Abstract

It has been a common problem in optical see-through head-mounted displays that the displayed image lacks brightness and contrast compared with the direct view of a real-world scene. This problem is aggravated in head-mounted projection displays in which multiple beam splitting and low retroreflectance of a typical retroreflective projection screen yield low luminous transfer efficiency. To address this problem, we recently proposed a polarized head-mounted projection display (p-HMPD) design where the polarization states of the light are deliberately manipulated to maximize the luminous transfer efficiency. We report the design of a compact p-HMPD prototype system using a pair of high-resolution ferroelectric liquid-crystal-on-silicon (FLCOS) microdisplays. In addition to higher resolution, the FLCOS displays have much higher optical efficiency than a transmissive-type liquid crystal display (LCD) and help to further improve the overall light efficiency and image quality. We detail the design of a compact illumination unit for the FLCOS microdisplay, also commonly referred to as the light engine, and a projection lens, both of which are key parts of the p-HMPD system. The performances of the light engine and projection lens are analyzed in detail. Finally, we present the design of a compact p-HMPD prototype using the custom-designed light engine and projection optics.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. W. Fisher, “Head-mounted projection display system featuring beam splitter and method of making same,” U.S. Patent 5,572,229 (5 November 1996).
  2. J. L. Fergason, “Optical system for head mounted display using a retro-reflector and method of displaying an image,” U.S. patent 5,621,572 (15 April 1997).
  3. R. Kijima and T. Ojika, “Transition between virtual environment and workstation environment with projective head-mounted display,” in 1997 Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium (VRAIS '97) (IEEE Computer Society, 1997), pp. 130-137.
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland, “Engineering of head-mounted projective displays.” Appl. Opt. 39, 3814-3824(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Hua, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland, “Imaging properties of retro-reflective materials used in head-mounted projective displays (HMPDs),” Proc. SPIE 4711, 194-201 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Hua, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, “Design of an ultralight and compact projection lens,” Appl. Opt. 42, 97-107 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Hua, C. Gao, J. P. Rolland, and F. Biocca, “An ultra-light and compact design and implementation of head-mounted projective displays,” in IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2001 (VR 2001) (IEEE Computer Society, 1997), pp. 175-182, (2001).
  8. N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, “Object-oriented displays: a new type of display system--from immersive display to object-oriented displays,” in 1999 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 1999. IEEE SMC '99 Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 1066-1069.
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, “Visual-haptic display using head-mounted projector,” in IEEE Virtual Reality, 2002. Proceedings (IEEE Computer Society, 2002), pp. 233-240.
  10. J. Parsons and J. P. Rolland, “A non-intrusive display technique for providing real-time data within a surgeons critical area of interest,” in Medicine Meets Virtual Reality--Art, Science, Technology: Healthcare (R)evolution, J. D. Westwood, ed. (IOS, 1998), pp. 246-251.
  11. M. Inami, N. Kawakami, and S. Tachi, “Optical camouflage using retro-reflective projection technology,” in The Second IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, 2003. Proceedings (IEEE Computer Society, 2003), pp. 348-349.
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Hua, L. Brown, C. Gao, and N. Ahuja “A new collaborative infrastructure: SCAPE,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality 2003 (IEEE Computer Society, 2003), pp. 171-179.
  13. H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, “SCAPE: supporting stereoscopic collaboration in augmented and projective environments,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 24, 66-75 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins, “Development of head-mounted projection displays for distributed, collaborative, augmented reality applications,” Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 14, 528-549 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Hua and C. Gao, “A polarized head-mounted projective display,” Proceedings of the 4th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (IEEE Computer Society, 2005), pp. 32-35.
  16. H. Hua and C. Gao, “Design of a bright polarized head-mounted projection display” Appl. Opt. 46, 2600-2610, (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Zhang and H. Hua, “Characterizing polarization management in a p-HMPD system,” Appl. Opt. 47, 512-522 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. Zhang and H. Hua, “Design of a polarized head-mounted projection display using FLCOS microdisplays,” Proc. SPIE 6489,64890B (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Daniel, “Speed may give ferroelectric LCOS edge in projection race,” Disp. Devices 2005 (40), 29-31 (2005).
  20. P. L. Gleckman, “Light source utilizing diffusive reflective cavity,” U.S. patent 6,043,591 (28 March 2000).
  21. Teledyne Lighting and Display Products, http://www.teledynelighting.com/.
  22. Optical Research Associates, http://www.opticalres.com/.
  23. N. Nanba, “Objective lens and image pickup device using the same,” U.S. patent 6,236,521 (22 May 2001).

