Abstract

We report on the design and fabrication of a planar integrated free-space optical system working on the basis of binary phase diffractive optical elements (DOEs) realized in GaN on a sapphire substrate. Group III-nitride/sapphire substrates enable the parallel monolithic integration of passive microoptical elements like lenses and gratings as demonstrated here and optoelectronic devices like light emitters and photodetectors on a single wafer. We present an approach for the simultaneous optimization of the efficiency of transmissive and reflective diffractive optical elements processed in a single lithographic etching step.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Jahns and A. Huang, “Planar integration of free-space optical components,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1602-1605 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Jahns, “Planar packaging of free-space optical interconnections,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1623-1631 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Jarczynski, T. Seiler, and J. Jahns, “Integrated three-dimensional optical multilayer using free-space optics,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6335-6341 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Sinzinger, “Microoptically integrated correlators for security applications,” Opt. Commun. 209, 69-74 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, “Integrated microoptical imaging system with high interconnection capacity fabricated in planar optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4729-4735 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Wippermann, D. Radtke, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Integrated free-space optical interconnect fabricated in planar optics using chirped microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 14, 10765-10778 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Lunitz and J. Jahns, “Tolerant design of a planar-optical clock distribution system,” Opt. Commun. 134, 281-288(1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Ambacher, “Growth and applications of group III-nitrides,” J. Phys. D 31, 2653-2710 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Dorsaz, J.-F. Carlin, S. Gradecak, and M. Ilegems, “Progress in AlInN-GaN Bragg reflectors: application to a microcavity light emitting diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 084505 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3222 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Hirayama, “Quaternary InAlGaN-based high-efficiency ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 091101(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Steinhoff, M. Hermann, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, M. Stutzmann, and M. Eickhoff, “pH response of GaN surfaces and its application for pH-sensitive field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 177 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. Cimalla, F. Will, K. Tonisch, M. Niebelschütz, V. Cimalla, V. Lebedev, G. Kittler, M. Himmerlich, S. Krischok, J. A. Schaefer, M. Gebinoga, A. Schober, T. Friedrich, and O. Ambacher, “AlGaN/GaN biosensor--effect of device processing steps on the surface properties and biocompatibility” Sens. Actuators B 123, 740-748.
  14. J. Jahns and S. Sinzinger, “Microoptics for biomedical applications,” Am. Biotechnol. Lab. 11, 53-54 (2000).
  15. S. Sinzinger, “Diffractive and refractive microoptics,” in Comprehensive Microsystems, Y. Gianchandani, O. Tabata, and H. Zappe, eds. (Elsevier, 2007).
  16. J. Jahns and S. Walker, “Imaging with planar optical systems,” Opt. Commun. 76, 311-317 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Testorf and J. Jahns, “Imaging properties of planar-integrated micro-optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1175-1183(1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, Microoptics (Wiley-VCH, 2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Dammann, “Spectral characteristics of stepped-phase gratings,” Optik 53, 409-417 (1979).
  20. J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).
  21. V. Lebedev, V. Cimalla, T. Baumann, O. Ambacher, F. M. Morales, J. G. Lozano, and D. González, “Effect of dislocations on electrical and electron transport properties of InN thin films. II. Density and mobility of the carriers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094903 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Tonisch, V. Cimalla, C. Förster, H. Romanus, O. Ambacher, and D. Dontsov, “Piezoelectric properties of polycrystalline AlN thin films for MEMS application,” Sens. Actuators A 132, 658-663 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Stoebenau, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Ultraprecision micromilling of freeform optical elements for planar microoptical systems integration,” SPIE Photonics Europe 2008, Strasbourg, 7-11 April, 2008.

