Abstract

The multiaperture scintillation sensor (MASS) has become a device widely employed to measure the altitude distribution of atmospheric turbulence. An empirical study is reported that investigates the dependence of the MASS results on the knowledge of the instrumental parameters. Also, the results of a side-by-side comparison of two MASS instruments are presented, indicating that MASS instruments permit measurements of the integrated seeing to a precision better than 0.05  arc sec and of the individual turbulence layer strength Cn2(h)dh to better than 1014m1/3.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Vernin and F. Roddier, “Experimental determination of two-dimensional spatiotemporal power spectra of stellar light scintillation. Evidence for a multilayer structure of the air turbulence in the upper troposphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 270-273 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, “Focusing on a turbulent layer: principle of the generalized SCIDAR,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 86-91 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Butterley, R. W. Wilson, and M. Sarazin, “Determination of the profile of atmospheric optical turbulence strength from SLODAR data,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 369, 835-845(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Tokovinin, “Measurement of seeing and the atmospheric time constant by differential scintillations,” Appl. Opt. 41, 957-964 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Tokovinin, V. Kornilov, N. Shatsky, and O. Voziakova, “Restoration of turbulence profile from scintillation indices,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 343, 891-899 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Tokovinin and V. Kornilov, “Accurate seeing measurements with MASS and DIMM,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 381, 1179-1189 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Thomsen, M. Britton., and A. Pickles, “MASS-DIMM Setup at Palomar,” presented at American Astronomical Society Meeting 210, Honolulu, Hawaii, 27-31 May 2007, paper 117.01.
  8. M. Britton, “The anisoplanatic point-spread function in adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 885-900, (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Wang, M. Schöck, G. Chanan, W. Skidmore, R. Blum, E. Bustos, S. Els, R. Riddle, J. Seguel, T. Travouillon, J. Vasquez, D. Walker, and P. Gillett, “High accuracy DIMM measurements for the TMT site testing program,” Appl. Opt. 118, 885-900, (2007).
  10. V. Kornilov, A. Tokovinin, N. Shatsky, O. Voziakova, S. Potanin, and B. Safonov, “Combined MASS-DIMM instruments for atmospheric turbulence studies,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382, 1268-1278 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Kornilov, “The verification of the MASS spectral response,” 14 September 2006, http://www.ctio.noao.edu/~atokovin/profiler/archive.html.
  12. A. Tokovinin, “Replication of MASS segmentators,” 26 December 2004, http://www.ctio.noao.edu/~atokovin/profiler/archive.html.
  13. A. Tokovinin, “Calbration of the MASS time constant measurements,” 22 June 2006, http://www.ctio.noao.edu/~atokovin/profiler/archive.html.

2007

A. Tokovinin and V. Kornilov, “Accurate seeing measurements with MASS and DIMM,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 381, 1179-1189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, M. Schöck, G. Chanan, W. Skidmore, R. Blum, E. Bustos, S. Els, R. Riddle, J. Seguel, T. Travouillon, J. Vasquez, D. Walker, and P. Gillett, “High accuracy DIMM measurements for the TMT site testing program,” Appl. Opt. 118, 885-900, (2007).

V. Kornilov, A. Tokovinin, N. Shatsky, O. Voziakova, S. Potanin, and B. Safonov, “Combined MASS-DIMM instruments for atmospheric turbulence studies,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382, 1268-1278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Britton, “The anisoplanatic point-spread function in adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 885-900, (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Butterley, R. W. Wilson, and M. Sarazin, “Determination of the profile of atmospheric optical turbulence strength from SLODAR data,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 369, 835-845(2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Tokovinin, V. Kornilov, N. Shatsky, and O. Voziakova, “Restoration of turbulence profile from scintillation indices,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 343, 891-899 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

1998

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, “Focusing on a turbulent layer: principle of the generalized SCIDAR,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 86-91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1973

Blum, R.

L. Wang, M. Schöck, G. Chanan, W. Skidmore, R. Blum, E. Bustos, S. Els, R. Riddle, J. Seguel, T. Travouillon, J. Vasquez, D. Walker, and P. Gillett, “High accuracy DIMM measurements for the TMT site testing program,” Appl. Opt. 118, 885-900, (2007).

Britton, M.

M. Britton, “The anisoplanatic point-spread function in adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 885-900, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Britton., M.

