Abstract

Photoacoustic (PA) spectra generated by current modulation of a distributed feedback diode laser (DFB-DL) were measured for the ammonia absorption line at 1.53μm and calculated using absorption spectra taken from a database. The algorithm is based on a combined amplitude- and wavelength-modulation (AM–WM) scheme. The spectral characteristics of the DFB-DL were determined by comparing simulated spectra with Fourier transform infrared measurements. PA spectra were measured and simulated from the first to fourth harmonic and a variation of the modulation depth with modulation frequency was observed. It was found that combined AM–WM modulation may produce larger PA signals than separate AM or WM detection for the first harmonic.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (1)

S. Schilt and L. Thévenaz, “Wavelength modulation photoacoustic spectroscopy: theoretical description and experimental results,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 154-162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. E. Webber, T. MacDonald, M. B. Pushkarsky, C. K. N. Patel, Y. J. Zhao, N. Marcillac, and F. M. Mitloehner, “Agricultural ammonia sensor using diode lasers and photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1547-1553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

S. W. Sharpe, T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, P. M. Chu, G. C. Rhoderick, and P. A. Johnson, “Gas-phase databases for quantitative infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 1452-1461 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, M. Nikles, L. Emmenegger, and C. Huglin, “Ammonia monitoring at trace level using photoacoustic spectroscopy in industrial and environmental applications,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3259-3268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Giubileo, A. Puiu, G. Argirò, P. Rocchini, and E. Borra, “Analysis of the breath from patients treated by anti-tumour radio-therapy,” Laser Phys. 14, 243-249 (2004).

2003 (3)

H. W. A. Berkelmans, B. W. M. Moeskops, J. Bominaar, P. T. J. Scheepers, and F. J. M. Harren, “Pharmacokinetics of ethylene in man by on-line laser photoacoustic detection,” Toxicology and applied pharmacology 190, 206-213 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. U. Schramm, M. S. Sthel, M. G. da Silva, L. O. Carneiro, A. J. S. Junior, A. P. Souza, and H. Vargas, “Application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy for the analysis of gas samples emitted by diesel engines,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 44, 263-269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, and P. Robert, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: combined frequency and intensity laser modulation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6728-6738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozoki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937-1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry--an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277-1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Axner, P. Kluczynski, and A. M. Lindberg, “A general non-complex analytical expression for the nth Fourier component of a wavelength-modulated Lorentzian lineshape function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 68, 299-317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. Miklós, Z. Bozóki, Y. Jiang, and M. Fehér, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of photoacoustic signal generation by wavelength-modulated diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 483-492 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1987 (1)

J. Hinderling, M. W. Sigrist, and F. K. Kneubühl, “Laser-photoacoustic spectroscopy of water-vapor continuum and line absorption in the 8 to 14 μm atmospheric window,” Infrared Phys. 27, 63-120 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

J. Reid and D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers--comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203-210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Argirò, G.

G. Giubileo, A. Puiu, G. Argirò, P. Rocchini, and E. Borra, “Analysis of the breath from patients treated by anti-tumour radio-therapy,” Laser Phys. 14, 243-249 (2004).

Axner, O.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry--an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277-1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Axner, P. Kluczynski, and A. M. Lindberg, “A general non-complex analytical expression for the nth Fourier component of a wavelength-modulated Lorentzian lineshape function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 68, 299-317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berkelmans, H. W. A.

H. W. A. Berkelmans, B. W. M. Moeskops, J. Bominaar, P. T. J. Scheepers, and F. J. M. Harren, “Pharmacokinetics of ethylene in man by on-line laser photoacoustic detection,” Toxicology and applied pharmacology 190, 206-213 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bominaar, J.

H. W. A. Berkelmans, B. W. M. Moeskops, J. Bominaar, P. T. J. Scheepers, and F. J. M. Harren, “Pharmacokinetics of ethylene in man by on-line laser photoacoustic detection,” Toxicology and applied pharmacology 190, 206-213 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borra, E.

