Abstract

Short-wavelength visible light (blue light) of the Sun has caused retinal damage in people who have stared fixedly at the Sun without adequate protection. The author quantified the blue-light hazard of the Sun according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines by measuring the spectral radiance of the Sun. The results showed that the exposure limit for blue light can be easily exceeded when people view the Sun and that the solar blue-light hazard generally increases with solar elevation, which is in accordance with a model of the atmospheric extinction of sunlight. Viewing the Sun can be very hazardous and therefore should be avoided except at very low solar elevations.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. A. Jevons, “A case of eclipse blindness,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 30, 84-85 (1946).
  2. K. Knudtzon, “The prognosis of scotoma helieclipticum. Follow-up examination of 47 patients injured on 9th July 1945,” Acta Ophthalmol. 26, 469-494 (1948).
  3. E. Rosen, “Solar retinitis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 32, 23-35(1948).
  4. T. Das, M. S. Nirankari, and M. R. Chaddah, “Solar chorioretinal burn,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 41, 1048-1053 (1956).
  5. L. P. Agarwal and S. R. K. Malik, “Solar retinitis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 366-370 (1959).
  6. H. G. Pang, “Eclipse retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 55, 383-384 (1963).
  7. R. Penner and J. N. McNair, “Eclipse blindness. Report of an epidemic in the military population of Hawaii,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 61, 1452-1457 (1966).
  8. A. E. A. Ridgway, “Solar retinopathy,” Br. Med. J. 3, 212-214 (1967).
  9. W. J. Geeraets, T. W. Nooney, J. R. Svoboda, and F. C. Ching, “Solar retinopathy following the eclipse of March 7, 1970,” Med. Coll. Va. Quart. 6, 3-7 (1969).
  10. P. A. MacFaul, “Visual prognosis after solar retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 53, 534-541 (1969).
  11. E. M. Hatfield, “Eye injuries and the solar eclipse. Results of a survey,” Sight-Saving Rev. 40 (Summer), 79-85 (1970).
  12. L. Rothkoff, A. Kushelevsky, and M. Blumenthal, “Solar retinopathy: visual prognosis in 20 cases,” Israel J. Med. Sci. 14, 238-243 (1978).
  13. T. Yamada and A. Kitagawa, “Solar retinitis,” Rinshoganka 33, 748-749 (1979) (in Japanese).
  14. N. Matsumoto, H. Abe, K. Nanba, and A. Matsuda, “Eclipse retinopathy and its prognosis,” Rinshoganka 34, 355-361 (1980) (in Japanese).
  15. S. P. Dhir, A. Gupta, and I. S. Jain, “Eclipse retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65, 42-45 (1981).
  16. N. A. Jacobs, M. Headon, and E. S. Rosen, “Solar retinopathy in the Manchester area,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U.K. 104, 625-628 (1985).
  17. G. C. Cangelosi and D. A. Newsome, “Solar retinopathy in persons on religious pilgrimage,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 105, 95-97 (1988).
  18. M. Hope-Ross, S. Travers, and D. Mooney, “Solar retinopathy following religious rituals,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 72, 931-934 (1988).
  19. L. S. Atmaca, A. Idil, and D. Can, “Early and late visual prognosis in solar retinopathy,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 233, 801-804 (1995).
  20. M. Bechmann, O. Ehrt, M. J. Thiel, N. Kristin, M. W. Ulbig, and A. Kampik, “Optical coherence tomography findings in early solar retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84, 547-548(2000).
  21. M. Michaelides, R. Rajendram, J. Marshall, and S. Keightley, “Eclipse retinopathy,” Eye 15, 148-151 (2001).
  22. S. C. K. Wong, T. Eke, and N. G. Ziakas, “Eclipse burns: a prospective study of solar retinopathy following the 1999 solar eclipse,” Lancet 357, 199-200 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Codenotti, F. Patelli, and R. Brancato, “OCT findings in patients with retinopathy after watching a solar eclipse,” Ophthalmologica 216, 463-466 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. E. Doyle, D. Sahu, and G. Ong, “Solar retinopathy after the 1999 solar eclipse in East Sussex,” Eye 16, 203-206(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. Schatz, U. Eriksson, V. Ponjavic, and S. Andreasson, “Multifocal electroretinography and optical coherence tomography in two patients with solar retinopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 82, 476-480 (2004).
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  29. T. Okuno, H. Saito, and J. Ojima, “Evaluation of blue-light hazards from various light sources,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 35, 104-112 (2002).
  30. K. Pierce, “Limb darkening,” in Allen's Astrophysical Quantities, A. N. Cox, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2000), pp. 355-357.
  31. A. T. Young, “Air mass and refraction,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1108-1110 (1994).
  32. J. J. Keady and D. P. Kilcrease, “Radiation,” in Allen's Astrophysical Quantities, A.N.Cox, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2000), pp. 95-120.
  33. D. Crips, “Atmospheric scattering and continuum absorption,” in Allen's Astrophysical Quantities, A. N. Cox, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2000), pp. 265-268.