M. Thomsen, M. Britton., and A. Pickles, “MASS-DIMM Setup at Palomar,” presented at American Astronomical Society Meeting 210, Honolulu, Hawaii, 27-31 May 2007, paper 117.01.

Bustos, E.

L. Wang, M. Schöck, G. Chanan, W. Skidmore, R. Blum, E. Bustos, S. Els, R. Riddle, J. Seguel, T. Travouillon, J. Vasquez, D. Walker, and P. Gillett, “High accuracy DIMM measurements for the TMT site testing program,” Appl. Opt. 118, 885-900, (2007).

Butterley, T.

T. Butterley, R. W. Wilson, and M. Sarazin, “Determination of the profile of atmospheric optical turbulence strength from SLODAR data,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 369, 835-845(2006).
[CrossRef]

Chanan, G.

L. Wang, M. Schöck, G. Chanan, W. Skidmore, R. Blum, E. Bustos, S. Els, R. Riddle, J. Seguel, T. Travouillon, J. Vasquez, D. Walker, and P. Gillett, “High accuracy DIMM measurements for the TMT site testing program,” Appl. Opt. 118, 885-900, (2007).

Els, S.

L. Wang, M. Schöck, G. Chanan, W. Skidmore, R. Blum, E. Bustos, S. Els, R. Riddle, J. Seguel, T. Travouillon, J. Vasquez, D. Walker, and P. Gillett, “High accuracy DIMM measurements for the TMT site testing program,” Appl. Opt. 118, 885-900, (2007).

Fuchs, A.

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, “Focusing on a turbulent layer: principle of the generalized SCIDAR,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 86-91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gillett, P.

L. Wang, M. Schöck, G. Chanan, W. Skidmore, R. Blum, E. Bustos, S. Els, R. Riddle, J. Seguel, T. Travouillon, J. Vasquez, D. Walker, and P. Gillett, “High accuracy DIMM measurements for the TMT site testing program,” Appl. Opt. 118, 885-900, (2007).

Kornilov, V.

V. Kornilov, A. Tokovinin, N. Shatsky, O. Voziakova, S. Potanin, and B. Safonov, “Combined MASS-DIMM instruments for atmospheric turbulence studies,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382, 1268-1278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Tokovinin and V. Kornilov, “Accurate seeing measurements with MASS and DIMM,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 381, 1179-1189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Tokovinin, V. Kornilov, N. Shatsky, and O. Voziakova, “Restoration of turbulence profile from scintillation indices,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 343, 891-899 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Kornilov, “The verification of the MASS spectral response,” 14 September 2006, http://www.ctio.noao.edu/~atokovin/profiler/archive.html.

Pickles, A.

M. Thomsen, M. Britton., and A. Pickles, “MASS-DIMM Setup at Palomar,” presented at American Astronomical Society Meeting 210, Honolulu, Hawaii, 27-31 May 2007, paper 117.01.

Potanin, S.

V. Kornilov, A. Tokovinin, N. Shatsky, O. Voziakova, S. Potanin, and B. Safonov, “Combined MASS-DIMM instruments for atmospheric turbulence studies,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382, 1268-1278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Riddle, R.

L. Wang, M. Schöck, G. Chanan, W. Skidmore, R. Blum, E. Bustos, S. Els, R. Riddle, J. Seguel, T. Travouillon, J. Vasquez, D. Walker, and P. Gillett, “High accuracy DIMM measurements for the TMT site testing program,” Appl. Opt. 118, 885-900, (2007).

Roddier, F.

Safonov, B.

V. Kornilov, A. Tokovinin, N. Shatsky, O. Voziakova, S. Potanin, and B. Safonov, “Combined MASS-DIMM instruments for atmospheric turbulence studies,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382, 1268-1278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sarazin, M.

T. Butterley, R. W. Wilson, and M. Sarazin, “Determination of the profile of atmospheric optical turbulence strength from SLODAR data,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 369, 835-845(2006).
[CrossRef]

Schöck, M.

L. Wang, M. Schöck, G. Chanan, W. Skidmore, R. Blum, E. Bustos, S. Els, R. Riddle, J. Seguel, T. Travouillon, J. Vasquez, D. Walker, and P. Gillett, “High accuracy DIMM measurements for the TMT site testing program,” Appl. Opt. 118, 885-900, (2007).

Seguel, J.