2006 (4)

V. Lebedev, V. Cimalla, T. Baumann, O. Ambacher, F. M. Morales, J. G. Lozano, and D. González, “Effect of dislocations on electrical and electron transport properties of InN thin films. II. Density and mobility of the carriers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Tonisch, V. Cimalla, C. Förster, H. Romanus, O. Ambacher, and D. Dontsov, “Piezoelectric properties of polycrystalline AlN thin films for MEMS application,” Sens. Actuators A 132, 658-663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Jarczynski, T. Seiler, and J. Jahns, “Integrated three-dimensional optical multilayer using free-space optics,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6335-6341 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wippermann, D. Radtke, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Integrated free-space optical interconnect fabricated in planar optics using chirped microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 14, 10765-10778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. Dorsaz, J.-F. Carlin, S. Gradecak, and M. Ilegems, “Progress in AlInN-GaN Bragg reflectors: application to a microcavity light emitting diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 084505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirayama, “Quaternary InAlGaN-based high-efficiency ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 091101(2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. Steinhoff, M. Hermann, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, M. Stutzmann, and M. Eickhoff, “pH response of GaN surfaces and its application for pH-sensitive field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Sinzinger, “Microoptically integrated correlators for security applications,” Opt. Commun. 209, 69-74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Jahns and S. Sinzinger, “Microoptics for biomedical applications,” Am. Biotechnol. Lab. 11, 53-54 (2000).

1999 (2)

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Testorf and J. Jahns, “Imaging properties of planar-integrated micro-optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1175-1183(1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

O. Ambacher, “Growth and applications of group III-nitrides,” J. Phys. D 31, 2653-2710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1994 (1)

J. Jahns, “Planar packaging of free-space optical interconnections,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1623-1631 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. Jahns and S. Walker, “Imaging with planar optical systems,” Opt. Commun. 76, 311-317 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1979 (1)

H. Dammann, “Spectral characteristics of stepped-phase gratings,” Optik 53, 409-417 (1979).

Ambacher, O.

K. Tonisch, V. Cimalla, C. Förster, H. Romanus, O. Ambacher, and D. Dontsov, “Piezoelectric properties of polycrystalline AlN thin films for MEMS application,” Sens. Actuators A 132, 658-663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Lebedev, V. Cimalla, T. Baumann, O. Ambacher, F. M. Morales, J. G. Lozano, and D. González, “Effect of dislocations on electrical and electron transport properties of InN thin films. II. Density and mobility of the carriers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Ambacher, “Growth and applications of group III-nitrides,” J. Phys. D 31, 2653-2710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Cimalla, F. Will, K. Tonisch, M. Niebelschütz, V. Cimalla, V. Lebedev, G. Kittler, M. Himmerlich, S. Krischok, J. A. Schaefer, M. Gebinoga, A. Schober, T. Friedrich, and O. Ambacher, “AlGaN/GaN biosensor--effect of device processing steps on the surface properties and biocompatibility” Sens. Actuators B 123, 740-748.

Amberg, M.

F. Wippermann, D. Radtke, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Integrated free-space optical interconnect fabricated in planar optics using chirped microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 14, 10765-10778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Stoebenau, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Ultraprecision micromilling of freeform optical elements for planar microoptical systems integration,” SPIE Photonics Europe 2008, Strasbourg, 7-11 April, 2008.

Baumann, T.

V. Lebedev, V. Cimalla, T. Baumann, O. Ambacher, F. M. Morales, J. G. Lozano, and D. González, “Effect of dislocations on electrical and electron transport properties of InN thin films. II. Density and mobility of the carriers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carlin, J.-F.

J. Dorsaz, J.-F. Carlin, S. Gradecak, and M. Ilegems, “Progress in AlInN-GaN Bragg reflectors: application to a microcavity light emitting diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 084505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chu, K.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cimalla, I.

I. Cimalla, F. Will, K. Tonisch, M. Niebelschütz, V. Cimalla, V. Lebedev, G. Kittler, M. Himmerlich, S. Krischok, J. A. Schaefer, M. Gebinoga, A. Schober, T. Friedrich, and O. Ambacher, “AlGaN/GaN biosensor--effect of device processing steps on the surface properties and biocompatibility” Sens. Actuators B 123, 740-748.

Cimalla, V.