2004

P. Schatz, U. Eriksson, V. Ponjavic, and S. Andreasson, “Multifocal electroretinography and optical coherence tomography in two patients with solar retinopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 82, 476-480 (2004).

2002

T. Okuno, H. Saito, and J. Ojima, “Evaluation of blue-light hazards from various light sources,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 35, 104-112 (2002).

M. Codenotti, F. Patelli, and R. Brancato, “OCT findings in patients with retinopathy after watching a solar eclipse,” Ophthalmologica 216, 463-466 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Doyle, D. Sahu, and G. Ong, “Solar retinopathy after the 1999 solar eclipse in East Sussex,” Eye 16, 203-206(2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Michaelides, R. Rajendram, J. Marshall, and S. Keightley, “Eclipse retinopathy,” Eye 15, 148-151 (2001).

S. C. K. Wong, T. Eke, and N. G. Ziakas, “Eclipse burns: a prospective study of solar retinopathy following the 1999 solar eclipse,” Lancet 357, 199-200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Bechmann, O. Ehrt, M. J. Thiel, N. Kristin, M. W. Ulbig, and A. Kampik, “Optical coherence tomography findings in early solar retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84, 547-548(2000).

1997

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “Guidelines on limits of exposure to broad-band incoherent optical radiation (0.38 to 3 micro m),” Health Phys. 73, 539-554 (1997).

1995

L. S. Atmaca, A. Idil, and D. Can, “Early and late visual prognosis in solar retinopathy,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 233, 801-804 (1995).

1994

1991

M. Hietanen, “Ocular exposure to solar ultraviolet and visible radiation at high latitudes,” Scand. J. Work Environ. Health. 17, 398-403 (1991).

1988

G. C. Cangelosi and D. A. Newsome, “Solar retinopathy in persons on religious pilgrimage,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 105, 95-97 (1988).

M. Hope-Ross, S. Travers, and D. Mooney, “Solar retinopathy following religious rituals,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 72, 931-934 (1988).

1985

N. A. Jacobs, M. Headon, and E. S. Rosen, “Solar retinopathy in the Manchester area,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U.K. 104, 625-628 (1985).

1981

S. P. Dhir, A. Gupta, and I. S. Jain, “Eclipse retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65, 42-45 (1981).

1980

N. Matsumoto, H. Abe, K. Nanba, and A. Matsuda, “Eclipse retinopathy and its prognosis,” Rinshoganka 34, 355-361 (1980) (in Japanese).

1979

T. Yamada and A. Kitagawa, “Solar retinitis,” Rinshoganka 33, 748-749 (1979) (in Japanese).

1978

L. Rothkoff, A. Kushelevsky, and M. Blumenthal, “Solar retinopathy: visual prognosis in 20 cases,” Israel J. Med. Sci. 14, 238-243 (1978).

1970

E. M. Hatfield, “Eye injuries and the solar eclipse. Results of a survey,” Sight-Saving Rev. 40 (Summer), 79-85 (1970).

1969

W. J. Geeraets, T. W. Nooney, J. R. Svoboda, and F. C. Ching, “Solar retinopathy following the eclipse of March 7, 1970,” Med. Coll. Va. Quart. 6, 3-7 (1969).

P. A. MacFaul, “Visual prognosis after solar retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 53, 534-541 (1969).

1967

A. E. A. Ridgway, “Solar retinopathy,” Br. Med. J. 3, 212-214 (1967).

1966

R. Penner and J. N. McNair, “Eclipse blindness. Report of an epidemic in the military population of Hawaii,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 61, 1452-1457 (1966).

1963

H. G. Pang, “Eclipse retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 55, 383-384 (1963).

1959

L. P. Agarwal and S. R. K. Malik, “Solar retinitis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 366-370 (1959).

1956

T. Das, M. S. Nirankari, and M. R. Chaddah, “Solar chorioretinal burn,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 41, 1048-1053 (1956).

