Abstract

A high-energy laser attenuator in the range of 250mJ (20ns pulse width, 10Hz repetition rate, 1064nm wavelength) is described. The optical elements that constitute the attenuator are mirrors with relatively low reflectance, oriented at a 45° angle of incidence. By combining three pairs of mirrors, the incoming radiation is collinear and has the same polarization orientation as the exit. We present damage testing and polarization-dependent reflectance measurements for 1064nm laser light at 45° angle of incidence for molybdenum, silicon carbide, and copper mirrors. A six element, 74 times (18dB) attenuator is presented as an example.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. X. Li, T. Scott, S. Yang, C. Cromer, and M. Dowell, “Nonlinearity measurements of high-power laser detectors at NIST,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 109, 429-434 (2004).
  2. R. O. Rice and J. D. Macomber, “Attenuation of giant laser pulsed by absorbing filters,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2203-2206 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Hirabayashi, M. Wada, and C. Amano, “Compact optical-fiber variable attenuator arrays with polymer-network liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3509-3517 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. L. Franzen and L. B. Schmidt, “Absolute reference calorimeter for measuring high power laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 15, 3115-3122 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. R. Goggin and J. W. Moberly, “Thermal dimensional instabilities of beryllium mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2691-2696(1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. H. Lehman and C. L. Cromer, “Optical tunnel trap detector for radiometric measurements,” Metrologia 37, 477-480(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. By convention, the statement 1/e2 is to say that, for an ideally Gaussian laser beam profile, approximately 86% of the laser energy is contained within an area defined by the given radius.
  8. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic, 1991).

2004 (1)

X. Li, T. Scott, S. Yang, C. Cromer, and M. Dowell, “Nonlinearity measurements of high-power laser detectors at NIST,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 109, 429-434 (2004).

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

J. H. Lehman and C. L. Cromer, “Optical tunnel trap detector for radiometric measurements,” Metrologia 37, 477-480(2000).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic, 1991).

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

1970 (1)

Amano, C.

Cromer, C.

X. Li, T. Scott, S. Yang, C. Cromer, and M. Dowell, “Nonlinearity measurements of high-power laser detectors at NIST,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 109, 429-434 (2004).

Cromer, C. L.

J. H. Lehman and C. L. Cromer, “Optical tunnel trap detector for radiometric measurements,” Metrologia 37, 477-480(2000).
[CrossRef]

Dowell, M.

X. Li, T. Scott, S. Yang, C. Cromer, and M. Dowell, “Nonlinearity measurements of high-power laser detectors at NIST,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 109, 429-434 (2004).

Franzen, D. L.

Goggin, W. R.

Hirabayashi, K.

Lehman, J. H.

J. H. Lehman and C. L. Cromer, “Optical tunnel trap detector for radiometric measurements,” Metrologia 37, 477-480(2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, T. Scott, S. Yang, C. Cromer, and M. Dowell, “Nonlinearity measurements of high-power laser detectors at NIST,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 109, 429-434 (2004).

Macomber, J. D.

Moberly, J. W.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic, 1991).

Rice, R. O.

Schmidt, L. B.

Scott, T.

X. Li, T. Scott, S. Yang, C. Cromer, and M. Dowell, “Nonlinearity measurements of high-power laser detectors at NIST,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 109, 429-434 (2004).

Wada, M.

Yang, S.

X. Li, T. Scott, S. Yang, C. Cromer, and M. Dowell, “Nonlinearity measurements of high-power laser detectors at NIST,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 109, 429-434 (2004).

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (1)

X. Li, T. Scott, S. Yang, C. Cromer, and M. Dowell, “Nonlinearity measurements of high-power laser detectors at NIST,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 109, 429-434 (2004).

Metrologia (1)

J. H. Lehman and C. L. Cromer, “Optical tunnel trap detector for radiometric measurements,” Metrologia 37, 477-480(2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

By convention, the statement 1/e2 is to say that, for an ideally Gaussian laser beam profile, approximately 86% of the laser energy is contained within an area defined by the given radius.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic, 1991).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representation of a reflective attenuator with six mirror surfaces. (a) Inset shows schematically that the light (indicated by arrow) is reflected at a 45 ° angle of incidence. The input beam is collinear with the output. (b) The relationship of the reflecting surfaces with respect to the transmitted beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic relationship of the attenuator measurement equipment. The attenuator is moved in and out of the beam path to determine the attenuation factor.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Reflectance Measurement Results

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Table 2 Summary of the Approximate Damage Thresholds of the Mirror Components

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Table 3 Measurement Uncertainties and Relative Expanded Uncertainty of the Attenuation Factor

Equations (3)

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A = ( ρ 1 ρ 2 ρ 3 ρ 4 ρ 5 ρ 6 ) 1 ,
P scatter = P a P na ,
P scatter = 2 R i R o r ( P a P na ) d r R o 2 R i 2

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