L. Wang, M. Schöck, G. Chanan, W. Skidmore, R. Blum, E. Bustos, S. Els, R. Riddle, J. Seguel, T. Travouillon, J. Vasquez, D. Walker, and P. Gillett, “High accuracy DIMM measurements for the TMT site testing program,” Appl. Opt. 118, 885-900, (2007).

Shatsky, N.

V. Kornilov, A. Tokovinin, N. Shatsky, O. Voziakova, S. Potanin, and B. Safonov, “Combined MASS-DIMM instruments for atmospheric turbulence studies,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382, 1268-1278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Tokovinin, V. Kornilov, N. Shatsky, and O. Voziakova, “Restoration of turbulence profile from scintillation indices,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 343, 891-899 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Skidmore, W.

L. Wang, M. Schöck, G. Chanan, W. Skidmore, R. Blum, E. Bustos, S. Els, R. Riddle, J. Seguel, T. Travouillon, J. Vasquez, D. Walker, and P. Gillett, “High accuracy DIMM measurements for the TMT site testing program,” Appl. Opt. 118, 885-900, (2007).

Tallon, M.

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, “Focusing on a turbulent layer: principle of the generalized SCIDAR,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 86-91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, M.

M. Thomsen, M. Britton., and A. Pickles, “MASS-DIMM Setup at Palomar,” presented at American Astronomical Society Meeting 210, Honolulu, Hawaii, 27-31 May 2007, paper 117.01.

Tokovinin, A.

A. Tokovinin, “Calbration of the MASS time constant measurements,” 22 June 2006, http://www.ctio.noao.edu/~atokovin/profiler/archive.html.

V. Kornilov, A. Tokovinin, N. Shatsky, O. Voziakova, S. Potanin, and B. Safonov, “Combined MASS-DIMM instruments for atmospheric turbulence studies,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382, 1268-1278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Tokovinin and V. Kornilov, “Accurate seeing measurements with MASS and DIMM,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 381, 1179-1189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Tokovinin, V. Kornilov, N. Shatsky, and O. Voziakova, “Restoration of turbulence profile from scintillation indices,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 343, 891-899 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Tokovinin, “Measurement of seeing and the atmospheric time constant by differential scintillations,” Appl. Opt. 41, 957-964 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tokovinin, “Replication of MASS segmentators,” 26 December 2004, http://www.ctio.noao.edu/~atokovin/profiler/archive.html.

Travouillon, T.

L. Wang, M. Schöck, G. Chanan, W. Skidmore, R. Blum, E. Bustos, S. Els, R. Riddle, J. Seguel, T. Travouillon, J. Vasquez, D. Walker, and P. Gillett, “High accuracy DIMM measurements for the TMT site testing program,” Appl. Opt. 118, 885-900, (2007).

Vasquez, J.

L. Wang, M. Schöck, G. Chanan, W. Skidmore, R. Blum, E. Bustos, S. Els, R. Riddle, J. Seguel, T. Travouillon, J. Vasquez, D. Walker, and P. Gillett, “High accuracy DIMM measurements for the TMT site testing program,” Appl. Opt. 118, 885-900, (2007).

Vernin, J.

Voziakova, O.

V. Kornilov, A. Tokovinin, N. Shatsky, O. Voziakova, S. Potanin, and B. Safonov, “Combined MASS-DIMM instruments for atmospheric turbulence studies,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382, 1268-1278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Tokovinin, V. Kornilov, N. Shatsky, and O. Voziakova, “Restoration of turbulence profile from scintillation indices,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 343, 891-899 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D.

L. Wang, M. Schöck, G. Chanan, W. Skidmore, R. Blum, E. Bustos, S. Els, R. Riddle, J. Seguel, T. Travouillon, J. Vasquez, D. Walker, and P. Gillett, “High accuracy DIMM measurements for the TMT site testing program,” Appl. Opt. 118, 885-900, (2007).

Wang, L.

L. Wang, M. Schöck, G. Chanan, W. Skidmore, R. Blum, E. Bustos, S. Els, R. Riddle, J. Seguel, T. Travouillon, J. Vasquez, D. Walker, and P. Gillett, “High accuracy DIMM measurements for the TMT site testing program,” Appl. Opt. 118, 885-900, (2007).

Wilson, R. W.

