Abstract

Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) of radiometric tarp samples used in the vicarious calibration of Earth remote sensing satellite instruments are presented in this paper. The results illustrate the BRDF dependence on the orientation of the tarps’ weft and warp threads. The study was performed using the GSFC scatterometer at incident zenith angles of 0°, 10°, and 30°; scatter zenith angles from 0° to 60°; and scatter azimuth angles of 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, and 180°. The wavelengths were 485nm, 550nm, 633nm, and 800nm. The tarp’s weft and warp dependence on BRDF is well defined at all measurement geometries and wavelengths. The BRDF difference can be as high as 8% at 0° incident angle and 12% at 30° incident angle. The fitted BRDF data show a very small discrepancy from the measured ones. New data on the forward and backscatter properties of radiometric tarps are reported. The backward scatter is well pronounced for the white samples. The black sample has well-pronounced forward scatter. The provided BRDF characterization of radiometric tarps is an excellent reference for anyone interested in using tarps for radiometric calibrations. The results are NIST traceable.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. J. Butler, B. C. Johnson, and R. A. Barnes, “The calibration and characterization of Earth remote sensing and environmental monitoring instruments,” in Optical Radiometry, A. C. Parr, R. U. Datla, and J. L. Gardner, eds. (Academic, 2005).
  2. G. B. Courreges-Lacoste, J. G. Schaarsberg, R. Sprik, and S. Delward, “Modeling of Spectralon diffusers for radiometric calibration in remote sensing,” Opt. Eng. 42, 3600-3607 (2003).
  3. C. J. Bruegge, A. E. Stiegman, R. A. Rainen, and A. W. Springsteen, “Use of Spectralon as a diffuse reflectance standard for in-flight calibration of earth-orbiting sensors,” Opt. Eng. 32, 805-814 (1993).
  4. C. K. Gatebe, M. D. King, S. Platnick, G. T. Arnold, E. F. Vermote, and B. Schmid, “Airborne spectral measurements of surface-atmosphere anisotropy for several surfaces and ecosystems over southern Africa,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8487 (2003).
  5. C. K. Gatebe, M. D. King, A. I. Lyapustin, G. T. Arnold, and J. Redemann, “Airborne spectral measurements of ocean directional reflectance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1072-1092 (2005).
  6. M. D. King, “Directional and spectral reflectance of the Kuwait oil-fire smoke,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 14545-14549 (1992).
  7. S. Blonski, M. Pagnutti, R. E. Ryan, and V. Zanoni, “In-flight edge response measurements for high-spatial-resolution remote sensing systems,” Proc. SPIE 4814, 317-326 (2002).
  8. M. Pagnutti, R. Ryan, M. Kelly, K. Holekamp, V. Zanoni, K Thome, and S. Schiller, “Radiometric characterization of IKONOS multispectral imagery,” Remote Sens. Environ. 88, 53-68 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. R. Proctor and P. Y. Barnes, “NIST High accuracy reference reflectometer--spectrophotometer,” J. Res. Nat. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 619-627 (1996).
  10. F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsburg, and T. Limperis, “Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” National Bureau of Standards, NBS monograph 160Oct. 1977.
  11. J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (SPIE, 1995).
  12. T. F. Schiff, M. W. Knighton, D. J. Wilson, F. M. Cady, J. C. Stover, and J. J. Butler, “Design review of a high accuracy UV to near infrared scatterometer,” Proc. SPIE 1995, 121-130 (1993).
  13. F. M. Cady, D. R. Bjork, J. Rifkin, and J. C. Stover, “BRDF error analysis,” Proc. SPIE 1165, 154-164 (1989).
  14. B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, “Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results,” NIST Technical Note 1297, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Sept. 1997.
  15. E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. S. Spyak, and M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System Program,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1077-1091 (2000).
  16. G. T. Georgiev and J. J. Butler: “Long-term calibration monitoring of spectralon diffusers BRDF in the air-ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7892-7899 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. T. Georgiev and J. J. Butler, “Bidirectional reflectance distribution function and directional/hemispherical reflectance of Martian regolith simulant,” Opt. Eng. 44, 036202 (2005).
  18. G. T. Georgiev, C. K. Gatebe, J. J. Butler, and M. D. King, “Comparison between laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629603 (2006).
  19. S. Smith and J. C. Fleming, “BRDF measurements of a new IR black coating with lower reflectance,” Proc. SPIE 3426, 333-343 (1998).