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

H. Hua and C. Gao, “Design of a bright polarized head-mounted projection display” Appl. Opt. 46, 2600-2610, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zhang and H. Hua, “Design of a polarized head-mounted projection display using FLCOS microdisplays,” Proc. SPIE 6489,64890B (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins, “Development of head-mounted projection displays for distributed, collaborative, augmented reality applications,” Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 14, 528-549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, “SCAPE: supporting stereoscopic collaboration in augmented and projective environments,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 24, 66-75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

H. Hua, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland, “Imaging properties of retro-reflective materials used in head-mounted projective displays (HMPDs),” Proc. SPIE 4711, 194-201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Ahuja, N.

H. Hua, L. Brown, C. Gao, and N. Ahuja “A new collaborative infrastructure: SCAPE,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality 2003 (IEEE Computer Society, 2003), pp. 171-179.

Biocca, F.

J. P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins, “Development of head-mounted projection displays for distributed, collaborative, augmented reality applications,” Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 14, 528-549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, C. Gao, J. P. Rolland, and F. Biocca, “An ultra-light and compact design and implementation of head-mounted projective displays,” in IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2001 (VR 2001) (IEEE Computer Society, 1997), pp. 175-182, (2001).

Brown, L.

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, “SCAPE: supporting stereoscopic collaboration in augmented and projective environments,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 24, 66-75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, L. Brown, C. Gao, and N. Ahuja “A new collaborative infrastructure: SCAPE,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality 2003 (IEEE Computer Society, 2003), pp. 171-179.

Daniel, K.

K. Daniel, “Speed may give ferroelectric LCOS edge in projection race,” Disp. Devices 2005 (40), 29-31 (2005).

Fergason, J. L.

J. L. Fergason, “Optical system for head mounted display using a retro-reflector and method of displaying an image,” U.S. patent 5,621,572 (15 April 1997).

Fisher, R. W.

R. W. Fisher, “Head-mounted projection display system featuring beam splitter and method of making same,” U.S. Patent 5,572,229 (5 November 1996).

Gao, C.

H. Hua and C. Gao, “Design of a bright polarized head-mounted projection display” Appl. Opt. 46, 2600-2610, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, “SCAPE: supporting stereoscopic collaboration in augmented and projective environments,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 24, 66-75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland, “Imaging properties of retro-reflective materials used in head-mounted projective displays (HMPDs),” Proc. SPIE 4711, 194-201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland, “Engineering of head-mounted projective displays.” Appl. Opt. 39, 3814-3824(2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua and C. Gao, “A polarized head-mounted projective display,” Proceedings of the 4th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (IEEE Computer Society, 2005), pp. 32-35.

H. Hua, L. Brown, C. Gao, and N. Ahuja “A new collaborative infrastructure: SCAPE,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality 2003 (IEEE Computer Society, 2003), pp. 171-179.

H. Hua, C. Gao, J. P. Rolland, and F. Biocca, “An ultra-light and compact design and implementation of head-mounted projective displays,” in IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2001 (VR 2001) (IEEE Computer Society, 1997), pp. 175-182, (2001).

Girardot, A.

Gleckman, P. L.

P. L. Gleckman, “Light source utilizing diffusive reflective cavity,” U.S. patent 6,043,591 (28 March 2000).

Ha, Y.

J. P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins, “Development of head-mounted projection displays for distributed, collaborative, augmented reality applications,” Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 14, 528-549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, “Design of an ultralight and compact projection lens,” Appl. Opt. 42, 97-107 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamza-Lup, F.

J. P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins, “Development of head-mounted projection displays for distributed, collaborative, augmented reality applications,” Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 14, 528-549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hua, H.

R. Zhang and H. Hua, “Characterizing polarization management in a p-HMPD system,” Appl. Opt. 47, 512-522 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hua and C. Gao, “Design of a bright polarized head-mounted projection display” Appl. Opt. 46, 2600-2610, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zhang and H. Hua, “Design of a polarized head-mounted projection display using FLCOS microdisplays,” Proc. SPIE 6489,64890B (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, “SCAPE: supporting stereoscopic collaboration in augmented and projective environments,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 24, 66-75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, “Design of an ultralight and compact projection lens,” Appl. Opt. 42, 97-107 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hua, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland, “Imaging properties of retro-reflective materials used in head-mounted projective displays (HMPDs),” Proc. SPIE 4711, 194-201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland, “Engineering of head-mounted projective displays.” Appl. Opt. 39, 3814-3824(2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, C. Gao, J. P. Rolland, and F. Biocca, “An ultra-light and compact design and implementation of head-mounted projective displays,” in IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2001 (VR 2001) (IEEE Computer Society, 1997), pp. 175-182, (2001).

H. Hua, L. Brown, C. Gao, and N. Ahuja “A new collaborative infrastructure: SCAPE,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality 2003 (IEEE Computer Society, 2003), pp. 171-179.

H. Hua and C. Gao, “A polarized head-mounted projective display,” Proceedings of the 4th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (IEEE Computer Society, 2005), pp. 32-35.