1948

K. Knudtzon, “The prognosis of scotoma helieclipticum. Follow-up examination of 47 patients injured on 9th July 1945,” Acta Ophthalmol. 26, 469-494 (1948).

E. Rosen, “Solar retinitis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 32, 23-35(1948).

1946

N. A. Jevons, “A case of eclipse blindness,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 30, 84-85 (1946).

Abe, H.

N. Matsumoto, H. Abe, K. Nanba, and A. Matsuda, “Eclipse retinopathy and its prognosis,” Rinshoganka 34, 355-361 (1980) (in Japanese).

Agarwal, L. P.

L. P. Agarwal and S. R. K. Malik, “Solar retinitis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 366-370 (1959).

Andreasson, S.

P. Schatz, U. Eriksson, V. Ponjavic, and S. Andreasson, “Multifocal electroretinography and optical coherence tomography in two patients with solar retinopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 82, 476-480 (2004).

Atmaca, L. S.

L. S. Atmaca, A. Idil, and D. Can, “Early and late visual prognosis in solar retinopathy,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 233, 801-804 (1995).

Bechmann, M.

M. Bechmann, O. Ehrt, M. J. Thiel, N. Kristin, M. W. Ulbig, and A. Kampik, “Optical coherence tomography findings in early solar retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84, 547-548(2000).

Blumenthal, M.

L. Rothkoff, A. Kushelevsky, and M. Blumenthal, “Solar retinopathy: visual prognosis in 20 cases,” Israel J. Med. Sci. 14, 238-243 (1978).

Brancato, R.

M. Codenotti, F. Patelli, and R. Brancato, “OCT findings in patients with retinopathy after watching a solar eclipse,” Ophthalmologica 216, 463-466 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Can, D.

L. S. Atmaca, A. Idil, and D. Can, “Early and late visual prognosis in solar retinopathy,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 233, 801-804 (1995).

Cangelosi, G. C.

G. C. Cangelosi and D. A. Newsome, “Solar retinopathy in persons on religious pilgrimage,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 105, 95-97 (1988).

Chaddah, M. R.

T. Das, M. S. Nirankari, and M. R. Chaddah, “Solar chorioretinal burn,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 41, 1048-1053 (1956).

Ching, F. C.

W. J. Geeraets, T. W. Nooney, J. R. Svoboda, and F. C. Ching, “Solar retinopathy following the eclipse of March 7, 1970,” Med. Coll. Va. Quart. 6, 3-7 (1969).

Codenotti, M.

M. Codenotti, F. Patelli, and R. Brancato, “OCT findings in patients with retinopathy after watching a solar eclipse,” Ophthalmologica 216, 463-466 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crips, D.

D. Crips, “Atmospheric scattering and continuum absorption,” in Allen's Astrophysical Quantities, A. N. Cox, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2000), pp. 265-268.

Das, T.

T. Das, M. S. Nirankari, and M. R. Chaddah, “Solar chorioretinal burn,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 41, 1048-1053 (1956).

Dhir, S. P.

S. P. Dhir, A. Gupta, and I. S. Jain, “Eclipse retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65, 42-45 (1981).

Doyle, E.

E. Doyle, D. Sahu, and G. Ong, “Solar retinopathy after the 1999 solar eclipse in East Sussex,” Eye 16, 203-206(2002).
[CrossRef]

Ehrt, O.

M. Bechmann, O. Ehrt, M. J. Thiel, N. Kristin, M. W. Ulbig, and A. Kampik, “Optical coherence tomography findings in early solar retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84, 547-548(2000).

Eke, T.

S. C. K. Wong, T. Eke, and N. G. Ziakas, “Eclipse burns: a prospective study of solar retinopathy following the 1999 solar eclipse,” Lancet 357, 199-200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, U.

P. Schatz, U. Eriksson, V. Ponjavic, and S. Andreasson, “Multifocal electroretinography and optical coherence tomography in two patients with solar retinopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 82, 476-480 (2004).

Geeraets, W. J.

W. J. Geeraets, T. W. Nooney, J. R. Svoboda, and F. C. Ching, “Solar retinopathy following the eclipse of March 7, 1970,” Med. Coll. Va. Quart. 6, 3-7 (1969).

Gupta, A.

S. P. Dhir, A. Gupta, and I. S. Jain, “Eclipse retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65, 42-45 (1981).

Hatfield, E. M.