2007

2006

G. T. Georgiev, C. K. Gatebe, J. J. Butler, and M. D. King, “Comparison between laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629603 (2006).

2005

G. T. Georgiev and J. J. Butler, “Bidirectional reflectance distribution function and directional/hemispherical reflectance of Martian regolith simulant,” Opt. Eng. 44, 036202 (2005).

J. J. Butler, B. C. Johnson, and R. A. Barnes, “The calibration and characterization of Earth remote sensing and environmental monitoring instruments,” in Optical Radiometry, A. C. Parr, R. U. Datla, and J. L. Gardner, eds. (Academic, 2005).

C. K. Gatebe, M. D. King, A. I. Lyapustin, G. T. Arnold, and J. Redemann, “Airborne spectral measurements of ocean directional reflectance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1072-1092 (2005).

2003

G. B. Courreges-Lacoste, J. G. Schaarsberg, R. Sprik, and S. Delward, “Modeling of Spectralon diffusers for radiometric calibration in remote sensing,” Opt. Eng. 42, 3600-3607 (2003).

M. Pagnutti, R. Ryan, M. Kelly, K. Holekamp, V. Zanoni, K Thome, and S. Schiller, “Radiometric characterization of IKONOS multispectral imagery,” Remote Sens. Environ. 88, 53-68 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Gatebe, M. D. King, S. Platnick, G. T. Arnold, E. F. Vermote, and B. Schmid, “Airborne spectral measurements of surface-atmosphere anisotropy for several surfaces and ecosystems over southern Africa,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8487 (2003).

2002

S. Blonski, M. Pagnutti, R. E. Ryan, and V. Zanoni, “In-flight edge response measurements for high-spatial-resolution remote sensing systems,” Proc. SPIE 4814, 317-326 (2002).

2000

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. S. Spyak, and M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System Program,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1077-1091 (2000).

1998

S. Smith and J. C. Fleming, “BRDF measurements of a new IR black coating with lower reflectance,” Proc. SPIE 3426, 333-343 (1998).

1996

J. R. Proctor and P. Y. Barnes, “NIST High accuracy reference reflectometer--spectrophotometer,” J. Res. Nat. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 619-627 (1996).

1995

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (SPIE, 1995).

1993

T. F. Schiff, M. W. Knighton, D. J. Wilson, F. M. Cady, J. C. Stover, and J. J. Butler, “Design review of a high accuracy UV to near infrared scatterometer,” Proc. SPIE 1995, 121-130 (1993).

C. J. Bruegge, A. E. Stiegman, R. A. Rainen, and A. W. Springsteen, “Use of Spectralon as a diffuse reflectance standard for in-flight calibration of earth-orbiting sensors,” Opt. Eng. 32, 805-814 (1993).

1992

M. D. King, “Directional and spectral reflectance of the Kuwait oil-fire smoke,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 14545-14549 (1992).

1989

F. M. Cady, D. R. Bjork, J. Rifkin, and J. C. Stover, “BRDF error analysis,” Proc. SPIE 1165, 154-164 (1989).

Arnold, G. T.

C. K. Gatebe, M. D. King, A. I. Lyapustin, G. T. Arnold, and J. Redemann, “Airborne spectral measurements of ocean directional reflectance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1072-1092 (2005).

C. K. Gatebe, M. D. King, S. Platnick, G. T. Arnold, E. F. Vermote, and B. Schmid, “Airborne spectral measurements of surface-atmosphere anisotropy for several surfaces and ecosystems over southern Africa,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8487 (2003).

Barnes, P. Y.