V. Lebedev, V. Cimalla, T. Baumann, O. Ambacher, F. M. Morales, J. G. Lozano, and D. González, “Effect of dislocations on electrical and electron transport properties of InN thin films. II. Density and mobility of the carriers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Tonisch, V. Cimalla, C. Förster, H. Romanus, O. Ambacher, and D. Dontsov, “Piezoelectric properties of polycrystalline AlN thin films for MEMS application,” Sens. Actuators A 132, 658-663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Cimalla, F. Will, K. Tonisch, M. Niebelschütz, V. Cimalla, V. Lebedev, G. Kittler, M. Himmerlich, S. Krischok, J. A. Schaefer, M. Gebinoga, A. Schober, T. Friedrich, and O. Ambacher, “AlGaN/GaN biosensor--effect of device processing steps on the surface properties and biocompatibility” Sens. Actuators B 123, 740-748.

Dammann, H.

H. Dammann, “Spectral characteristics of stepped-phase gratings,” Optik 53, 409-417 (1979).

Dimitrov, R.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dontsov, D.

K. Tonisch, V. Cimalla, C. Förster, H. Romanus, O. Ambacher, and D. Dontsov, “Piezoelectric properties of polycrystalline AlN thin films for MEMS application,” Sens. Actuators A 132, 658-663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dorsaz, J.

J. Dorsaz, J.-F. Carlin, S. Gradecak, and M. Ilegems, “Progress in AlInN-GaN Bragg reflectors: application to a microcavity light emitting diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 084505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eastman, L. F.

G. Steinhoff, M. Hermann, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, M. Stutzmann, and M. Eickhoff, “pH response of GaN surfaces and its application for pH-sensitive field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eickhoff, M.

G. Steinhoff, M. Hermann, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, M. Stutzmann, and M. Eickhoff, “pH response of GaN surfaces and its application for pH-sensitive field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Förster, C.

K. Tonisch, V. Cimalla, C. Förster, H. Romanus, O. Ambacher, and D. Dontsov, “Piezoelectric properties of polycrystalline AlN thin films for MEMS application,” Sens. Actuators A 132, 658-663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, T.

I. Cimalla, F. Will, K. Tonisch, M. Niebelschütz, V. Cimalla, V. Lebedev, G. Kittler, M. Himmerlich, S. Krischok, J. A. Schaefer, M. Gebinoga, A. Schober, T. Friedrich, and O. Ambacher, “AlGaN/GaN biosensor--effect of device processing steps on the surface properties and biocompatibility” Sens. Actuators B 123, 740-748.

Gebinoga, M.

I. Cimalla, F. Will, K. Tonisch, M. Niebelschütz, V. Cimalla, V. Lebedev, G. Kittler, M. Himmerlich, S. Krischok, J. A. Schaefer, M. Gebinoga, A. Schober, T. Friedrich, and O. Ambacher, “AlGaN/GaN biosensor--effect of device processing steps on the surface properties and biocompatibility” Sens. Actuators B 123, 740-748.

González, D.

V. Lebedev, V. Cimalla, T. Baumann, O. Ambacher, F. M. Morales, J. G. Lozano, and D. González, “Effect of dislocations on electrical and electron transport properties of InN thin films. II. Density and mobility of the carriers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J.

J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

Gradecak, S.

J. Dorsaz, J.-F. Carlin, S. Gradecak, and M. Ilegems, “Progress in AlInN-GaN Bragg reflectors: application to a microcavity light emitting diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 084505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, M.

G. Steinhoff, M. Hermann, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, M. Stutzmann, and M. Eickhoff, “pH response of GaN surfaces and its application for pH-sensitive field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hilsenbeck, J.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Himmerlich, M.

I. Cimalla, F. Will, K. Tonisch, M. Niebelschütz, V. Cimalla, V. Lebedev, G. Kittler, M. Himmerlich, S. Krischok, J. A. Schaefer, M. Gebinoga, A. Schober, T. Friedrich, and O. Ambacher, “AlGaN/GaN biosensor--effect of device processing steps on the surface properties and biocompatibility” Sens. Actuators B 123, 740-748.

Hirayama, H.

H. Hirayama, “Quaternary InAlGaN-based high-efficiency ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 091101(2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, A.

Ilegems, M.

J. Dorsaz, J.-F. Carlin, S. Gradecak, and M. Ilegems, “Progress in AlInN-GaN Bragg reflectors: application to a microcavity light emitting diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 084505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

M. Jarczynski, T. Seiler, and J. Jahns, “Integrated three-dimensional optical multilayer using free-space optics,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6335-6341 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jahns and S. Sinzinger, “Microoptics for biomedical applications,” Am. Biotechnol. Lab. 11, 53-54 (2000).

