time and space,” Ultrasonics , 44, e1249-e1253(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, L. Li, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, and N. Chigarev, “Acoustic waves generated by a laser line pulse in a hollow cylinder,” Ultrasonics 44, e843-e847 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (14)

Photonic Products Ltd., “Compact 58° line laser diode module 650 nm,” http://www.photonic-products.com/products/laser_diode_modules/compact/650nm_compact_58line.pdf

StockerYale, Inc., “Line generators for biomedical applications,” http://www.stockeryale.com/i/lasers/applications/biomedical.htm.

T. Nakazaki, S. Shimokawa, I. Kondo, Y. Miyake, and N. Kawaike, “Light curtain generating device,” European patent 1,180,697 (20 February 2002).

Sick AG, “Schutzeinrichtung, insbesondere lichtgitter,” DE patent DE202004003810U (17 June 2004).

R. W. Lea, “Improvements in or relating to a light curtain,” GB patent 2,364,773 (6 February 2002).

R. Friedrich, “Protective light barrier,” U.S. patent 5,201,086 (15 September 2005).

W. Ludolf and L. Greisl, “Optoelektronische vorrichtung zum erfassen von gegensstnden in einem uberwachungsbereich,” DE patent 4,422,497 (4 January 1996).

H. Ruprecht , “Verfahren zum betrieb eines lichtgitters und lichtgitter,” DE patent 4,424,537 (18 January 1996).

M. Lering, S. Hahn, and M. Schulz “Light curtain system for establishing a protective light curtain, tool and system for processing objects and method for loading/unloading a tool,” European patent 1,113,214 (4 July 2001).

S. Hahn, M. Lering, and M. Schulz, “Light curtain system for establishing a protective light curtain, tool and system for processing objects and method for loading/unloading a tool,” U.S. patent 6,791,074 (14 September 2004).

M. Kudo and T. Inoue, “Multi-optical-path photoelectric safety apparatus,” European patent 1, 331,433 (30 July 2003).

M. Kudo and T. Inoue, “Multi-optical-path photoelectric safety apparatus,” European patent 1,342,946 (10 September 2003).

T. A. Feltner, “Light curtain safety system for semiconductor device handler,” U.S. patent 6,856,862 (15 February 2005).

“Safety light curtain,” Omron Scientific Technologies Inc., http://www.sti.com/curtains/cudatash.htm.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical diagram of a light barrier using a single line laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram for the worst case operation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Light barrier using two line lasers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Shadows of the object for each area.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical diagram of the light barrier using three lasers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time diagrams of the sequential pulsed driving method for N lasers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Circuit schema of the line laser-based light barrier designed with logic circuits.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Time diagrams explaining the operation principle of light barrier using two line lasers.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Photograph of the light barrier.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Microprocessor-based light barrier using three line lasers.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Properties of the Pulses Produced at the Oscillator Output

Equations (13)

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K = d L L h = d 1 1 ( h / L ) .
d min = ( 2 b + m ) .
N P = H b + m + 1.
L N = L S = H / tan ϕ 2 .
Δ L = ( H 2 + L 2 ) 1 / 2 L 2 .
L S = L 2 + L ( H 2 + L 2 ) 1 / 2 2 L + ( H 2 + L 2 ) 1 / 2 = L ( L + ( H 2 + L 2 ) 1 / 2 ) 2 L + ( H 2 + L 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
L N = L 2 2 L + H 2 + L 2 .
I AVG = I L m t ON t ON + t OFF .
t ON = 3 τ p ,
t S = t ON + t OFF = 6 τ p .
t S = N L t ON = N L . 3 τ p .
P F = P L L 2 = K L I L L 2 ,
R L = U C C U F I L ,

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