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. S. Spyak, and M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System Program,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1077-1091 (2000).

J. R. Proctor and P. Y. Barnes, “NIST High accuracy reference reflectometer--spectrophotometer,” J. Res. Nat. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 619-627 (1996).

Barnes, R. A.

J. J. Butler, B. C. Johnson, and R. A. Barnes, “The calibration and characterization of Earth remote sensing and environmental monitoring instruments,” in Optical Radiometry, A. C. Parr, R. U. Datla, and J. L. Gardner, eds. (Academic, 2005).

Biggar, S. F.

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. S. Spyak, and M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System Program,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1077-1091 (2000).

Bjork, D. R.

F. M. Cady, D. R. Bjork, J. Rifkin, and J. C. Stover, “BRDF error analysis,” Proc. SPIE 1165, 154-164 (1989).

Blonski, S.

S. Blonski, M. Pagnutti, R. E. Ryan, and V. Zanoni, “In-flight edge response measurements for high-spatial-resolution remote sensing systems,” Proc. SPIE 4814, 317-326 (2002).

Bruegge, C. J.

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. S. Spyak, and M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System Program,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1077-1091 (2000).

C. J. Bruegge, A. E. Stiegman, R. A. Rainen, and A. W. Springsteen, “Use of Spectralon as a diffuse reflectance standard for in-flight calibration of earth-orbiting sensors,” Opt. Eng. 32, 805-814 (1993).

Butler, J. J.

G. T. Georgiev and J. J. Butler: “Long-term calibration monitoring of spectralon diffusers BRDF in the air-ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7892-7899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Georgiev, C. K. Gatebe, J. J. Butler, and M. D. King, “Comparison between laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629603 (2006).

J. J. Butler, B. C. Johnson, and R. A. Barnes, “The calibration and characterization of Earth remote sensing and environmental monitoring instruments,” in Optical Radiometry, A. C. Parr, R. U. Datla, and J. L. Gardner, eds. (Academic, 2005).

G. T. Georgiev and J. J. Butler, “Bidirectional reflectance distribution function and directional/hemispherical reflectance of Martian regolith simulant,” Opt. Eng. 44, 036202 (2005).

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. S. Spyak, and M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System Program,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1077-1091 (2000).

T. F. Schiff, M. W. Knighton, D. J. Wilson, F. M. Cady, J. C. Stover, and J. J. Butler, “Design review of a high accuracy UV to near infrared scatterometer,” Proc. SPIE 1995, 121-130 (1993).

Cady, F. M.

T. F. Schiff, M. W. Knighton, D. J. Wilson, F. M. Cady, J. C. Stover, and J. J. Butler, “Design review of a high accuracy UV to near infrared scatterometer,” Proc. SPIE 1995, 121-130 (1993).

F. M. Cady, D. R. Bjork, J. Rifkin, and J. C. Stover, “BRDF error analysis,” Proc. SPIE 1165, 154-164 (1989).

Courreges-Lacoste, G. B.

G. B. Courreges-Lacoste, J. G. Schaarsberg, R. Sprik, and S. Delward, “Modeling of Spectralon diffusers for radiometric calibration in remote sensing,” Opt. Eng. 42, 3600-3607 (2003).

Delward, S.

G. B. Courreges-Lacoste, J. G. Schaarsberg, R. Sprik, and S. Delward, “Modeling of Spectralon diffusers for radiometric calibration in remote sensing,” Opt. Eng. 42, 3600-3607 (2003).

Early, E. A.

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. S. Spyak, and M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System Program,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1077-1091 (2000).

Fleming, J. C.

S. Smith and J. C. Fleming, “BRDF measurements of a new IR black coating with lower reflectance,” Proc. SPIE 3426, 333-343 (1998).

Gatebe, C. K.

G. T. Georgiev, C. K. Gatebe, J. J. Butler, and M. D. King, “Comparison between laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629603 (2006).

C. K. Gatebe, M. D. King, A. I. Lyapustin, G. T. Arnold, and J. Redemann, “Airborne spectral measurements of ocean directional reflectance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1072-1092 (2005).

