Abstract

The characteristics of directional couplers and power splitters based on three-guide optical couplers in slot waveguide structures are analyzed in detail by a three-dimensional full-vectorial beam propagation method. The numerical results show the achievement of a compact three-guide directional coupler operating as polarization independent with a length of 58.0μm and having almost evenly spaced propagation constants of the three lowest order modes for quasi-TE and quasi-TM modes. Thus, a high coupling efficiency from one outside waveguide to the other outside waveguide is demonstrated and is over 99.5% for both polarization states. For a three-guide power splitter, multiple sets of waveguide parameters for achieving polarization-independent operation are presented. Tolerances to operating wavelength and structural parameters are also analyzed, and the evolution of the injected field along the propagation distance through the proposed devices is demonstrated.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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