Inami, M.

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, and S. Tachi, “Optical camouflage using retro-reflective projection technology,” in The Second IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, 2003. Proceedings (IEEE Computer Society, 2003), pp. 348-349.
[CrossRef]

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, “Object-oriented displays: a new type of display system--from immersive display to object-oriented displays,” in 1999 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 1999. IEEE SMC '99 Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 1066-1069.
[CrossRef]

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, “Visual-haptic display using head-mounted projector,” in IEEE Virtual Reality, 2002. Proceedings (IEEE Computer Society, 2002), pp. 233-240.

Kawakami, N.

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, “Visual-haptic display using head-mounted projector,” in IEEE Virtual Reality, 2002. Proceedings (IEEE Computer Society, 2002), pp. 233-240.

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, “Object-oriented displays: a new type of display system--from immersive display to object-oriented displays,” in 1999 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 1999. IEEE SMC '99 Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 1066-1069.
[CrossRef]

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, and S. Tachi, “Optical camouflage using retro-reflective projection technology,” in The Second IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, 2003. Proceedings (IEEE Computer Society, 2003), pp. 348-349.
[CrossRef]

Kijima, R.

R. Kijima and T. Ojika, “Transition between virtual environment and workstation environment with projective head-mounted display,” in 1997 Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium (VRAIS '97) (IEEE Computer Society, 1997), pp. 130-137.
[CrossRef]

Maeda, T.

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, “Object-oriented displays: a new type of display system--from immersive display to object-oriented displays,” in 1999 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 1999. IEEE SMC '99 Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 1066-1069.
[CrossRef]

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, “Visual-haptic display using head-mounted projector,” in IEEE Virtual Reality, 2002. Proceedings (IEEE Computer Society, 2002), pp. 233-240.

Martins, R.

J. P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins, “Development of head-mounted projection displays for distributed, collaborative, augmented reality applications,” Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 14, 528-549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nanba, N.

N. Nanba, “Objective lens and image pickup device using the same,” U.S. patent 6,236,521 (22 May 2001).

Ojika, T.

R. Kijima and T. Ojika, “Transition between virtual environment and workstation environment with projective head-mounted display,” in 1997 Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium (VRAIS '97) (IEEE Computer Society, 1997), pp. 130-137.
[CrossRef]

Parsons, J.

J. Parsons and J. P. Rolland, “A non-intrusive display technique for providing real-time data within a surgeons critical area of interest,” in Medicine Meets Virtual Reality--Art, Science, Technology: Healthcare (R)evolution, J. D. Westwood, ed. (IOS, 1998), pp. 246-251.

Rolland, J. P.

J. P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins, “Development of head-mounted projection displays for distributed, collaborative, augmented reality applications,” Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 14, 528-549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, Y. Ha, and J. P. Rolland, “Design of an ultralight and compact projection lens,” Appl. Opt. 42, 97-107 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hua, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland, “Imaging properties of retro-reflective materials used in head-mounted projective displays (HMPDs),” Proc. SPIE 4711, 194-201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, A. Girardot, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland, “Engineering of head-mounted projective displays.” Appl. Opt. 39, 3814-3824(2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Parsons and J. P. Rolland, “A non-intrusive display technique for providing real-time data within a surgeons critical area of interest,” in Medicine Meets Virtual Reality--Art, Science, Technology: Healthcare (R)evolution, J. D. Westwood, ed. (IOS, 1998), pp. 246-251.

H. Hua, C. Gao, J. P. Rolland, and F. Biocca, “An ultra-light and compact design and implementation of head-mounted projective displays,” in IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2001 (VR 2001) (IEEE Computer Society, 1997), pp. 175-182, (2001).

Sekiguchi, D.

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, “Object-oriented displays: a new type of display system--from immersive display to object-oriented displays,” in 1999 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 1999. IEEE SMC '99 Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 1066-1069.
[CrossRef]

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, “Visual-haptic display using head-mounted projector,” in IEEE Virtual Reality, 2002. Proceedings (IEEE Computer Society, 2002), pp. 233-240.

Tachi, S.

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, “Visual-haptic display using head-mounted projector,” in IEEE Virtual Reality, 2002. Proceedings (IEEE Computer Society, 2002), pp. 233-240.

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, “Object-oriented displays: a new type of display system--from immersive display to object-oriented displays,” in 1999 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 1999. IEEE SMC '99 Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 1066-1069.
[CrossRef]

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, and S. Tachi, “Optical camouflage using retro-reflective projection technology,” in The Second IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, 2003. Proceedings (IEEE Computer Society, 2003), pp. 348-349.
[CrossRef]

Yanagida, Y.

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, “Visual-haptic display using head-mounted projector,” in IEEE Virtual Reality, 2002. Proceedings (IEEE Computer Society, 2002), pp. 233-240.

Yangagida, Y.