C. K. Gatebe, M. D. King, S. Platnick, G. T. Arnold, E. F. Vermote, and B. Schmid, “Airborne spectral measurements of surface-atmosphere anisotropy for several surfaces and ecosystems over southern Africa,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8487 (2003).

Georgiev, G. T.

G. T. Georgiev and J. J. Butler: “Long-term calibration monitoring of spectralon diffusers BRDF in the air-ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7892-7899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Georgiev, C. K. Gatebe, J. J. Butler, and M. D. King, “Comparison between laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629603 (2006).

G. T. Georgiev and J. J. Butler, “Bidirectional reflectance distribution function and directional/hemispherical reflectance of Martian regolith simulant,” Opt. Eng. 44, 036202 (2005).

Ginsburg, I. W.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsburg, and T. Limperis, “Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” National Bureau of Standards, NBS monograph 160Oct. 1977.

Holekamp, K.

M. Pagnutti, R. Ryan, M. Kelly, K. Holekamp, V. Zanoni, K Thome, and S. Schiller, “Radiometric characterization of IKONOS multispectral imagery,” Remote Sens. Environ. 88, 53-68 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsia, J. J.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsburg, and T. Limperis, “Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” National Bureau of Standards, NBS monograph 160Oct. 1977.

Johnson, B. C.

J. J. Butler, B. C. Johnson, and R. A. Barnes, “The calibration and characterization of Earth remote sensing and environmental monitoring instruments,” in Optical Radiometry, A. C. Parr, R. U. Datla, and J. L. Gardner, eds. (Academic, 2005).

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. S. Spyak, and M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System Program,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1077-1091 (2000).

Kelly, M.

M. Pagnutti, R. Ryan, M. Kelly, K. Holekamp, V. Zanoni, K Thome, and S. Schiller, “Radiometric characterization of IKONOS multispectral imagery,” Remote Sens. Environ. 88, 53-68 (2003).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

G. T. Georgiev, C. K. Gatebe, J. J. Butler, and M. D. King, “Comparison between laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629603 (2006).

C. K. Gatebe, M. D. King, A. I. Lyapustin, G. T. Arnold, and J. Redemann, “Airborne spectral measurements of ocean directional reflectance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1072-1092 (2005).

C. K. Gatebe, M. D. King, S. Platnick, G. T. Arnold, E. F. Vermote, and B. Schmid, “Airborne spectral measurements of surface-atmosphere anisotropy for several surfaces and ecosystems over southern Africa,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8487 (2003).

M. D. King, “Directional and spectral reflectance of the Kuwait oil-fire smoke,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 14545-14549 (1992).

Knighton, M. W.

T. F. Schiff, M. W. Knighton, D. J. Wilson, F. M. Cady, J. C. Stover, and J. J. Butler, “Design review of a high accuracy UV to near infrared scatterometer,” Proc. SPIE 1995, 121-130 (1993).

Kuyatt, C. E.

B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, “Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results,” NIST Technical Note 1297, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Sept. 1997.

Limperis, T.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsburg, and T. Limperis, “Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” National Bureau of Standards, NBS monograph 160Oct. 1977.

Lyapustin, A. I.

C. K. Gatebe, M. D. King, A. I. Lyapustin, G. T. Arnold, and J. Redemann, “Airborne spectral measurements of ocean directional reflectance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1072-1092 (2005).

Nicodemus, F. E.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsburg, and T. Limperis, “Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” National Bureau of Standards, NBS monograph 160Oct. 1977.

Pagnutti, M.

M. Pagnutti, R. Ryan, M. Kelly, K. Holekamp, V. Zanoni, K Thome, and S. Schiller, “Radiometric characterization of IKONOS multispectral imagery,” Remote Sens. Environ. 88, 53-68 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Blonski, M. Pagnutti, R. E. Ryan, and V. Zanoni, “In-flight edge response measurements for high-spatial-resolution remote sensing systems,” Proc. SPIE 4814, 317-326 (2002).