G. Giubileo, A. Puiu, G. Argirò, P. Rocchini, and E. Borra, “Analysis of the breath from patients treated by anti-tumour radio-therapy,” Laser Phys. 14, 243-249 (2004).

Bozoki, Z.

A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozoki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937-1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bozóki, Z.

A. Miklós, Z. Bozóki, Y. Jiang, and M. Fehér, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of photoacoustic signal generation by wavelength-modulated diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 483-492 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carneiro, L. O.

D. U. Schramm, M. S. Sthel, M. G. da Silva, L. O. Carneiro, A. J. S. Junior, A. P. Souza, and H. Vargas, “Application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy for the analysis of gas samples emitted by diesel engines,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 44, 263-269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chackerian, C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. M.

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, M. G.

D. U. Schramm, M. S. Sthel, M. G. da Silva, L. O. Carneiro, A. J. S. Junior, A. P. Souza, and H. Vargas, “Application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy for the analysis of gas samples emitted by diesel engines,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 44, 263-269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Emmenegger, L.

S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, M. Nikles, L. Emmenegger, and C. Huglin, “Ammonia monitoring at trace level using photoacoustic spectroscopy in industrial and environmental applications,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3259-3268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fehér, M.

A. Miklós, Z. Bozóki, Y. Jiang, and M. Fehér, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of photoacoustic signal generation by wavelength-modulated diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 483-492 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giubileo, G.

G. Giubileo, A. Puiu, G. Argirò, P. Rocchini, and E. Borra, “Analysis of the breath from patients treated by anti-tumour radio-therapy,” Laser Phys. 14, 243-249 (2004).

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, J.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry--an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277-1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R. K.

Harren, F. J. M.

H. W. A. Berkelmans, B. W. M. Moeskops, J. Bominaar, P. T. J. Scheepers, and F. J. M. Harren, “Pharmacokinetics of ethylene in man by on-line laser photoacoustic detection,” Toxicology and applied pharmacology 190, 206-213 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hess, P.

A. Schmohl, A. Miklós, and P. Hess, “Detection of ammonia by photoacoustic spectroscopy with semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1815-1823 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozoki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937-1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hinderling, J.

J. Hinderling, M. W. Sigrist, and F. K. Kneubühl, “Laser-photoacoustic spectroscopy of water-vapor continuum and line absorption in the 8 to 14 μm atmospheric window,” Infrared Phys. 27, 63-120 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Huglin, C.

S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, M. Nikles, L. Emmenegger, and C. Huglin, “Ammonia monitoring at trace level using photoacoustic spectroscopy in industrial and environmental applications,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3259-3268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ingard, K. U.

P. M. Morse and K. U. Ingard, Theoretical Acoustics (McGraw-Hill, 1986).

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

A. Miklós, Z. Bozóki, Y. Jiang, and M. Fehér, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of photoacoustic signal generation by wavelength-modulated diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 483-492 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. A.

Johnson, T. J.

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Junior, A. J. S.

D. U. Schramm, M. S. Sthel, M. G. da Silva, L. O. Carneiro, A. J. S. Junior, A. P. Souza, and H. Vargas, “Application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy for the analysis of gas samples emitted by diesel engines,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 44, 263-269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kluczynski, P.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry--an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277-1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Axner, P. Kluczynski, and A. M. Lindberg, “A general non-complex analytical expression for the nth Fourier component of a wavelength-modulated Lorentzian lineshape function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 68, 299-317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kneubühl, F. K.

J. Hinderling, M. W. Sigrist, and F. K. Kneubühl, “Laser-photoacoustic spectroscopy of water-vapor continuum and line absorption in the 8 to 14 μm atmospheric window,” Infrared Phys. 27, 63-120 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Labrie, D.

J. Reid and D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers--comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203-210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lindberg, A. M.