E. M. Hatfield, “Eye injuries and the solar eclipse. Results of a survey,” Sight-Saving Rev. 40 (Summer), 79-85 (1970).

Headon, M.

N. A. Jacobs, M. Headon, and E. S. Rosen, “Solar retinopathy in the Manchester area,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U.K. 104, 625-628 (1985).

Hietanen, M.

M. Hietanen, “Ocular exposure to solar ultraviolet and visible radiation at high latitudes,” Scand. J. Work Environ. Health. 17, 398-403 (1991).

Hope-Ross, M.

M. Hope-Ross, S. Travers, and D. Mooney, “Solar retinopathy following religious rituals,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 72, 931-934 (1988).

Idil, A.

L. S. Atmaca, A. Idil, and D. Can, “Early and late visual prognosis in solar retinopathy,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 233, 801-804 (1995).

Jacobs, N. A.

N. A. Jacobs, M. Headon, and E. S. Rosen, “Solar retinopathy in the Manchester area,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U.K. 104, 625-628 (1985).

Jain, I. S.

S. P. Dhir, A. Gupta, and I. S. Jain, “Eclipse retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65, 42-45 (1981).

Jevons, N. A.

N. A. Jevons, “A case of eclipse blindness,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 30, 84-85 (1946).

Kampik, A.

M. Bechmann, O. Ehrt, M. J. Thiel, N. Kristin, M. W. Ulbig, and A. Kampik, “Optical coherence tomography findings in early solar retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84, 547-548(2000).

Keady, J. J.

J. J. Keady and D. P. Kilcrease, “Radiation,” in Allen's Astrophysical Quantities, A.N.Cox, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2000), pp. 95-120.

Keightley, S.

M. Michaelides, R. Rajendram, J. Marshall, and S. Keightley, “Eclipse retinopathy,” Eye 15, 148-151 (2001).

Kilcrease, D. P.

J. J. Keady and D. P. Kilcrease, “Radiation,” in Allen's Astrophysical Quantities, A.N.Cox, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2000), pp. 95-120.

Kitagawa, A.

T. Yamada and A. Kitagawa, “Solar retinitis,” Rinshoganka 33, 748-749 (1979) (in Japanese).

Knudtzon, K.

K. Knudtzon, “The prognosis of scotoma helieclipticum. Follow-up examination of 47 patients injured on 9th July 1945,” Acta Ophthalmol. 26, 469-494 (1948).

Kristin, N.

M. Bechmann, O. Ehrt, M. J. Thiel, N. Kristin, M. W. Ulbig, and A. Kampik, “Optical coherence tomography findings in early solar retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84, 547-548(2000).

Kushelevsky, A.

L. Rothkoff, A. Kushelevsky, and M. Blumenthal, “Solar retinopathy: visual prognosis in 20 cases,” Israel J. Med. Sci. 14, 238-243 (1978).

MacFaul, P. A.

P. A. MacFaul, “Visual prognosis after solar retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 53, 534-541 (1969).

Malik, S. R. K.

L. P. Agarwal and S. R. K. Malik, “Solar retinitis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 366-370 (1959).

Marshall, J.

M. Michaelides, R. Rajendram, J. Marshall, and S. Keightley, “Eclipse retinopathy,” Eye 15, 148-151 (2001).

Matsuda, A.

N. Matsumoto, H. Abe, K. Nanba, and A. Matsuda, “Eclipse retinopathy and its prognosis,” Rinshoganka 34, 355-361 (1980) (in Japanese).

Matsumoto, N.

N. Matsumoto, H. Abe, K. Nanba, and A. Matsuda, “Eclipse retinopathy and its prognosis,” Rinshoganka 34, 355-361 (1980) (in Japanese).

McNair, J. N.

R. Penner and J. N. McNair, “Eclipse blindness. Report of an epidemic in the military population of Hawaii,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 61, 1452-1457 (1966).

Michaelides, M.

M. Michaelides, R. Rajendram, J. Marshall, and S. Keightley, “Eclipse retinopathy,” Eye 15, 148-151 (2001).

Mooney, D.

M. Hope-Ross, S. Travers, and D. Mooney, “Solar retinopathy following religious rituals,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 72, 931-934 (1988).

Nanba, K.

N. Matsumoto, H. Abe, K. Nanba, and A. Matsuda, “Eclipse retinopathy and its prognosis,” Rinshoganka 34, 355-361 (1980) (in Japanese).

Newsome, D. A.