Pavlov, M. M.

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. S. Spyak, and M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System Program,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1077-1091 (2000).

Platnick, S.

C. K. Gatebe, M. D. King, S. Platnick, G. T. Arnold, E. F. Vermote, and B. Schmid, “Airborne spectral measurements of surface-atmosphere anisotropy for several surfaces and ecosystems over southern Africa,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8487 (2003).

Proctor, J. R.

J. R. Proctor and P. Y. Barnes, “NIST High accuracy reference reflectometer--spectrophotometer,” J. Res. Nat. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 619-627 (1996).

Rainen, R. A.

C. J. Bruegge, A. E. Stiegman, R. A. Rainen, and A. W. Springsteen, “Use of Spectralon as a diffuse reflectance standard for in-flight calibration of earth-orbiting sensors,” Opt. Eng. 32, 805-814 (1993).

Redemann, J.

C. K. Gatebe, M. D. King, A. I. Lyapustin, G. T. Arnold, and J. Redemann, “Airborne spectral measurements of ocean directional reflectance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1072-1092 (2005).

Richmond, J. C.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsburg, and T. Limperis, “Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” National Bureau of Standards, NBS monograph 160Oct. 1977.

Rifkin, J.

F. M. Cady, D. R. Bjork, J. Rifkin, and J. C. Stover, “BRDF error analysis,” Proc. SPIE 1165, 154-164 (1989).

Ryan, R.

M. Pagnutti, R. Ryan, M. Kelly, K. Holekamp, V. Zanoni, K Thome, and S. Schiller, “Radiometric characterization of IKONOS multispectral imagery,” Remote Sens. Environ. 88, 53-68 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, R. E.

S. Blonski, M. Pagnutti, R. E. Ryan, and V. Zanoni, “In-flight edge response measurements for high-spatial-resolution remote sensing systems,” Proc. SPIE 4814, 317-326 (2002).

Schaarsberg, J. G.

G. B. Courreges-Lacoste, J. G. Schaarsberg, R. Sprik, and S. Delward, “Modeling of Spectralon diffusers for radiometric calibration in remote sensing,” Opt. Eng. 42, 3600-3607 (2003).

Schiff, T. F.

T. F. Schiff, M. W. Knighton, D. J. Wilson, F. M. Cady, J. C. Stover, and J. J. Butler, “Design review of a high accuracy UV to near infrared scatterometer,” Proc. SPIE 1995, 121-130 (1993).

Schiller, S.

M. Pagnutti, R. Ryan, M. Kelly, K. Holekamp, V. Zanoni, K Thome, and S. Schiller, “Radiometric characterization of IKONOS multispectral imagery,” Remote Sens. Environ. 88, 53-68 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, B.

C. K. Gatebe, M. D. King, S. Platnick, G. T. Arnold, E. F. Vermote, and B. Schmid, “Airborne spectral measurements of surface-atmosphere anisotropy for several surfaces and ecosystems over southern Africa,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8487 (2003).

Smith, S.

S. Smith and J. C. Fleming, “BRDF measurements of a new IR black coating with lower reflectance,” Proc. SPIE 3426, 333-343 (1998).

Sprik, R.

G. B. Courreges-Lacoste, J. G. Schaarsberg, R. Sprik, and S. Delward, “Modeling of Spectralon diffusers for radiometric calibration in remote sensing,” Opt. Eng. 42, 3600-3607 (2003).

Springsteen, A. W.

C. J. Bruegge, A. E. Stiegman, R. A. Rainen, and A. W. Springsteen, “Use of Spectralon as a diffuse reflectance standard for in-flight calibration of earth-orbiting sensors,” Opt. Eng. 32, 805-814 (1993).

Spyak, P. S.

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. S. Spyak, and M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System Program,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1077-1091 (2000).

Stiegman, A. E.

C. J. Bruegge, A. E. Stiegman, R. A. Rainen, and A. W. Springsteen, “Use of Spectralon as a diffuse reflectance standard for in-flight calibration of earth-orbiting sensors,” Opt. Eng. 32, 805-814 (1993).

