Abstract

We present a new technique applied to the variable optical synthetic wavelength generation in optical interferometry. It consists of a chain of optical injection locking among three lasers: first a distributed-feedback laser is used as a master to injection lock an intensity-modulated laser that is directly modulated around 15GHz by a radio frequency generator on a sideband. A second distributed-feedback laser is injection locked on another sideband of the intensity-modulated laser. The variable synthetic wavelength for absolute distance measurement is simply generated by sweeping the radio frequency over a range of several hundred megahertz, which corresponds to the locking range of the two slave lasers. In this condition, the uncertainty of the variable synthetic wavelength is equivalent to the radio frequency uncertainty. This latter has a relative accuracy of 107 or better, resulting in a resolution of ±25μm for distances exceeding tens of meters. The radio frequency generator produces a linear frequency sweep of 1ms duration (i.e., exactly equal to one absolute distance measurement acquisition time), with frequency steps of about 1MHz. Finally, results of absolute distance measurements for ranges up to 10m are presented.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006

2004

J. Ye, “Absolute measurement of a long, arbitrary distance to less than an optical fringe,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1153-1155 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Thévenaz, S. Le Floch, D. Alasia, and J. Tröger, “Novel schemes for optical signal generation using laser injection locking with application to Brillouin sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 151519-1524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

S. H. Lu and C. C. Lee, “Measuring large step heights by variable synthetic wavelength interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1382-1387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kinder and K. D. Salewski, “Absolute distance interferometer with grating-stabilized tunable diode laser at 633 nm,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 5364-5368 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. F. C. Silva and A. J. Seeds, “Terahertz span >60-channel exact frequency dense WDM source using comb generation and SG-DBR injected-locked laser filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 370-372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. H. Bechstein and W. Fuchs, “Absolute interferometric distance measurement applying a variable synthetic wavelength,” J. Opt. 29, 179-182 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1994

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, “Correction to the updated Edlen equation for the refractive index of air,” Metrologia 31, 315-316 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988

Alasia, D.

L. Thévenaz, S. Le Floch, D. Alasia, and J. Tröger, “Novel schemes for optical signal generation using laser injection locking with application to Brillouin sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 151519-1524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bechstein, K. H.

K. H. Bechstein and W. Fuchs, “Absolute interferometric distance measurement applying a variable synthetic wavelength,” J. Opt. 29, 179-182 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Birch, K. P.

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, “Correction to the updated Edlen equation for the refractive index of air,” Metrologia 31, 315-316 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Burger, J. P.

Dalhoff, E.

E. Fischer, E. Dalhoff, S. Heim, and H. J. Tiziani, “High precision absolute interferometry up to 100 m,” in International Workshop on High Precision Navigation, K. Linkwitz and U. Hangleiter, eds. (Ferd. Dümmlers Verlag, 1995), pp. 531-538.

Dändliker, R.

Downs, M. J.

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, “Correction to the updated Edlen equation for the refractive index of air,” Metrologia 31, 315-316 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dubovitski, S.

Emtman, C.

D. Sesko, J. Tobiason, M. Feldman, and C. Emtman, “A dynamically calibrated multi-wavelength absolute interferometer,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Topical Meeting on Optoelectronics Distance/Displacement Measurements and Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2006), pp. 21-26, ISBN:846900938-9.

Feldman, M.

D. Sesko, J. Tobiason, M. Feldman, and C. Emtman, “A dynamically calibrated multi-wavelength absolute interferometer,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Topical Meeting on Optoelectronics Distance/Displacement Measurements and Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2006), pp. 21-26, ISBN:846900938-9.

Fischer, E.

E. Fischer, E. Dalhoff, S. Heim, and H. J. Tiziani, “High precision absolute interferometry up to 100 m,” in International Workshop on High Precision Navigation, K. Linkwitz and U. Hangleiter, eds. (Ferd. Dümmlers Verlag, 1995), pp. 531-538.

Fuchs, W.

K. H. Bechstein and W. Fuchs, “Absolute interferometric distance measurement applying a variable synthetic wavelength,” J. Opt. 29, 179-182 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heim, S.

E. Fischer, E. Dalhoff, S. Heim, and H. J. Tiziani, “High precision absolute interferometry up to 100 m,” in International Workshop on High Precision Navigation, K. Linkwitz and U. Hangleiter, eds. (Ferd. Dümmlers Verlag, 1995), pp. 531-538.

Holzwarth, R.

Kinder, T.

T. Kinder and K. D. Salewski, “Absolute distance interferometer with grating-stabilized tunable diode laser at 633 nm,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 5364-5368 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lay, O. P.

Le Floch, S.

L. Thévenaz, S. Le Floch, D. Alasia, and J. Tröger, “Novel schemes for optical signal generation using laser injection locking with application to Brillouin sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 151519-1524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Le Floch and Y. Salvadé, “Distance measurement by two wavelength interferometry using the sideband injection-locking technique,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Topical Meeting on Optoelectronics Distance/Displacement Measurements and Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2006), pp. 39-44, ISBN:846900938-9.

Lee, C. C.

S. H. Lu and C. C. Lee, “Measuring large step heights by variable synthetic wavelength interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1382-1387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lévèque, S.

Lu, S. H.

S. H. Lu and C. C. Lee, “Measuring large step heights by variable synthetic wavelength interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1382-1387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peters, R. D.

Prongué, D.

Salewski, K. D.

T. Kinder and K. D. Salewski, “Absolute distance interferometer with grating-stabilized tunable diode laser at 633 nm,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 5364-5368 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Salvadé, Y.