G. C. Cangelosi and D. A. Newsome, “Solar retinopathy in persons on religious pilgrimage,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 105, 95-97 (1988).

Nirankari, M. S.

T. Das, M. S. Nirankari, and M. R. Chaddah, “Solar chorioretinal burn,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 41, 1048-1053 (1956).

Nooney, T. W.

W. J. Geeraets, T. W. Nooney, J. R. Svoboda, and F. C. Ching, “Solar retinopathy following the eclipse of March 7, 1970,” Med. Coll. Va. Quart. 6, 3-7 (1969).

Ojima, J.

T. Okuno, H. Saito, and J. Ojima, “Evaluation of blue-light hazards from various light sources,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 35, 104-112 (2002).

Okuno, T.

T. Okuno, H. Saito, and J. Ojima, “Evaluation of blue-light hazards from various light sources,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 35, 104-112 (2002).

Ong, G.

E. Doyle, D. Sahu, and G. Ong, “Solar retinopathy after the 1999 solar eclipse in East Sussex,” Eye 16, 203-206(2002).
[CrossRef]

Pang, H. G.

H. G. Pang, “Eclipse retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 55, 383-384 (1963).

Patelli, F.

M. Codenotti, F. Patelli, and R. Brancato, “OCT findings in patients with retinopathy after watching a solar eclipse,” Ophthalmologica 216, 463-466 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Penner, R.

R. Penner and J. N. McNair, “Eclipse blindness. Report of an epidemic in the military population of Hawaii,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 61, 1452-1457 (1966).

Pierce, K.

K. Pierce, “Limb darkening,” in Allen's Astrophysical Quantities, A. N. Cox, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2000), pp. 355-357.

Ponjavic, V.

P. Schatz, U. Eriksson, V. Ponjavic, and S. Andreasson, “Multifocal electroretinography and optical coherence tomography in two patients with solar retinopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 82, 476-480 (2004).

Rajendram, R.

M. Michaelides, R. Rajendram, J. Marshall, and S. Keightley, “Eclipse retinopathy,” Eye 15, 148-151 (2001).

Ridgway, A. E. A.

A. E. A. Ridgway, “Solar retinopathy,” Br. Med. J. 3, 212-214 (1967).

Rosen, E.

E. Rosen, “Solar retinitis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 32, 23-35(1948).

Rosen, E. S.

N. A. Jacobs, M. Headon, and E. S. Rosen, “Solar retinopathy in the Manchester area,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U.K. 104, 625-628 (1985).

Rothkoff, L.

L. Rothkoff, A. Kushelevsky, and M. Blumenthal, “Solar retinopathy: visual prognosis in 20 cases,” Israel J. Med. Sci. 14, 238-243 (1978).

Sahu, D.

E. Doyle, D. Sahu, and G. Ong, “Solar retinopathy after the 1999 solar eclipse in East Sussex,” Eye 16, 203-206(2002).
[CrossRef]

Saito, H.

T. Okuno, H. Saito, and J. Ojima, “Evaluation of blue-light hazards from various light sources,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 35, 104-112 (2002).

Schatz, P.

P. Schatz, U. Eriksson, V. Ponjavic, and S. Andreasson, “Multifocal electroretinography and optical coherence tomography in two patients with solar retinopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 82, 476-480 (2004).

Svoboda, J. R.

W. J. Geeraets, T. W. Nooney, J. R. Svoboda, and F. C. Ching, “Solar retinopathy following the eclipse of March 7, 1970,” Med. Coll. Va. Quart. 6, 3-7 (1969).

Thiel, M. J.

M. Bechmann, O. Ehrt, M. J. Thiel, N. Kristin, M. W. Ulbig, and A. Kampik, “Optical coherence tomography findings in early solar retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84, 547-548(2000).

Travers, S.

M. Hope-Ross, S. Travers, and D. Mooney, “Solar retinopathy following religious rituals,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 72, 931-934 (1988).

Ulbig, M. W.

M. Bechmann, O. Ehrt, M. J. Thiel, N. Kristin, M. W. Ulbig, and A. Kampik, “Optical coherence tomography findings in early solar retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84, 547-548(2000).

Wong, S. C. K.

S. C. K. Wong, T. Eke, and N. G. Ziakas, “Eclipse burns: a prospective study of solar retinopathy following the 1999 solar eclipse,” Lancet 357, 199-200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

T. Yamada and A. Kitagawa, “Solar retinitis,” Rinshoganka 33, 748-749 (1979) (in Japanese).

Young, A. T.

