Abstract

A micro-optical force sensor concept based on the morphology-dependent shifts of optical modes of dielectric microspheres is investigated. The optical resonances, commonly referred to as the whispering gallery modes (WGM), were excited by evanescently coupling light from a tunable diode laser using a tapered single-mode fiber. A compressive force applied to the sphere induces a change in both the shape and the index of refraction of the sphere leading to a shift in WGM. By tracking the shifts, the force magnitude is determined using solid silica as well as solid and hollow Polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) microsphere resonators. A measurement sensitivity as high as dλ/dF=7.664nm/N was demonstrated with a 960μm hollow PMMA sphere.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Revew of application of whispering-gallery mode resonators in photonics and nonlinear optics,” IPN Progeress Report 42-162, (2005) http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/progress_report/42-162/162D.pdf.
  3. H. C. Tapalian, J. P. Laine, and P. A. Lane, “Thermooptical switches using coated microsphere resonators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1118-1120 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Ioppolo and M. V. Ötügen, “Pressure tuning of whispering gallery mode resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2721-2726 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Vollmer, D. Brown, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, “Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption,” Opt. Lett. 28, 272-274 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. I. Teraoka, S. Arnold, and F. Vollmer, “Perturbation approach to resonance shifts of whispering-gallery modes in a dielectric microsphere as a probe of a surrounding medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1937-1946 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74(2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. N. Dubreuil, J. C. Knight, D. Leventhal, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, V. Lefevre Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Eroded monomode optical-fiber for whispering-gallery made excitation in fused-silica microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 20, 813-815 (1995).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

G. Guan, S. Arnold, and M. V. Ötügen., “Temperature measurements using a micro-optical sensor based on whispering gallery modes,” AIAA 44, 2385-2389 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

H. C. Tapalian, J. P. Laine, and P. A. Lane, “Thermooptical switches using coated microsphere resonators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1118-1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Brown, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. T. Rosenberger and J. P. Resac, “Whispering-gallery-mode evanescent-wave microsensor for trace-gas detection,” Proc. SPIE 4265, 102-112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Laine, C. Tapalian, B. Little, and H. Haus, “Acceleration sensor based on high-Q optical microsphere resonator and pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguide coupler,” Sens. Actuators A 93, 1-7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Strain-tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator,” Opt. Commun. 145, 86-90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

1995

1993

Arnold, S.

G. Guan, S. Arnold, and M. V. Ötügen., “Temperature measurements using a micro-optical sensor based on whispering gallery modes,” AIAA 44, 2385-2389 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, “Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption,” Opt. Lett. 28, 272-274 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Teraoka, S. Arnold, and F. Vollmer, “Perturbation approach to resonance shifts of whispering-gallery modes in a dielectric microsphere as a probe of a surrounding medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1937-1946 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Brown, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Brown, D.

F. Vollmer, D. Brown, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cai, M.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheung, G.

Das, N.

N. Das, T. Ioppolo, and V. Ötügen., “Investigation of a micro-optical concentration sensor concept based on whispering gallery mode resonators,” in 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibition (AIAA, 2007).

Dubreuil, N.

Eversole, J. D.

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Guan, G.

G. Guan, S. Arnold, and M. V. Ötügen., “Temperature measurements using a micro-optical sensor based on whispering gallery modes,” AIAA 44, 2385-2389 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

Haroche, S.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Strain-tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator,” Opt. Commun. 145, 86-90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Dubreuil, J. C. Knight, D. Leventhal, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, V. Lefevre Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Eroded monomode optical-fiber for whispering-gallery made excitation in fused-silica microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 20, 813-815 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H.

J. P. Laine, C. Tapalian, B. Little, and H. Haus, “Acceleration sensor based on high-Q optical microsphere resonator and pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguide coupler,” Sens. Actuators A 93, 1-7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Holler, S.

Huston, A. L.

Ilchenko, V. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Strain-tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator,” Opt. Commun. 145, 86-90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators,” Opt. Lett. 21, 453-455 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Revew of application of whispering-gallery mode resonators in photonics and nonlinear optics,” IPN Progeress Report 42-162, (2005) http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/progress_report/42-162/162D.pdf.

Ioppolo, T.

T. Ioppolo and M. V. Ötügen, “Pressure tuning of whispering gallery mode resonators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2721-2726 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Das, T. Ioppolo, and V. Ötügen., “Investigation of a micro-optical concentration sensor concept based on whispering gallery mode resonators,” in 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibition (AIAA, 2007).

Jacques, F.

Khoshsima, M.

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, “Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption,” Opt. Lett. 28, 272-274 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, D. Brown, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Laine, J. P.

H. C. Tapalian, J. P. Laine, and P. A. Lane, “Thermooptical switches using coated microsphere resonators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1118-1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Laine, C. Tapalian, B. Little, and H. Haus, “Acceleration sensor based on high-Q optical microsphere resonator and pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguide coupler,” Sens. Actuators A 93, 1-7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lane, P. A.

