Abstract

This study demonstrates successive higher-order Hermite–Gaussian (HG0,m) mode operations in a microchip solid-state laser with a controlled off-axis laser diode (LD) pumping and generation of the corresponding doughnutlike laser beam of tunable ring diameter and orbital angular momentum, by experimentally focusing a Hermite–Gaussian mode (HGM) lasing beam into an astigmatic mode converter (AMC) with a mode-matching lens. Based on the successful generation of stable doughnutlike vortex beams by combining the LD off-axis pumping of microchip lasers and an AMC, this study proposes a design for a compact, solid doughnutlike vortex laser beam generator that combines three elements (i.e., laser cavity, mode-matching lens, and AMC) into one practical device. The desired doughnutlike vortex beam with different orbital angular momentum is easily generated by simply controlling the lateral off-axis pump position and pump beam shape on the laser crystal by numerical simulation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11, 288 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330, 769-771 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Ishii and T. Yanagida, “Single molecule detection in life science,” Single Mol. 1, 5-16 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, “Direct observation of kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry,” Nature 365, 721-727 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Stability of optical levitation by radiation pressure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 586 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, “Optical trapping of a metal particle and a water droplet by a scanning laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 807 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. H. Jones, E. Stride, and N. Saffari, “Trapping and manipulation of microscopic bubbles with a scanning optical tweezer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081113 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. M. Iftiquar, H. Ito, and M. Ohtsu, “Tunable donut light beam for a near-field optical funnel of atoms,” Tech. Digest of the CLEO/PR01 (IEEE, 2001), pp. 34-35.
  9. Y. Song, D. Milan, and W. T. Hill III, “Long, narrow all-light atom guide,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1805 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Friedman, L. Khaykovich, R. Ozeri, and N. Davidson, “Compression of cold atoms to very high densities in a rotating-beam blue-detuned optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 031403 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. J. Kuhn, Laser Engineering (Prentice-Hall, 1998), p. 86.
  12. M. J. Padgett and L. Allen, “The angular momentum of light: optical spanners and the rotational frequency shift,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 1-12 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Manusuripur, Classical Optics and Its Applications (Cambridge, 2002).
  14. X. Xu, K. Kim, W. Jhe, and N. Kwon, “Efficient optical guiding of trapped cold atoms by a hollow laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 3401 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Parkin, G. Knöner, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Measurement of the total optical angular momentum transfer in optical tweezers,” Opt. Express 14, 6963-6970 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, D. A. Robertson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Measurement of the rotational frequency shift imparted to a rotating light beam possessing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3217-3219 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Courtial, D. A. Robertson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Rotational frequency shift of a light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4828-4830 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Tamm and C. O. Weiss, “Bistability and optical switching of spatial patterns in a laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7,1034-1038 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R. Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, “Laser modes with helical wave fronts,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119-3122 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8189 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96, 123-132(1993).
    [CrossRef]
  23. N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, and A. G. White, “Generation of optical phase singularities by computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett. 17, 221-223 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. A. Clifford, J. Arlt, J. Courtial, and K. Dholakia, “High-order Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes for studies of cold atoms,” Opt. Commun. 156, 300-306 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112, 321-327 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. A. Turnball, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “The generation of free-space Laguerre-Gaussian modes at millimetre-wave frequencies by use of a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 127, 183-188 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. A. Kennedy, M. J. Szabo, H. Teslow, J. Z. Porterfield, and E. R. I. Abraham, “Creation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes using diffractive optics,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 043801 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S.-C. Chu and K. Otsuka, “Stable donutlike vortex beam generation from lasers with controlled Ince-Gaussian modes,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7709-7719 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. K. J. Kuhn, Laser Engineering (Prentice-Hall, 1998), p. 86.
  30. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986), pp 647.
  31. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, 2000).
  32. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Endo, M. Kawakami, K. Nanri, S. Takeda, and T. Fujioka, “Two-dimensional simulation of an unstable resonator with a stable core,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3298-3307 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. Endo, S. Yamaguchi, T. Uchiyama, and T. Fujioka, “Numerical simulation of the W-axicon type optical resonator for coaxial slab CO2 lasers,” J. Phys. D 34, 68-77 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. Endo, “Numerical simulation of an optical resonator for generation of a doughnut-like laser beam,” Opt. Express 12, 1959 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. A. Bhowmik, “Closed-cavity solutions with partially coherent fields in the space-frequency domain,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3338-3346 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts, 2004), Chap. 4.
  38. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts, 2004), pp. 97-101.
  39. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).
  40. J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “The production of multiringed Laguerre-Gaussian modes by computer-generated holograms,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231-1237 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  41. K. Sueda, G. Miyaji, N. Miyanaga, and M. Nakatsuka, “Laguerre-Gaussian beam generated with a multilevel spiral phase plate for high intensity laser pulses,” Opt. Express 12, 3548-3553 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. K. J. Moh, X.-C. Yuan, W. C. Cheong, L. S. Zhang, J. Lin, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, and H. Wang, “High-power efficient multiple optical vortices in a single beam generated by a kinoform-type spiral phase plate,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1153-1161 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

