Abstract

We have performed high-precision terahertz time-domain spectroscopy measurements on polymers (cross-linked polystyrene, TPX, Zeonor) from 0.2 to 4.2THz. They show very interesting terahertz and visible transparency. We also investigated the terahertz characteristics of PDMS, a polymer extensively used in microfluidics, which showed absorption compatible with terahertz experiments. The thermoplastic properties of these polymers make them suitable for use as lens, window, waveguide, or support materials in such applications as biological imaging or microfluidics necessitating a constant visual control not provided by conventional silicon- or teflon-based devices.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (4)

M. Naftalya and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Nemat-Nasser, A. V. Amirkhizi, W. J. Padilla, D. N. Basov, S. Nemat-Nasser, D. Bruzewicz, and G. Whitesides, “Terahertz plasmonic composites,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 036614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Krner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28, 363-371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for material characterization,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1658-1665 (2007).

2006 (4)

J. Han, W. Zhang, W. Chen, L. Thamizhmani, A. K. Azad, and Z. Zhu, “Far-Infrared characteristics of ZnS nanoparticles measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 1989-1993 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kitagawa, T. Ohkubo, M. Onuma, and Y. Kadoya, “THz spectroscopic characterization of biomolecule/water systems by compact sensor chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis, “Nature of subpicosecond terahertz pulse propagation in practical dielectric-filled parallel-plate waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2643-2645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Terahertz pulsed imaging with 1.06 mm laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113-4115(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

N. C. J. van der Valk and P. C. M. Planken, “Electro-optic detection of subwavelength terahertz spot sizes in the near field of a metal tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1558-1560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, T. F. Heinz, and A. Nahata, “Electro-optic detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses by use of poled polymers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 775-777 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 739-746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

J. R. Birch, “The far-infrared optical constants of polypropylene, PTFE and polystyrene,” Infrared Phys. 33, 33-38 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1975 (1)

D. R. Smith and E. V. Loewenstein, “Optical constants of far infrared materials. 3: plastics,” App. Opt. 14, 1335-1341 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

G. W. Chantry, J. W. Fleming, and P. M. Smith, “Far-infrared and millimetre-wave absorption spectra of some low-loss polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 10, 473-476 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Amirkhizi, A. V.

S. C. Nemat-Nasser, A. V. Amirkhizi, W. J. Padilla, D. N. Basov, S. Nemat-Nasser, D. Bruzewicz, and G. Whitesides, “Terahertz plasmonic composites,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 036614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

J. Han, W. Zhang, W. Chen, L. Thamizhmani, A. K. Azad, and Z. Zhu, “Far-Infrared characteristics of ZnS nanoparticles measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 1989-1993 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, C.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Terahertz pulsed imaging with 1.06 mm laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113-4115(2003).
[CrossRef]

Basov, D. N.

S. C. Nemat-Nasser, A. V. Amirkhizi, W. J. Padilla, D. N. Basov, S. Nemat-Nasser, D. Bruzewicz, and G. Whitesides, “Terahertz plasmonic composites,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 036614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berry, E.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birch, J. R.

J. R. Birch, “The far-infrared optical constants of polypropylene, PTFE and polystyrene,” Infrared Phys. 33, 33-38 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, I. V.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Terahertz pulsed imaging with 1.06 mm laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113-4115(2003).
[CrossRef]

Bruzewicz, D.

S. C. Nemat-Nasser, A. V. Amirkhizi, W. J. Padilla, D. N. Basov, S. Nemat-Nasser, D. Bruzewicz, and G. Whitesides, “Terahertz plasmonic composites,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 036614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

Chamberlain, J. M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chantry, G. W.

G. W. Chantry, J. W. Fleming, and P. M. Smith, “Far-infrared and millimetre-wave absorption spectra of some low-loss polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 10, 473-476 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Chen, W.

J. Han, W. Zhang, W. Chen, L. Thamizhmani, A. K. Azad, and Z. Zhu, “Far-Infrared characteristics of ZnS nanoparticles measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 1989-1993 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coutaz, J.-L.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 739-746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

Davies, A. G.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Terahertz pulsed imaging with 1.06 mm laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113-4115(2003).
[CrossRef]

Duvillaret, L.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 739-746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Evans, M. J.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Terahertz pulsed imaging with 1.06 mm laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113-4115(2003).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, C.

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Fleming, J. W.

G. W. Chantry, J. W. Fleming, and P. M. Smith, “Far-infrared and millimetre-wave absorption spectra of some low-loss polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 10, 473-476 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Gallot, G.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garet, F.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 739-746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, I. S.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Terahertz pulsed imaging with 1.06 mm laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113-4115(2003).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Han, J.

J. Han, W. Zhang, W. Chen, L. Thamizhmani, A. K. Azad, and Z. Zhu, “Far-Infrared characteristics of ZnS nanoparticles measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 1989-1993 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinz, T. F.