O. Axner, P. Kluczynski, and A. M. Lindberg, “A general non-complex analytical expression for the nth Fourier component of a wavelength-modulated Lorentzian lineshape function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 68, 299-317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry--an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277-1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, T.

M. E. Webber, T. MacDonald, M. B. Pushkarsky, C. K. N. Patel, Y. J. Zhao, N. Marcillac, and F. M. Mitloehner, “Agricultural ammonia sensor using diode lasers and photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1547-1553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maki, A. G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marcillac, N.

M. E. Webber, T. MacDonald, M. B. Pushkarsky, C. K. N. Patel, Y. J. Zhao, N. Marcillac, and F. M. Mitloehner, “Agricultural ammonia sensor using diode lasers and photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1547-1553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meschede, D.

D. Meschede, Optik, Licht und Laser, 2nd ed. (Teubner, 2005).

Miklós, A.

A. Schmohl, A. Miklós, and P. Hess, “Detection of ammonia by photoacoustic spectroscopy with semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1815-1823 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozoki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937-1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Miklós, Z. Bozóki, Y. Jiang, and M. Fehér, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of photoacoustic signal generation by wavelength-modulated diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 483-492 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mitloehner, F. M.

M. E. Webber, T. MacDonald, M. B. Pushkarsky, C. K. N. Patel, Y. J. Zhao, N. Marcillac, and F. M. Mitloehner, “Agricultural ammonia sensor using diode lasers and photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1547-1553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moeskops, B. W. M.

H. W. A. Berkelmans, B. W. M. Moeskops, J. Bominaar, P. T. J. Scheepers, and F. J. M. Harren, “Pharmacokinetics of ethylene in man by on-line laser photoacoustic detection,” Toxicology and applied pharmacology 190, 206-213 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morse, P. M.

P. M. Morse and K. U. Ingard, Theoretical Acoustics (McGraw-Hill, 1986).

Nikles, M.

S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, M. Nikles, L. Emmenegger, and C. Huglin, “Ammonia monitoring at trace level using photoacoustic spectroscopy in industrial and environmental applications,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3259-3268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. K. N.

M. E. Webber, T. MacDonald, M. B. Pushkarsky, C. K. N. Patel, Y. J. Zhao, N. Marcillac, and F. M. Mitloehner, “Agricultural ammonia sensor using diode lasers and photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1547-1553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Philippe, L. C.

Puiu, A.

G. Giubileo, A. Puiu, G. Argirò, P. Rocchini, and E. Borra, “Analysis of the breath from patients treated by anti-tumour radio-therapy,” Laser Phys. 14, 243-249 (2004).

Pushkarsky, M. B.

M. E. Webber, T. MacDonald, M. B. Pushkarsky, C. K. N. Patel, Y. J. Zhao, N. Marcillac, and F. M. Mitloehner, “Agricultural ammonia sensor using diode lasers and photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1547-1553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J.

J. Reid and D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers--comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203-210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rhoderick, G. C.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robert, P.

Rocchini, P.

G. Giubileo, A. Puiu, G. Argirò, P. Rocchini, and E. Borra, “Analysis of the breath from patients treated by anti-tumour radio-therapy,” Laser Phys. 14, 243-249 (2004).

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sams, R. L.

Scheepers, P. T. J.

H. W. A. Berkelmans, B. W. M. Moeskops, J. Bominaar, P. T. J. Scheepers, and F. J. M. Harren, “Pharmacokinetics of ethylene in man by on-line laser photoacoustic detection,” Toxicology and applied pharmacology 190, 206-213 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schilt, S.

S. Schilt and L. Thévenaz, “Wavelength modulation photoacoustic spectroscopy: theoretical description and experimental results,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 154-162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, M. Nikles, L. Emmenegger, and C. Huglin, “Ammonia monitoring at trace level using photoacoustic spectroscopy in industrial and environmental applications,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3259-3268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, and P. Robert, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: combined frequency and intensity laser modulation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6728-6738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmohl, A.