S. A. Kennedy, M. J. Szabo, H. Teslow, J. Z. Porterfield, and E. R. I. Abraham, “Creation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes using diffractive optics,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 043801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

M. Endo, S. Yamaguchi, T. Uchiyama, and T. Fujioka, “Numerical simulation of the W-axicon type optical resonator for coaxial slab CO2 lasers,” J. Phys. D 34, 68-77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, K. Kim, W. Jhe, and N. Kwon, “Efficient optical guiding of trapped cold atoms by a hollow laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 3401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

N. Friedman, L. Khaykovich, R. Ozeri, and N. Davidson, “Compression of cold atoms to very high densities in a rotating-beam blue-detuned optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 031403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishii and T. Yanagida, “Single molecule detection in life science,” Single Mol. 1, 5-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1998 (4)

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “The production of multiringed Laguerre-Gaussian modes by computer-generated holograms,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231-1237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, D. A. Robertson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Measurement of the rotational frequency shift imparted to a rotating light beam possessing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3217-3219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, D. A. Robertson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Rotational frequency shift of a light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4828-4830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Clifford, J. Arlt, J. Courtial, and K. Dholakia, “High-order Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes for studies of cold atoms,” Opt. Commun. 156, 300-306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. A. Turnball, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “The generation of free-space Laguerre-Gaussian modes at millimetre-wave frequencies by use of a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 127, 183-188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112, 321-327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R. Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, “Laser modes with helical wave fronts,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119-3122 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96, 123-132(1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, “Direct observation of kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry,” Nature 365, 721-727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, “Optical trapping of a metal particle and a water droplet by a scanning laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, and A. G. White, “Generation of optical phase singularities by computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett. 17, 221-223 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

C. Tamm and C. O. Weiss, “Bistability and optical switching of spatial patterns in a laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7,1034-1038 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330, 769-771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1983 (1)

1974 (1)

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Stability of optical levitation by radiation pressure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 586 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, E. R. I.

S. A. Kennedy, M. J. Szabo, H. Teslow, J. Z. Porterfield, and E. R. I. Abraham, “Creation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes using diffractive optics,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 043801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ahluwalia, B. P. S.

Allen, L.

M. J. Padgett and L. Allen, “The angular momentum of light: optical spanners and the rotational frequency shift,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 1-12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “The production of multiringed Laguerre-Gaussian modes by computer-generated holograms,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231-1237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, D. A. Robertson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Measurement of the rotational frequency shift imparted to a rotating light beam possessing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3217-3219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, D. A. Robertson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Rotational frequency shift of a light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4828-4830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnball, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “The generation of free-space Laguerre-Gaussian modes at millimetre-wave frequencies by use of a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 127, 183-188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96, 123-132(1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arlt, J.