Stover, J. C.

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (SPIE, 1995).

T. F. Schiff, M. W. Knighton, D. J. Wilson, F. M. Cady, J. C. Stover, and J. J. Butler, “Design review of a high accuracy UV to near infrared scatterometer,” Proc. SPIE 1995, 121-130 (1993).

F. M. Cady, D. R. Bjork, J. Rifkin, and J. C. Stover, “BRDF error analysis,” Proc. SPIE 1165, 154-164 (1989).

Taylor, B. N.

B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, “Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results,” NIST Technical Note 1297, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Sept. 1997.

Thome, K

M. Pagnutti, R. Ryan, M. Kelly, K. Holekamp, V. Zanoni, K Thome, and S. Schiller, “Radiometric characterization of IKONOS multispectral imagery,” Remote Sens. Environ. 88, 53-68 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E. F.

C. K. Gatebe, M. D. King, S. Platnick, G. T. Arnold, E. F. Vermote, and B. Schmid, “Airborne spectral measurements of surface-atmosphere anisotropy for several surfaces and ecosystems over southern Africa,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8487 (2003).

Wilson, D. J.

T. F. Schiff, M. W. Knighton, D. J. Wilson, F. M. Cady, J. C. Stover, and J. J. Butler, “Design review of a high accuracy UV to near infrared scatterometer,” Proc. SPIE 1995, 121-130 (1993).

Zanoni, V.

M. Pagnutti, R. Ryan, M. Kelly, K. Holekamp, V. Zanoni, K Thome, and S. Schiller, “Radiometric characterization of IKONOS multispectral imagery,” Remote Sens. Environ. 88, 53-68 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Blonski, M. Pagnutti, R. E. Ryan, and V. Zanoni, “In-flight edge response measurements for high-spatial-resolution remote sensing systems,” Proc. SPIE 4814, 317-326 (2002).

Appl. Opt.

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. S. Spyak, and M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System Program,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1077-1091 (2000).

J. Atmos. Sci.

C. K. Gatebe, M. D. King, A. I. Lyapustin, G. T. Arnold, and J. Redemann, “Airborne spectral measurements of ocean directional reflectance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 1072-1092 (2005).

J. Geophys. Res.

M. D. King, “Directional and spectral reflectance of the Kuwait oil-fire smoke,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 14545-14549 (1992).

C. K. Gatebe, M. D. King, S. Platnick, G. T. Arnold, E. F. Vermote, and B. Schmid, “Airborne spectral measurements of surface-atmosphere anisotropy for several surfaces and ecosystems over southern Africa,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8487 (2003).

J. Res. Nat. Inst. Stand. Technol.

J. R. Proctor and P. Y. Barnes, “NIST High accuracy reference reflectometer--spectrophotometer,” J. Res. Nat. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 619-627 (1996).

Opt. Eng.

G. T. Georgiev and J. J. Butler, “Bidirectional reflectance distribution function and directional/hemispherical reflectance of Martian regolith simulant,” Opt. Eng. 44, 036202 (2005).

G. B. Courreges-Lacoste, J. G. Schaarsberg, R. Sprik, and S. Delward, “Modeling of Spectralon diffusers for radiometric calibration in remote sensing,” Opt. Eng. 42, 3600-3607 (2003).

C. J. Bruegge, A. E. Stiegman, R. A. Rainen, and A. W. Springsteen, “Use of Spectralon as a diffuse reflectance standard for in-flight calibration of earth-orbiting sensors,” Opt. Eng. 32, 805-814 (1993).

Proc. SPIE

S. Blonski, M. Pagnutti, R. E. Ryan, and V. Zanoni, “In-flight edge response measurements for high-spatial-resolution remote sensing systems,” Proc. SPIE 4814, 317-326 (2002).

G. T. Georgiev, C. K. Gatebe, J. J. Butler, and M. D. King, “Comparison between laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629603 (2006).