N. Schuler, Y. Salvadé, S. Lévèque, R. Dändliker, and R. Holzwarth, “Frequency-comb-referenced two-wavelength source for absolute distance measurement,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3101-3103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Zimmermann, Y. Salvadé, and R. Dändliker, “Stabilized three-wavelength source calibrated by electronic means for high accuracy absolute distance measurement,” Opt. Lett. 21, 531-533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Le Floch and Y. Salvadé, “Distance measurement by two wavelength interferometry using the sideband injection-locking technique,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Topical Meeting on Optoelectronics Distance/Displacement Measurements and Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2006), pp. 39-44, ISBN:846900938-9.

Schuler, N.

Seeds, A. J.

C. F. C. Silva and A. J. Seeds, “Terahertz span >60-channel exact frequency dense WDM source using comb generation and SG-DBR injected-locked laser filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 370-372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sesko, D.

D. Sesko, J. Tobiason, M. Feldman, and C. Emtman, “A dynamically calibrated multi-wavelength absolute interferometer,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Topical Meeting on Optoelectronics Distance/Displacement Measurements and Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2006), pp. 21-26, ISBN:846900938-9.

Silva, C. F. C.

C. F. C. Silva and A. J. Seeds, “Terahertz span >60-channel exact frequency dense WDM source using comb generation and SG-DBR injected-locked laser filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 370-372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thalmann, R.

Thévenaz, L.

L. Thévenaz, S. Le Floch, D. Alasia, and J. Tröger, “Novel schemes for optical signal generation using laser injection locking with application to Brillouin sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 151519-1524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H. J.

E. Fischer, E. Dalhoff, S. Heim, and H. J. Tiziani, “High precision absolute interferometry up to 100 m,” in International Workshop on High Precision Navigation, K. Linkwitz and U. Hangleiter, eds. (Ferd. Dümmlers Verlag, 1995), pp. 531-538.

Tobiason, J.

D. Sesko, J. Tobiason, M. Feldman, and C. Emtman, “A dynamically calibrated multi-wavelength absolute interferometer,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Topical Meeting on Optoelectronics Distance/Displacement Measurements and Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2006), pp. 21-26, ISBN:846900938-9.

Tröger, J.

L. Thévenaz, S. Le Floch, D. Alasia, and J. Tröger, “Novel schemes for optical signal generation using laser injection locking with application to Brillouin sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 151519-1524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Zimmermann, E.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. F. C. Silva and A. J. Seeds, “Terahertz span >60-channel exact frequency dense WDM source using comb generation and SG-DBR injected-locked laser filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 370-372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

K. H. Bechstein and W. Fuchs, “Absolute interferometric distance measurement applying a variable synthetic wavelength,” J. Opt. 29, 179-182 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt.

T. Kinder and K. D. Salewski, “Absolute distance interferometer with grating-stabilized tunable diode laser at 633 nm,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 5364-5368 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

S. H. Lu and C. C. Lee, “Measuring large step heights by variable synthetic wavelength interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1382-1387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Thévenaz, S. Le Floch, D. Alasia, and J. Tröger, “Novel schemes for optical signal generation using laser injection locking with application to Brillouin sensing,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 151519-1524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, “Correction to the updated Edlen equation for the refractive index of air,” Metrologia 31, 315-316 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

S. Le Floch and Y. Salvadé, “Distance measurement by two wavelength interferometry using the sideband injection-locking technique,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Topical Meeting on Optoelectronics Distance/Displacement Measurements and Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2006), pp. 39-44, ISBN:846900938-9.

D. Sesko, J. Tobiason, M. Feldman, and C. Emtman, “A dynamically calibrated multi-wavelength absolute interferometer,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Topical Meeting on Optoelectronics Distance/Displacement Measurements and Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2006), pp. 21-26, ISBN:846900938-9.

E. Fischer, E. Dalhoff, S. Heim, and H. J. Tiziani, “High precision absolute interferometry up to 100 m,” in International Workshop on High Precision Navigation, K. Linkwitz and U. Hangleiter, eds. (Ferd. Dümmlers Verlag, 1995), pp. 531-538.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the varying synthetic wave length generation: PC, polarization controller.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interferometric setup: BS, beam splitter; CC, corner cube; D, dichroic plate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase versus time during one period ( 1 ms ) at distance L = 8.273 478 m . Measured phase is 183.17   rad , and the slope is 315050 ± 10   rad / s (confidence level 95%).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

MALDIVE absolute measurements of OPD versus MENLO and Agilent interferometers over 5 m .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

MALDIVE absolute measurements of OPD versus MENLO and Agilent interferometers at a distance of about 7.5 m .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

MALDIVE absolute measurements of OPD versus MENLO and Agilent interferometers at a distance of about 9 m .

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ ϕ = ( 4 π n L c ) Δ ν ,
δ L 3 c δ ϕ 2 π n ( Δ ν max Δ ν min ) N .
N Λ / 2 = Round { 2 n L Λ Δ ϕ 4 π } .
L = Λ 2 n ( N Λ / 2 + Δ ϕ 4 π ) .
I ( t ) = A 1 cos ( 2 π f 1 t + ϕ 1 ) + A 2 cos ( 2 π f 2 t + ϕ 2 ) ,
σ slope = σ ϕ N σ Δ ν ,
σ Δ ν Δ ν max Δ ν min 2 3 .
σ L 3 c σ ϕ 2 π n ( Δ ν max Δ ν min ) N .

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