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “The production of multiringed Laguerre-Gaussian modes by computer-generated holograms,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231-1237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Clifford, J. Arlt, J. Courtial, and K. Dholakia, “High-order Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes for studies of cold atoms,” Opt. Commun. 156, 300-306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330, 769-771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11, 288 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Stability of optical levitation by radiation pressure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 586 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112, 321-327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96, 123-132(1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhowmik, A.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Block, S. M.

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, “Direct observation of kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry,” Nature 365, 721-727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, W. C.

Chu, S.

Chu, S.-C.

Clifford, M. A.

M. A. Clifford, J. Arlt, J. Courtial, and K. Dholakia, “High-order Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes for studies of cold atoms,” Opt. Commun. 156, 300-306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coerwinkel, R. P. C.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112, 321-327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Courtial, J.

J. Courtial, D. A. Robertson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Rotational frequency shift of a light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4828-4830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, D. A. Robertson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Measurement of the rotational frequency shift imparted to a rotating light beam possessing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3217-3219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Clifford, J. Arlt, J. Courtial, and K. Dholakia, “High-order Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes for studies of cold atoms,” Opt. Commun. 156, 300-306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, N.

N. Friedman, L. Khaykovich, R. Ozeri, and N. Davidson, “Compression of cold atoms to very high densities in a rotating-beam blue-detuned optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 031403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “The production of multiringed Laguerre-Gaussian modes by computer-generated holograms,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231-1237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, D. A. Robertson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Measurement of the rotational frequency shift imparted to a rotating light beam possessing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3217-3219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, D. A. Robertson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Rotational frequency shift of a light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4828-4830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Clifford, J. Arlt, J. Courtial, and K. Dholakia, “High-order Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes for studies of cold atoms,” Opt. Commun. 156, 300-306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330, 769-771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11, 288 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Stability of optical levitation by radiation pressure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 586 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Endo, M.

Friedman, N.

N. Friedman, L. Khaykovich, R. Ozeri, and N. Davidson, “Compression of cold atoms to very high densities in a rotating-beam blue-detuned optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 031403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fujioka, T.

M. Endo, S. Yamaguchi, T. Uchiyama, and T. Fujioka, “Numerical simulation of the W-axicon type optical resonator for coaxial slab CO2 lasers,” J. Phys. D 34, 68-77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Endo, M. Kawakami, K. Nanri, S. Takeda, and T. Fujioka, “Two-dimensional simulation of an unstable resonator with a stable core,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3298-3307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts, 2004), Chap. 4.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts, 2004), pp. 97-101.

Harris, M.

M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R. Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, “Laser modes with helical wave fronts,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119-3122 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heckenberg, N. R.

Hill, C. A.

M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R. Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, “Laser modes with helical wave fronts,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119-3122 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, W. T.

Iftiquar, S. M.

S. M. Iftiquar, H. Ito, and M. Ohtsu, “Tunable donut light beam for a near-field optical funnel of atoms,” Tech. Digest of the CLEO/PR01 (IEEE, 2001), pp. 34-35.

Ishii, Y.

Y. Ishii and T. Yanagida, “Single molecule detection in life science,” Single Mol. 1, 5-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

S. M. Iftiquar, H. Ito, and M. Ohtsu, “Tunable donut light beam for a near-field optical funnel of atoms,” Tech. Digest of the CLEO/PR01 (IEEE, 2001), pp. 34-35.

Jhe, W.

X. Xu, K. Kim, W. Jhe, and N. Kwon, “Efficient optical guiding of trapped cold atoms by a hollow laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 3401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jones, P. H.

P. H. Jones, E. Stride, and N. Saffari, “Trapping and manipulation of microscopic bubbles with a scanning optical tweezer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, M.

Kennedy, S. A.

S. A. Kennedy, M. J. Szabo, H. Teslow, J. Z. Porterfield, and E. R. I. Abraham, “Creation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes using diffractive optics,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 043801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Khaykovich, L.