M. Testorf and J. Jahns, “Imaging properties of planar-integrated micro-optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1175-1183(1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Lunitz and J. Jahns, “Tolerant design of a planar-optical clock distribution system,” Opt. Commun. 134, 281-288(1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, “Integrated microoptical imaging system with high interconnection capacity fabricated in planar optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4729-4735 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jahns, “Planar packaging of free-space optical interconnections,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1623-1631 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Jahns and S. Walker, “Imaging with planar optical systems,” Opt. Commun. 76, 311-317 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Jahns and A. Huang, “Planar integration of free-space optical components,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1602-1605 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, Microoptics (Wiley-VCH, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Jarczynski, M.

Kittler, G.

I. Cimalla, F. Will, K. Tonisch, M. Niebelschütz, V. Cimalla, V. Lebedev, G. Kittler, M. Himmerlich, S. Krischok, J. A. Schaefer, M. Gebinoga, A. Schober, T. Friedrich, and O. Ambacher, “AlGaN/GaN biosensor--effect of device processing steps on the surface properties and biocompatibility” Sens. Actuators B 123, 740-748.

Krischok, S.

I. Cimalla, F. Will, K. Tonisch, M. Niebelschütz, V. Cimalla, V. Lebedev, G. Kittler, M. Himmerlich, S. Krischok, J. A. Schaefer, M. Gebinoga, A. Schober, T. Friedrich, and O. Ambacher, “AlGaN/GaN biosensor--effect of device processing steps on the surface properties and biocompatibility” Sens. Actuators B 123, 740-748.

Lebedev, V.

V. Lebedev, V. Cimalla, T. Baumann, O. Ambacher, F. M. Morales, J. G. Lozano, and D. González, “Effect of dislocations on electrical and electron transport properties of InN thin films. II. Density and mobility of the carriers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Cimalla, F. Will, K. Tonisch, M. Niebelschütz, V. Cimalla, V. Lebedev, G. Kittler, M. Himmerlich, S. Krischok, J. A. Schaefer, M. Gebinoga, A. Schober, T. Friedrich, and O. Ambacher, “AlGaN/GaN biosensor--effect of device processing steps on the surface properties and biocompatibility” Sens. Actuators B 123, 740-748.

Lozano, J. G.

V. Lebedev, V. Cimalla, T. Baumann, O. Ambacher, F. M. Morales, J. G. Lozano, and D. González, “Effect of dislocations on electrical and electron transport properties of InN thin films. II. Density and mobility of the carriers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lunitz, B.

B. Lunitz and J. Jahns, “Tolerant design of a planar-optical clock distribution system,” Opt. Commun. 134, 281-288(1997).
[CrossRef]

Morales, F. M.

V. Lebedev, V. Cimalla, T. Baumann, O. Ambacher, F. M. Morales, J. G. Lozano, and D. González, “Effect of dislocations on electrical and electron transport properties of InN thin films. II. Density and mobility of the carriers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, M.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Niebelschütz, M.

I. Cimalla, F. Will, K. Tonisch, M. Niebelschütz, V. Cimalla, V. Lebedev, G. Kittler, M. Himmerlich, S. Krischok, J. A. Schaefer, M. Gebinoga, A. Schober, T. Friedrich, and O. Ambacher, “AlGaN/GaN biosensor--effect of device processing steps on the surface properties and biocompatibility” Sens. Actuators B 123, 740-748.

Radtke, D.

Rieger, W.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Romanus, H.

K. Tonisch, V. Cimalla, C. Förster, H. Romanus, O. Ambacher, and D. Dontsov, “Piezoelectric properties of polycrystalline AlN thin films for MEMS application,” Sens. Actuators A 132, 658-663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, J. A.

I. Cimalla, F. Will, K. Tonisch, M. Niebelschütz, V. Cimalla, V. Lebedev, G. Kittler, M. Himmerlich, S. Krischok, J. A. Schaefer, M. Gebinoga, A. Schober, T. Friedrich, and O. Ambacher, “AlGaN/GaN biosensor--effect of device processing steps on the surface properties and biocompatibility” Sens. Actuators B 123, 740-748.