Schramm, D. U.

D. U. Schramm, M. S. Sthel, M. G. da Silva, L. O. Carneiro, A. J. S. Junior, A. P. Souza, and H. Vargas, “Application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy for the analysis of gas samples emitted by diesel engines,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 44, 263-269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, S. W.

Sigrist, M. W.

J. Hinderling, M. W. Sigrist, and F. K. Kneubühl, “Laser-photoacoustic spectroscopy of water-vapor continuum and line absorption in the 8 to 14 μm atmospheric window,” Infrared Phys. 27, 63-120 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Souza, A. P.

D. U. Schramm, M. S. Sthel, M. G. da Silva, L. O. Carneiro, A. J. S. Junior, A. P. Souza, and H. Vargas, “Application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy for the analysis of gas samples emitted by diesel engines,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 44, 263-269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sthel, M. S.

D. U. Schramm, M. S. Sthel, M. G. da Silva, L. O. Carneiro, A. J. S. Junior, A. P. Souza, and H. Vargas, “Application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy for the analysis of gas samples emitted by diesel engines,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 44, 263-269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thévenaz, L.

S. Schilt and L. Thévenaz, “Wavelength modulation photoacoustic spectroscopy: theoretical description and experimental results,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 154-162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, M. Nikles, L. Emmenegger, and C. Huglin, “Ammonia monitoring at trace level using photoacoustic spectroscopy in industrial and environmental applications,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3259-3268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, and P. Robert, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: combined frequency and intensity laser modulation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6728-6738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tolchenov, R. N.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vander, A. J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vargas, H.

D. U. Schramm, M. S. Sthel, M. G. da Silva, L. O. Carneiro, A. J. S. Junior, A. P. Souza, and H. Vargas, “Application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy for the analysis of gas samples emitted by diesel engines,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 44, 263-269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webber, M. E.

M. E. Webber, T. MacDonald, M. B. Pushkarsky, C. K. N. Patel, Y. J. Zhao, N. Marcillac, and F. M. Mitloehner, “Agricultural ammonia sensor using diode lasers and photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1547-1553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. J.

M. E. Webber, T. MacDonald, M. B. Pushkarsky, C. K. N. Patel, Y. J. Zhao, N. Marcillac, and F. M. Mitloehner, “Agricultural ammonia sensor using diode lasers and photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1547-1553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

A. Miklós, Z. Bozóki, Y. Jiang, and M. Fehér, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of photoacoustic signal generation by wavelength-modulated diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 483-492 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Reid and D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers--comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203-210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Infrared Phys. (1)

J. Hinderling, M. W. Sigrist, and F. K. Kneubühl, “Laser-photoacoustic spectroscopy of water-vapor continuum and line absorption in the 8 to 14 μm atmospheric window,” Infrared Phys. 27, 63-120 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (2)

S. Schilt and L. Thévenaz, “Wavelength modulation photoacoustic spectroscopy: theoretical description and experimental results,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 154-162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. U. Schramm, M. S. Sthel, M. G. da Silva, L. O. Carneiro, A. J. S. Junior, A. P. Souza, and H. Vargas, “Application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy for the analysis of gas samples emitted by diesel engines,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 44, 263-269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

O. Axner, P. Kluczynski, and A. M. Lindberg, “A general non-complex analytical expression for the nth Fourier component of a wavelength-modulated Lorentzian lineshape function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 68, 299-317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, A. J. Vander, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The hitran 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

G. Giubileo, A. Puiu, G. Argirò, P. Rocchini, and E. Borra, “Analysis of the breath from patients treated by anti-tumour radio-therapy,” Laser Phys. 14, 243-249 (2004).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. E. Webber, T. MacDonald, M. B. Pushkarsky, C. K. N. Patel, Y. J. Zhao, N. Marcillac, and F. M. Mitloehner, “Agricultural ammonia sensor using diode lasers and photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1547-1553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozoki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937-1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta A (1)