N. Friedman, L. Khaykovich, R. Ozeri, and N. Davidson, “Compression of cold atoms to very high densities in a rotating-beam blue-detuned optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 031403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

X. Xu, K. Kim, W. Jhe, and N. Kwon, “Efficient optical guiding of trapped cold atoms by a hollow laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 3401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, N.

K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, “Optical trapping of a metal particle and a water droplet by a scanning laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Knöner, G.

Koshioka, M.

K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, “Optical trapping of a metal particle and a water droplet by a scanning laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112, 321-327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, K. J.

K. J. Kuhn, Laser Engineering (Prentice-Hall, 1998), p. 86.

K. J. Kuhn, Laser Engineering (Prentice-Hall, 1998), p. 86.

Kwon, N.

X. Xu, K. Kim, W. Jhe, and N. Kwon, “Efficient optical guiding of trapped cold atoms by a hollow laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 3401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

Mair, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manusuripur, M.

M. Manusuripur, Classical Optics and Its Applications (Cambridge, 2002).

Masuhara, H.

K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, “Optical trapping of a metal particle and a water droplet by a scanning laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McDuff, R.

Milan, D.

Misawa, H.

K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, “Optical trapping of a metal particle and a water droplet by a scanning laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miyaji, G.

Miyanaga, N.

Moh, K. J.

Nakatsuka, M.

Nanri, K.

Nieminen, T. A.

Ohtsu, M.

S. M. Iftiquar, H. Ito, and M. Ohtsu, “Tunable donut light beam for a near-field optical funnel of atoms,” Tech. Digest of the CLEO/PR01 (IEEE, 2001), pp. 34-35.

Otsuka, K.

Ozeri, R.

N. Friedman, L. Khaykovich, R. Ozeri, and N. Davidson, “Compression of cold atoms to very high densities in a rotating-beam blue-detuned optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 031403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

M. J. Padgett and L. Allen, “The angular momentum of light: optical spanners and the rotational frequency shift,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 1-12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “The production of multiringed Laguerre-Gaussian modes by computer-generated holograms,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231-1237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, D. A. Robertson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Measurement of the rotational frequency shift imparted to a rotating light beam possessing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3217-3219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, D. A. Robertson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Rotational frequency shift of a light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4828-4830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnball, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “The generation of free-space Laguerre-Gaussian modes at millimetre-wave frequencies by use of a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 127, 183-188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Parkin, S.

Porterfield, J. Z.

S. A. Kennedy, M. J. Szabo, H. Teslow, J. Z. Porterfield, and E. R. I. Abraham, “Creation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes using diffractive optics,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 043801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, D. A.

J. Courtial, D. A. Robertson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Rotational frequency shift of a light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4828-4830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, D. A. Robertson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Measurement of the rotational frequency shift imparted to a rotating light beam possessing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3217-3219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnball, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “The generation of free-space Laguerre-Gaussian modes at millimetre-wave frequencies by use of a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 127, 183-188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

Saffari, N.

P. H. Jones, E. Stride, and N. Saffari, “Trapping and manipulation of microscopic bubbles with a scanning optical tweezer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, “Optical trapping of a metal particle and a water droplet by a scanning laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, C. F.

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, “Direct observation of kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry,” Nature 365, 721-727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnapp, B. J.

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, “Direct observation of kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry,” Nature 365, 721-727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986), pp 647.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

Smith, C. P.

Smith, G. M.

G. A. Turnball, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “The generation of free-space Laguerre-Gaussian modes at millimetre-wave frequencies by use of a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 127, 183-188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

Song, Y.

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stride, E.

P. H. Jones, E. Stride, and N. Saffari, “Trapping and manipulation of microscopic bubbles with a scanning optical tweezer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sueda, K.

Svoboda, K.

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, “Direct observation of kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry,” Nature 365, 721-727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szabo, M. J.

S. A. Kennedy, M. J. Szabo, H. Teslow, J. Z. Porterfield, and E. R. I. Abraham, “Creation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes using diffractive optics,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 043801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, S.

Tamm, C.