Schaff, W. J.

G. Steinhoff, M. Hermann, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, M. Stutzmann, and M. Eickhoff, “pH response of GaN surfaces and its application for pH-sensitive field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schober, A.

I. Cimalla, F. Will, K. Tonisch, M. Niebelschütz, V. Cimalla, V. Lebedev, G. Kittler, M. Himmerlich, S. Krischok, J. A. Schaefer, M. Gebinoga, A. Schober, T. Friedrich, and O. Ambacher, “AlGaN/GaN biosensor--effect of device processing steps on the surface properties and biocompatibility” Sens. Actuators B 123, 740-748.

Seiler, T.

Shealy, J. R.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sinzinger, S.

F. Wippermann, D. Radtke, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Integrated free-space optical interconnect fabricated in planar optics using chirped microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 14, 10765-10778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sinzinger, “Microoptically integrated correlators for security applications,” Opt. Commun. 209, 69-74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Jahns and S. Sinzinger, “Microoptics for biomedical applications,” Am. Biotechnol. Lab. 11, 53-54 (2000).

S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, “Integrated microoptical imaging system with high interconnection capacity fabricated in planar optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4729-4735 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Stoebenau, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Ultraprecision micromilling of freeform optical elements for planar microoptical systems integration,” SPIE Photonics Europe 2008, Strasbourg, 7-11 April, 2008.

S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, Microoptics (Wiley-VCH, 2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Sinzinger, “Diffractive and refractive microoptics,” in Comprehensive Microsystems, Y. Gianchandani, O. Tabata, and H. Zappe, eds. (Elsevier, 2007).

Smart, J.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steinhoff, G.

G. Steinhoff, M. Hermann, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, M. Stutzmann, and M. Eickhoff, “pH response of GaN surfaces and its application for pH-sensitive field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stoebenau, S.

S. Stoebenau, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Ultraprecision micromilling of freeform optical elements for planar microoptical systems integration,” SPIE Photonics Europe 2008, Strasbourg, 7-11 April, 2008.

Stutzmann, M.

G. Steinhoff, M. Hermann, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, M. Stutzmann, and M. Eickhoff, “pH response of GaN surfaces and its application for pH-sensitive field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Testorf, M.

Tonisch, K.

K. Tonisch, V. Cimalla, C. Förster, H. Romanus, O. Ambacher, and D. Dontsov, “Piezoelectric properties of polycrystalline AlN thin films for MEMS application,” Sens. Actuators A 132, 658-663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Cimalla, F. Will, K. Tonisch, M. Niebelschütz, V. Cimalla, V. Lebedev, G. Kittler, M. Himmerlich, S. Krischok, J. A. Schaefer, M. Gebinoga, A. Schober, T. Friedrich, and O. Ambacher, “AlGaN/GaN biosensor--effect of device processing steps on the surface properties and biocompatibility” Sens. Actuators B 123, 740-748.

Walker, S.

J. Jahns and S. Walker, “Imaging with planar optical systems,” Opt. Commun. 76, 311-317 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Weimann, N. G.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Will, F.

I. Cimalla, F. Will, K. Tonisch, M. Niebelschütz, V. Cimalla, V. Lebedev, G. Kittler, M. Himmerlich, S. Krischok, J. A. Schaefer, M. Gebinoga, A. Schober, T. Friedrich, and O. Ambacher, “AlGaN/GaN biosensor--effect of device processing steps on the surface properties and biocompatibility” Sens. Actuators B 123, 740-748.

Wippermann, F.

Wittmer, L.