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, “Object-oriented displays: a new type of display system--from immersive display to object-oriented displays,” in 1999 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 1999. IEEE SMC '99 Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 1066-1069.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

R. Zhang and H. Hua, “Characterizing polarization management in a p-HMPD system,” Appl. Opt. 47, 512-522 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zhang and H. Hua, “Design of a polarized head-mounted projection display using FLCOS microdisplays,” Proc. SPIE 6489,64890B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Disp. Devices (1)

K. Daniel, “Speed may give ferroelectric LCOS edge in projection race,” Disp. Devices 2005 (40), 29-31 (2005).

IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. (1)

H. Hua, L. Brown, and C. Gao, “SCAPE: supporting stereoscopic collaboration in augmented and projective environments,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 24, 66-75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environ. (1)

J. P. Rolland, F. Biocca, F. Hamza-Lup, Y. Ha, and R. Martins, “Development of head-mounted projection displays for distributed, collaborative, augmented reality applications,” Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 14, 528-549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. Zhang and H. Hua, “Design of a polarized head-mounted projection display using FLCOS microdisplays,” Proc. SPIE 6489,64890B (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, C. Gao, and J. P. Rolland, “Imaging properties of retro-reflective materials used in head-mounted projective displays (HMPDs),” Proc. SPIE 4711, 194-201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

H. Hua and C. Gao, “A polarized head-mounted projective display,” Proceedings of the 4th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (IEEE Computer Society, 2005), pp. 32-35.

R. W. Fisher, “Head-mounted projection display system featuring beam splitter and method of making same,” U.S. Patent 5,572,229 (5 November 1996).

J. L. Fergason, “Optical system for head mounted display using a retro-reflector and method of displaying an image,” U.S. patent 5,621,572 (15 April 1997).

R. Kijima and T. Ojika, “Transition between virtual environment and workstation environment with projective head-mounted display,” in 1997 Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium (VRAIS '97) (IEEE Computer Society, 1997), pp. 130-137.
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, C. Gao, J. P. Rolland, and F. Biocca, “An ultra-light and compact design and implementation of head-mounted projective displays,” in IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2001 (VR 2001) (IEEE Computer Society, 1997), pp. 175-182, (2001).

N. Kawakami, M. Inami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yangagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, “Object-oriented displays: a new type of display system--from immersive display to object-oriented displays,” in 1999 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 1999. IEEE SMC '99 Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 1066-1069.
[CrossRef]

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, D. Sekiguchi, Y. Yanagida, T. Maeda, and S. Tachi, “Visual-haptic display using head-mounted projector,” in IEEE Virtual Reality, 2002. Proceedings (IEEE Computer Society, 2002), pp. 233-240.

J. Parsons and J. P. Rolland, “A non-intrusive display technique for providing real-time data within a surgeons critical area of interest,” in Medicine Meets Virtual Reality--Art, Science, Technology: Healthcare (R)evolution, J. D. Westwood, ed. (IOS, 1998), pp. 246-251.

M. Inami, N. Kawakami, and S. Tachi, “Optical camouflage using retro-reflective projection technology,” in The Second IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, 2003. Proceedings (IEEE Computer Society, 2003), pp. 348-349.
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, L. Brown, C. Gao, and N. Ahuja “A new collaborative infrastructure: SCAPE,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality 2003 (IEEE Computer Society, 2003), pp. 171-179.

P. L. Gleckman, “Light source utilizing diffusive reflective cavity,” U.S. patent 6,043,591 (28 March 2000).

Teledyne Lighting and Display Products, http://www.teledynelighting.com/.

Optical Research Associates, http://www.opticalres.com/.

N. Nanba, “Objective lens and image pickup device using the same,” U.S. patent 6,236,521 (22 May 2001).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic design of a p-HMPD system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic design of a light engine.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Prototype and (b) schematic design of the tapered light pipe with mirrors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Illuminance distribution on the microdisplay.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Starting lens: (a) layout, (b) MTF performance.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intermediate compact design: (a) layout; (b) MTF performance.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Layout of the final design of a projection lens.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Diffraction efficiency (a) versus radius, (b) versus wavelength.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Lens performance of the optimized design: (a) spot diagram; (b) ray fan plot; (c) longitudinal spherical aberration, astigmatism, and distortion; and (d) MTF performance.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Cumulative probability plot for MTF tolerance; (b) the prototype of the projection lens.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Design of a compact p-HMHD prototype: (a) overall optical layout of the system; (b) side and (c) front views of the p-HMPD prototype.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications of Microdisplay and LED Illuminator

Tables Icon

Table 2 Specifications of Projection Lens

Tables Icon

Table 3 Estimated Error in Fabrication

Equations (1)

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E display ( x , y ) = L LED ( θ ) * Ω = L LED [ arctan ( x 2 + y 2 f ) ] S LED f 2 ,

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