S. Smith and J. C. Fleming, “BRDF measurements of a new IR black coating with lower reflectance,” Proc. SPIE 3426, 333-343 (1998).

T. F. Schiff, M. W. Knighton, D. J. Wilson, F. M. Cady, J. C. Stover, and J. J. Butler, “Design review of a high accuracy UV to near infrared scatterometer,” Proc. SPIE 1995, 121-130 (1993).

F. M. Cady, D. R. Bjork, J. Rifkin, and J. C. Stover, “BRDF error analysis,” Proc. SPIE 1165, 154-164 (1989).

Remote Sens. Environ.

M. Pagnutti, R. Ryan, M. Kelly, K. Holekamp, V. Zanoni, K Thome, and S. Schiller, “Radiometric characterization of IKONOS multispectral imagery,” Remote Sens. Environ. 88, 53-68 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. J. Butler, B. C. Johnson, and R. A. Barnes, “The calibration and characterization of Earth remote sensing and environmental monitoring instruments,” in Optical Radiometry, A. C. Parr, R. U. Datla, and J. L. Gardner, eds. (Academic, 2005).

B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, “Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results,” NIST Technical Note 1297, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Sept. 1997.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsburg, and T. Limperis, “Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” National Bureau of Standards, NBS monograph 160Oct. 1977.

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (SPIE, 1995).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

BRDF geometry of incident and reflected elementary beams after Nicodemus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

NASA–GSFC scatterometer vertical optical table with the axis of rotation at the table center.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

NASA–GSFC scatterometer goniometer with the optical table and the axis of rotation of the optical table, and the axis of rotation of goniometer arm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Microscopic image of tarp sample 1, where the warp threads are horizontal and weft threads are vertical.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

In-plane BRDF of tarps 1 to 4 at normal incidence, 485 nm , 0 ° and 180 ° scatter azimuth angle.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

BRDF of tarp 1 at normal incidence, at different scatter azimuth angles, 485 nm , fitting and experimental points.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Shadowing and obscuration effects of tarps.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

BRDF of tarp 1 at normal incidence, 485, 550, 633, and 800 nm , 0 ° and 180 ° scatter azimuth angle.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

BRDF of tarp 1 at 10 ° incidence at different scatter azimuth angles, 485 nm , fitting and experimental points.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

BRDF of tarp 1 at 30 ° incidence at different scatter azimuth angles, 485 nm , fitting and experimental points.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Forward–backward scatter, tarp 1, 485 and 800 nm , 10 ° and 30 ° incident angle.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Forward–backward scatter, tarp 4, 485 and 800 nm , 10 ° and 30 ° incident angle.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Tarp sample 1 at 30 ° incidence, 485 nm , 550 nm , 633 nm , and 800 nm .

Tables (7)

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Table 1 Root-Mean-Square Error a

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Table 2 BRDF Difference from a Reference a Measured at Corresponding Scatter Zenith and Azimuth Angles b

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Table 3 BRDF Difference at Scatter Azimuth 0 ° versus 90 ° a

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Table 4 8 ° Directional/Hemispherical Reflectance at 632.8 nm

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Table 5 Polynomial Coefficients of the Samples at Normal Incidence, 485 nm

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Table 6 Polynomial Coefficients of the Samples at 10 ° Incidence, 485 nm

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Table 7 Polynomial Coefficients of the Samples at 30 ° Incidence, 485 nm

Equations (6)

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BRDF = d L s ( θ i , ϕ i , θ s , ϕ s ; E i ) d E i ( θ i , ϕ i ) ,
BRDF = P s / Ω P i cos θ s ,
BRF = π I λ ( θ , θ 0 , Φ ) μ 0 F λ ,
( Δ BRDF ) 2 = 2 ( Δ NS ) 2 + 2 ( Δ LIN ) 2 + ( Δ SLD ) 2 + [ Δ θ s tan ( θ s ) ] 2 ,
Y = A + B x + C x 2 + D x 3 + E x 4 + F x 5
σ = 1 N ( f f ) 2 ,

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