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Am. Biotechnol. Lab. (1)

J. Jahns and S. Sinzinger, “Microoptics for biomedical applications,” Am. Biotechnol. Lab. 11, 53-54 (2000).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Steinhoff, M. Hermann, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, M. Stutzmann, and M. Eickhoff, “pH response of GaN surfaces and its application for pH-sensitive field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

J. Dorsaz, J.-F. Carlin, S. Gradecak, and M. Ilegems, “Progress in AlInN-GaN Bragg reflectors: application to a microcavity light emitting diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 084505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Ambacher, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, L. Wittmer, M. Stutzmann, W. Rieger, and J. Hilsenbeck, “Two-dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization charges in N- and Ga-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirayama, “Quaternary InAlGaN-based high-efficiency ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 091101(2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Lebedev, V. Cimalla, T. Baumann, O. Ambacher, F. M. Morales, J. G. Lozano, and D. González, “Effect of dislocations on electrical and electron transport properties of InN thin films. II. Density and mobility of the carriers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

O. Ambacher, “Growth and applications of group III-nitrides,” J. Phys. D 31, 2653-2710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

B. Lunitz and J. Jahns, “Tolerant design of a planar-optical clock distribution system,” Opt. Commun. 134, 281-288(1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Jahns and S. Walker, “Imaging with planar optical systems,” Opt. Commun. 76, 311-317 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Sinzinger, “Microoptically integrated correlators for security applications,” Opt. Commun. 209, 69-74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Optik (1)

H. Dammann, “Spectral characteristics of stepped-phase gratings,” Optik 53, 409-417 (1979).

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. Jahns, “Planar packaging of free-space optical interconnections,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1623-1631 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

K. Tonisch, V. Cimalla, C. Förster, H. Romanus, O. Ambacher, and D. Dontsov, “Piezoelectric properties of polycrystalline AlN thin films for MEMS application,” Sens. Actuators A 132, 658-663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

I. Cimalla, F. Will, K. Tonisch, M. Niebelschütz, V. Cimalla, V. Lebedev, G. Kittler, M. Himmerlich, S. Krischok, J. A. Schaefer, M. Gebinoga, A. Schober, T. Friedrich, and O. Ambacher, “AlGaN/GaN biosensor--effect of device processing steps on the surface properties and biocompatibility” Sens. Actuators B 123, 740-748.

Other (4)

S. Sinzinger, “Diffractive and refractive microoptics,” in Comprehensive Microsystems, Y. Gianchandani, O. Tabata, and H. Zappe, eds. (Elsevier, 2007).

S. Stoebenau, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Ultraprecision micromilling of freeform optical elements for planar microoptical systems integration,” SPIE Photonics Europe 2008, Strasbourg, 7-11 April, 2008.

J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, Microoptics (Wiley-VCH, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the cross section of the planar integrated free-space optical system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Layer structure of the planar optical system and resulting phase difference for transmissive and reflective optical elements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Graphical illustration of the optimization of the DOE thickness for transmission, reflection, and the combination.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM images of (a) the coupling grating (b) the diffrac tive lens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for the testing of the optical performance.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

CCD-camera picture of the detector plane. (a) and (b) show the image planes of both arms of the planar integrated system with the laser adjusted accurately. The spots are hidden beneath the metallization. (c) and (d) show the spot with the slightly misaligned laser.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Focus spots in the two detector planes (a), (b) CCD images of the detector planes; (c), (d) x-scans of the focal spot; (e), (f) y-scan of the focal spots.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Indices of Refraction of the Materials of Interest at 632.8 nm

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

sin α Al 2 O 3 = n 0 n 3 λ 0 p .
sin α SiO 2 = n 3 n 4 sin α Al 2 O 3 .
Δ Φ trans = 2 π λ 0 [ ( n 1 n 0 ) d 1 + ( n 2 n 0 ) d 2 ] ,
Δ Φ refl = 2 π λ 0 [ n 1 2 d 1 + n 2 2 d 2 ] .
d trans = λ 0 2 ( n 1 n 0 ) n 2 n 0 n 1 n 0 d 1 ,
d refl = λ 0 4 n 1 n 2 n 1 d 2 .
η m = 1 m 2 π 2 [ 1 cos ( Δ Φ ) ] [ 1 cos ( 2 π α ) ] .
η 1 , trans = 2 π 2 ( 1 cos { 2 π λ 0 [ ( n 1 1 ) d 1 + ( n 2 1 ) d 2 ] } ) ,
η 1 , refl = 2 π 2 { 1 cos [ 2 π λ 0 ( n 1 2 d 1 + n 2 2 d 2 ) ] } .

Metrics