T. Butterley, R. W. Wilson, and M. Sarazin, “Determination of the profile of atmospheric optical turbulence strength from SLODAR data,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 369, 835-845(2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

L. Wang, M. Schöck, G. Chanan, W. Skidmore, R. Blum, E. Bustos, S. Els, R. Riddle, J. Seguel, T. Travouillon, J. Vasquez, D. Walker, and P. Gillett, “High accuracy DIMM measurements for the TMT site testing program,” Appl. Opt. 118, 885-900, (2007).

A. Tokovinin, “Measurement of seeing and the atmospheric time constant by differential scintillations,” Appl. Opt. 41, 957-964 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.

T. Butterley, R. W. Wilson, and M. Sarazin, “Determination of the profile of atmospheric optical turbulence strength from SLODAR data,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 369, 835-845(2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Kornilov, A. Tokovinin, N. Shatsky, O. Voziakova, S. Potanin, and B. Safonov, “Combined MASS-DIMM instruments for atmospheric turbulence studies,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382, 1268-1278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Tokovinin, V. Kornilov, N. Shatsky, and O. Voziakova, “Restoration of turbulence profile from scintillation indices,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 343, 891-899 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Tokovinin and V. Kornilov, “Accurate seeing measurements with MASS and DIMM,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 381, 1179-1189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.

M. Britton, “The anisoplanatic point-spread function in adaptive optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 885-900, (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, “Focusing on a turbulent layer: principle of the generalized SCIDAR,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 86-91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Thomsen, M. Britton., and A. Pickles, “MASS-DIMM Setup at Palomar,” presented at American Astronomical Society Meeting 210, Honolulu, Hawaii, 27-31 May 2007, paper 117.01.

V. Kornilov, “The verification of the MASS spectral response,” 14 September 2006, http://www.ctio.noao.edu/~atokovin/profiler/archive.html.

A. Tokovinin, “Replication of MASS segmentators,” 26 December 2004, http://www.ctio.noao.edu/~atokovin/profiler/archive.html.

A. Tokovinin, “Calbration of the MASS time constant measurements,” 22 June 2006, http://www.ctio.noao.edu/~atokovin/profiler/archive.html.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Poisson parameter P of the PMTs as measured by the detector tests obtained with MD 5, which was mounted on the T1 site testing telescope on Cerro Tolar. The plot shows data taken between 22 October 2007 and 9 March 2007, with more than 2290 samples. Data for the B, C, and D channels are offset from the A channel data by 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9, respectively. The solid lines indicate linear fits to the data of each channel. The mean P values and the linear slopes Δ are shown above the respective channel data.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral response curves used for reprocessing MASS data, reproduced from [11]. The solid curve is referred to as without.crv, dotted as mass.crv, and dashed as eso_md.crv.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scatter plots of the C n 2 ( h ) d h measurements for each layer, obtained by the T2 and T3 MDs during the Tololo 2004 campaign between 17 September and 28 October 2004. Only data were used that were taken at T2 and T3 within 30   s , resulting in more than 8777 data records. The 1 1 correlation is marked by the solid line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scatter plots like those in Fig. 3, but this time for the average of two adjacent layers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scatter plots of turbulence parameters measured by T2 and T3 during the Tololo 2004 campaign (see also Fig. 3). Left, MASS seeing; right, isoplanatic angle θ 0 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the coherence times ( τ 0 , as defined in [4]) measured by T2 and T3 during the Tololo 2004 campaign (see also Fig. 3). The values were computed only from data for which 0 < τ 0 , T 2 , T 3 < 5 ms , corresponding to more than 8080 data records.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

MASS aperture flux ratios from the T2 (red or darker gray) and T3 (green or lighter gray) MASS systems between 30 August and 28 October 2004, when both systems were mounted close to each other at CTIO. T2 shows a vignetting of the D aperture between 5 and 14 September 2004 (dates marked by the arrows) affecting 1826 data points. Its A aperture also seems to be vignetted during the four nights before that period.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the Sensitivity Study of the Dependence of MASS Seeing on Instrumental Parameters a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of the Sensitivity Study of the Dependence of MASS Seeing and Isoplanatic Angle θ 0 on Spectral Response a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Main Results from the Side-by-Side Comparison of Two TMT Site Survey Instruments, T2 and T3, on Cerro Tololo a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Site-by-Site Comparison Results for Data Taken between 5 and 14 September 2007 a

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