Ziakas, N. G.

S. C. K. Wong, T. Eke, and N. G. Ziakas, “Eclipse burns: a prospective study of solar retinopathy following the 1999 solar eclipse,” Lancet 357, 199-200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Acta Ophthalmol.

K. Knudtzon, “The prognosis of scotoma helieclipticum. Follow-up examination of 47 patients injured on 9th July 1945,” Acta Ophthalmol. 26, 469-494 (1948).

Acta Ophthalmol. Scand.

P. Schatz, U. Eriksson, V. Ponjavic, and S. Andreasson, “Multifocal electroretinography and optical coherence tomography in two patients with solar retinopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 82, 476-480 (2004).

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

T. Das, M. S. Nirankari, and M. R. Chaddah, “Solar chorioretinal burn,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 41, 1048-1053 (1956).

H. G. Pang, “Eclipse retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 55, 383-384 (1963).

R. Penner and J. N. McNair, “Eclipse blindness. Report of an epidemic in the military population of Hawaii,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 61, 1452-1457 (1966).

G. C. Cangelosi and D. A. Newsome, “Solar retinopathy in persons on religious pilgrimage,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 105, 95-97 (1988).

Appl. Opt.

Br. J. Ophthalmol.

N. A. Jevons, “A case of eclipse blindness,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 30, 84-85 (1946).

M. Bechmann, O. Ehrt, M. J. Thiel, N. Kristin, M. W. Ulbig, and A. Kampik, “Optical coherence tomography findings in early solar retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84, 547-548(2000).

M. Hope-Ross, S. Travers, and D. Mooney, “Solar retinopathy following religious rituals,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 72, 931-934 (1988).

S. P. Dhir, A. Gupta, and I. S. Jain, “Eclipse retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65, 42-45 (1981).

P. A. MacFaul, “Visual prognosis after solar retinopathy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 53, 534-541 (1969).

L. P. Agarwal and S. R. K. Malik, “Solar retinitis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 366-370 (1959).

E. Rosen, “Solar retinitis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 32, 23-35(1948).

Br. Med. J.

A. E. A. Ridgway, “Solar retinopathy,” Br. Med. J. 3, 212-214 (1967).

Dev. Ophthalmol.

T. Okuno, H. Saito, and J. Ojima, “Evaluation of blue-light hazards from various light sources,” Dev. Ophthalmol. 35, 104-112 (2002).

Eye

M. Michaelides, R. Rajendram, J. Marshall, and S. Keightley, “Eclipse retinopathy,” Eye 15, 148-151 (2001).

E. Doyle, D. Sahu, and G. Ong, “Solar retinopathy after the 1999 solar eclipse in East Sussex,” Eye 16, 203-206(2002).
[CrossRef]

Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.

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S. C. K. Wong, T. Eke, and N. G. Ziakas, “Eclipse burns: a prospective study of solar retinopathy following the 1999 solar eclipse,” Lancet 357, 199-200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Blue-light hazard function [26, 27]. The blue-light hazard function shows the effectiveness of optical radiation to produce photochemical retinal damage as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Solar spectral radiance measured on 23 June 2006 in Ishigaki, Japan. The time and solar elevation at which the measurement was taken are indicated for each line.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Solar blue-light radiance measured on 22 June 2006 in Ishigaki, Japan. The maximum permissible exposure duration per day can be read from the right-hand scale.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Solar blue-light radiance plotted against solar elevation. The letters A–J represent data for 10 days, and the curve represents the prediction of the best-fit model. The maximum permissible exposure duration per day can be read from the right-hand scale.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Extinction coefficient per unit air mass plotted against wavelength. The curve represents k = 8.65 × 10 2 + 7.68 × 10 9 λ 4 , where k is extinction coefficient and λ is wavelength.

Equations (4)

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L ( γ ) = L 0 exp [ k M ( γ ) ] ,
M ( γ ) = 1.002432 cos 2 ( 90 ° γ ) + 0.148386 cos ( 90 ° γ ) + 0.0096467 cos 3 ( 90 ° γ ) + 0.149864 cos 2 ( 90 ° γ ) + 0.0102963     cos ( 90 ° γ ) + 0.000303978 .
L m ( γ ) = 2.26 × 10 6 exp [ 0.272 M ( γ ) ] ,
t max ( γ ) = 0.619 exp [ 0.272 M ( γ ) ] ,

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