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jansen, C.

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Krner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28, 363-371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, T.-I.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Kadoya, Y.

J. Kitagawa, T. Ohkubo, M. Onuma, and Y. Kadoya, “THz spectroscopic characterization of biomolecule/water systems by compact sensor chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

Kitagawa, J.

J. Kitagawa, T. Ohkubo, M. Onuma, and Y. Kadoya, “THz spectroscopic characterization of biomolecule/water systems by compact sensor chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Krner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28, 363-371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krner, T.

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Krner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28, 363-371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linfield, E. H.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Terahertz pulsed imaging with 1.06 mm laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113-4115(2003).
[CrossRef]

Loewenstein, E. V.

D. R. Smith and E. V. Loewenstein, “Optical constants of far infrared materials. 3: plastics,” App. Opt. 14, 1335-1341 (1975).
[CrossRef]

McGowan, R. W.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mendis, R.

Miles, R. E.

M. Naftalya and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for material characterization,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1658-1665 (2007).

Missous, M.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Terahertz pulsed imaging with 1.06 mm laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113-4115(2003).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D.

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Krner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28, 363-371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432, 376-379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naftaly, M.

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for material characterization,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1658-1665 (2007).

Naftalya, M.

M. Naftalya and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

Nemat-Nasser, S.

S. C. Nemat-Nasser, A. V. Amirkhizi, W. J. Padilla, D. N. Basov, S. Nemat-Nasser, D. Bruzewicz, and G. Whitesides, “Terahertz plasmonic composites,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 036614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

S. C. Nemat-Nasser, A. V. Amirkhizi, W. J. Padilla, D. N. Basov, S. Nemat-Nasser, D. Bruzewicz, and G. Whitesides, “Terahertz plasmonic composites,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 036614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohkubo, T.

J. Kitagawa, T. Ohkubo, M. Onuma, and Y. Kadoya, “THz spectroscopic characterization of biomolecule/water systems by compact sensor chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Onuma, M.

J. Kitagawa, T. Ohkubo, M. Onuma, and Y. Kadoya, “THz spectroscopic characterization of biomolecule/water systems by compact sensor chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

S. C. Nemat-Nasser, A. V. Amirkhizi, W. J. Padilla, D. N. Basov, S. Nemat-Nasser, D. Bruzewicz, and G. Whitesides, “Terahertz plasmonic composites,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 036614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piesiewicz, R.

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Krner, “Properties of building and plastic materials in the THz range,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28, 363-371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

N. C. J. van der Valk and P. C. M. Planken, “Electro-optic detection of subwavelength terahertz spot sizes in the near field of a metal tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1558-1560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith and E. V. Loewenstein, “Optical constants of far infrared materials. 3: plastics,” App. Opt. 14, 1335-1341 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, P. M.

G. W. Chantry, J. W. Fleming, and P. M. Smith, “Far-infrared and millimetre-wave absorption spectra of some low-loss polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 10, 473-476 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Taday, P. F.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Terahertz pulsed imaging with 1.06 mm laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113-4115(2003).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

Taylor, A. J.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Thamizhmani, L.

J. Han, W. Zhang, W. Chen, L. Thamizhmani, A. K. Azad, and Z. Zhu, “Far-Infrared characteristics of ZnS nanoparticles measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 1989-1993 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tribe, W. R.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Terahertz pulsed imaging with 1.06 mm laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113-4115(2003).
[CrossRef]

van der Valk, N. C. J.

N. C. J. van der Valk and P. C. M. Planken, “Electro-optic detection of subwavelength terahertz spot sizes in the near field of a metal tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1558-1560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Walker, G. C.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, V. P.

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[CrossRef]

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M. Naftalya and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043517 (2007).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432, 376-379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. C. Nemat-Nasser, A. V. Amirkhizi, W. J. Padilla, D. N. Basov, S. Nemat-Nasser, D. Bruzewicz, and G. Whitesides, “Terahertz plasmonic composites,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 036614 (2007).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured power absorption coefficient of PSX (triangles), TPX, (open circles), and Zeonor (dots) from 0.2 to 4.2 THz .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured indices of refraction of PSX (triangles), TPX (open circles), and Zeonor (dots) from 0.2 to 4.2 THz .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured power absorption coefficient (open circles) and refractive index (dots) of PDMS from 0.1 to 1.1 THz .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evolution of the transmission at 1 THz through a parallel plate versus thickness for HR silicon, PSX, TPX, and Zeonor. The crossing with the HR silicon curve corresponds to L ref .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Visible and Terahertz Optical Properties of PSX, TPX, Zeonor, and PDMS a

Equations (1)

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S ( ν ) = E ( ν ) E 0 ( ν ) = 4 n ¯ ( n ¯ + 1 ) 2 exp { i 2 π ν c [ n ( ν ) 1 ] L } exp [ 1 2 α ( ν ) L ] ,

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