S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, M. Nikles, L. Emmenegger, and C. Huglin, “Ammonia monitoring at trace level using photoacoustic spectroscopy in industrial and environmental applications,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3259-3268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta B (1)

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry--an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277-1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Toxicology and applied pharmacology (1)

H. W. A. Berkelmans, B. W. M. Moeskops, J. Bominaar, P. T. J. Scheepers, and F. J. M. Harren, “Pharmacokinetics of ethylene in man by on-line laser photoacoustic detection,” Toxicology and applied pharmacology 190, 206-213 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

P. M. Morse and K. U. Ingard, Theoretical Acoustics (McGraw-Hill, 1986).

D. Meschede, Optik, Licht und Laser, 2nd ed. (Teubner, 2005).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of the PA spectrum of 50 ppmv NH 3 measured with a DL (AM, 1 f ) with the FTIR absorption spectrum of 50 ppmv NH 3 taken from the Northwest-Infrared database.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral characteristics of the DFB-DL source for modulation of the injection current with a sine function. For clarity, the phase shift generated by wavenumber modulation is exaggerated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scheme of the simulation algorithm: (a) for each point of a Lorentzian absorption line shape two sets of values α i and P i are calculated, (b) the set of α i values represents the changing absorption coefficient and is responsible for WM, (c) the set of P i represents the changing laser power during modulation and is responsible for AM, and (d) after multiplication of the two sets and lock-in simulation R 1 is obtained.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Absorption line at 1.53 μm of the sample with 50 ppmv NH 3 in nitrogen measured with the DL (AM, 1 f ), (b) simulated PA signal X 1 for combined AM and WM based on the PA spectrum of (a), and (c) simulated PA signal R 1 for combined AM and WM, based on an AM–PA spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of simulated PA NH 3 spectra ( AM + WM ) with spectra obtained by PA measurements. In the PA experiments the injection current of the DL was sinusoidal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized comparison among simultaneous AM and WM, pure AM, and pure WM results for (a)  1 f and (b)  2 f . R 1 , max and R 2 , max are the maximal expected PA signals, irrespective of eventual displacements of the peak maxima caused by distortions. The injection current modulation depth was changed from 1 mA to 27 mA , while the spectroscopic data input of the simulated DL was kept constant.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Extension of the simulated PA signal for combined AM and WM of a single Voigt-like ammonia absorption line to a complex spectrum containing more than 10 absorption lines from different species spread over 15 cm 1 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Identification of trace gas components of a measured gas sample using second-harmonic detection with combined AM and WM, (b) simulated spectrum of 1 ppmv NH 3 based on the Northwest-Infrared database, (c) simulated spectrum of 1 ppmv H 2 O based on hitran, and (d) simulated spectrum of 1 ppmv CO 2 based on hitran.

Equations (7)

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ν ˜ ( T , I + Δ I ) = ν ˜ ( T , I ) + ν ˜ ( T , I ) I Δ I = ν ˜ ( T , I ) + ε ( f mod ) Δ I ,
P ( T , I + Δ I ) = P ( T , I ) + P ( T , I ) I Δ I = P ( T , I ) + η Δ I .
I ( t ) = I DC + Δ I sin ( ω t ) .
ν ˜ ( T , I DC , t ) = ν ˜ ( T , I DC ) + ε ( f mod ) Δ I sin [ ω t + Ψ ( f mod ) ] ,
P ( T , I DC , t ) = P ( T , I DC ) + η Δ I sin ( ω t ) ,
p ( t ) = K t [ α ( ν ˜ ( t ) ) P ( t ) ] ,
X n ( T k ) 1 2 i j = 1 i p ( T k , t j ) × cos ( ω n t j ) Y n ( T k ) 1 2 i j = 1 i p ( T k , t j ) × sin ( ω n t j ) .

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