H. C. Tapalian, J. P. Laine, and P. A. Lane, “Thermooptical switches using coated microsphere resonators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1118-1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lefevre-Seguin, V.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Strain-tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator,” Opt. Commun. 145, 86-90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leventhal, D.

Libchaber, A.

F. Vollmer, D. Brown, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Little, B.

J. P. Laine, C. Tapalian, B. Little, and H. Haus, “Acceleration sensor based on high-Q optical microsphere resonator and pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguide coupler,” Sens. Actuators A 93, 1-7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Revew of application of whispering-gallery mode resonators in photonics and nonlinear optics,” IPN Progeress Report 42-162, (2005) http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/progress_report/42-162/162D.pdf.

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Revew of application of whispering-gallery mode resonators in photonics and nonlinear optics,” IPN Progeress Report 42-162, (2005) http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/progress_report/42-162/162D.pdf.

Ötügen, M. V.

Ötügen., M. V.

G. Guan, S. Arnold, and M. V. Ötügen., “Temperature measurements using a micro-optical sensor based on whispering gallery modes,” AIAA 44, 2385-2389 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ötügen., V.

N. Das, T. Ioppolo, and V. Ötügen., “Investigation of a micro-optical concentration sensor concept based on whispering gallery mode resonators,” in 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibition (AIAA, 2007).

Painter, O.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raimond, J. M.

Raimond, J.-M.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Strain-tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator,” Opt. Commun. 145, 86-90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Resac, J. P.

A. T. Rosenberger and J. P. Resac, “Whispering-gallery-mode evanescent-wave microsensor for trace-gas detection,” Proc. SPIE 4265, 102-112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberger, A. T.

A. T. Rosenberger and J. P. Resac, “Whispering-gallery-mode evanescent-wave microsensor for trace-gas detection,” Proc. SPIE 4265, 102-112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

Savchenkov, A. A.

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators,” Opt. Lett. 21, 453-455 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Revew of application of whispering-gallery mode resonators in photonics and nonlinear optics,” IPN Progeress Report 42-162, (2005) http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/progress_report/42-162/162D.pdf.

Seguin, V. Lefevre

Strekalov, D.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Revew of application of whispering-gallery mode resonators in photonics and nonlinear optics,” IPN Progeress Report 42-162, (2005) http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/progress_report/42-162/162D.pdf.

Tapalian, C.

J. P. Laine, C. Tapalian, B. Little, and H. Haus, “Acceleration sensor based on high-Q optical microsphere resonator and pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguide coupler,” Sens. Actuators A 93, 1-7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tapalian, H. C.

H. C. Tapalian, J. P. Laine, and P. A. Lane, “Thermooptical switches using coated microsphere resonators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1118-1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Teraoka, I.

Treussart, F.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Strain-tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator,” Opt. Commun. 145, 86-90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velichansky, V. L.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Strain-tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator,” Opt. Commun. 145, 86-90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Volikov, P. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Strain-tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator,” Opt. Commun. 145, 86-90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

AIAA

G. Guan, S. Arnold, and M. V. Ötügen., “Temperature measurements using a micro-optical sensor based on whispering gallery modes,” AIAA 44, 2385-2389 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Vollmer, D. Brown, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

H. C. Tapalian, J. P. Laine, and P. A. Lane, “Thermooptical switches using coated microsphere resonators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1118-1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

V. S. Ilchenko, P. S. Volikov, V. L. Velichansky, F. Treussart, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Strain-tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator,” Opt. Commun. 145, 86-90 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

A. T. Rosenberger and J. P. Resac, “Whispering-gallery-mode evanescent-wave microsensor for trace-gas detection,” Proc. SPIE 4265, 102-112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A

J. P. Laine, C. Tapalian, B. Little, and H. Haus, “Acceleration sensor based on high-Q optical microsphere resonator and pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguide coupler,” Sens. Actuators A 93, 1-7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

N. Das, T. Ioppolo, and V. Ötügen., “Investigation of a micro-optical concentration sensor concept based on whispering gallery mode resonators,” in 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibition (AIAA, 2007).

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Revew of application of whispering-gallery mode resonators in photonics and nonlinear optics,” IPN Progeress Report 42-162, (2005) http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/progress_report/42-162/162D.pdf.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microsphere under compressive force. r e and r a are the equatorial and polar radii.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph and diameter distribution of a typical stretched fiber section.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photographs of (a) silica, (b) PMMA spheres.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Close up photograph of microsphere between two compression pads, (b) schematic of compression system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Observed transmission spectra showing WGM shift as a function of applied force: (a)  460 μm diameter solid PMMA; (b)  980 μm diameter hollow PMMA, with 20 μm wall thickness.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) WGM shifts of silica sphere for several compressive loading and unloading cycles. (b) Resonance shift dependence on the applied force for the case shown in (a).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

WGM shift as a function of applied force for silica and PMMA spheres.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Force sensitivity dependence on diameter for solid (a) silica and (b) PMMA microspheres.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Force sensitivity dependence on diameter for hollow PMMA microspheres.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Material Properties of Silica and PMMA

Equations (1)

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d r e r e + d n n = d λ λ .

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