C. Tamm and C. O. Weiss, “Bistability and optical switching of spatial patterns in a laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7,1034-1038 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tapster, P. R.

M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R. Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, “Laser modes with helical wave fronts,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119-3122 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Teslow, H.

S. A. Kennedy, M. J. Szabo, H. Teslow, J. Z. Porterfield, and E. R. I. Abraham, “Creation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes using diffractive optics,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 043801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Turnball, G. A.

G. A. Turnball, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “The generation of free-space Laguerre-Gaussian modes at millimetre-wave frequencies by use of a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 127, 183-188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, T.

M. Endo, S. Yamaguchi, T. Uchiyama, and T. Fujioka, “Numerical simulation of the W-axicon type optical resonator for coaxial slab CO2 lasers,” J. Phys. D 34, 68-77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van der Veen, H. E. L. O.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96, 123-132(1993).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, J. M.

M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R. Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, “Laser modes with helical wave fronts,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119-3122 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaziri, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Weihs, G.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, C. O.

C. Tamm and C. O. Weiss, “Bistability and optical switching of spatial patterns in a laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7,1034-1038 (1990).
[CrossRef]

White, A. G.

Woerdman, J. P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112, 321-327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96, 123-132(1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, K. Kim, W. Jhe, and N. Kwon, “Efficient optical guiding of trapped cold atoms by a hollow laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 3401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, S.

M. Endo, S. Yamaguchi, T. Uchiyama, and T. Fujioka, “Numerical simulation of the W-axicon type optical resonator for coaxial slab CO2 lasers,” J. Phys. D 34, 68-77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamane, T.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330, 769-771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yanagida, T.

Y. Ishii and T. Yanagida, “Single molecule detection in life science,” Single Mol. 1, 5-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.-C.

Zeilinger, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L. S.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Stability of optical levitation by radiation pressure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 586 (1974).
[CrossRef]

K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, “Optical trapping of a metal particle and a water droplet by a scanning laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Jones, E. Stride, and N. Saffari, “Trapping and manipulation of microscopic bubbles with a scanning optical tweezer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. Arlt, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “The production of multiringed Laguerre-Gaussian modes by computer-generated holograms,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1231-1237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

C. Tamm and C. O. Weiss, “Bistability and optical switching of spatial patterns in a laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7,1034-1038 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

M. Endo, S. Yamaguchi, T. Uchiyama, and T. Fujioka, “Numerical simulation of the W-axicon type optical resonator for coaxial slab CO2 lasers,” J. Phys. D 34, 68-77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330, 769-771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, “Direct observation of kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry,” Nature 365, 721-727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (4)

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96, 123-132(1993).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Clifford, J. Arlt, J. Courtial, and K. Dholakia, “High-order Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes for studies of cold atoms,” Opt. Commun. 156, 300-306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112, 321-327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Turnball, D. A. Robertson, G. M. Smith, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “The generation of free-space Laguerre-Gaussian modes at millimetre-wave frequencies by use of a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 127, 183-188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. J. Padgett and L. Allen, “The angular momentum of light: optical spanners and the rotational frequency shift,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 1-12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (5)

N. Friedman, L. Khaykovich, R. Ozeri, and N. Davidson, “Compression of cold atoms to very high densities in a rotating-beam blue-detuned optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 031403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, K. Kim, W. Jhe, and N. Kwon, “Efficient optical guiding of trapped cold atoms by a hollow laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 3401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Harris, C. A. Hill, P. R. Tapster, and J. M. Vaughan, “Laser modes with helical wave fronts,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3119-3122 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185-8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Kennedy, M. J. Szabo, H. Teslow, J. Z. Porterfield, and E. R. I. Abraham, “Creation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes using diffractive optics,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 043801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, D. A. Robertson, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Measurement of the rotational frequency shift imparted to a rotating light beam possessing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3217-3219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Courtial, D. A. Robertson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Rotational frequency shift of a light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4828-4830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Single Mol. (1)

Y. Ishii and T. Yanagida, “Single molecule detection in life science,” Single Mol. 1, 5-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

S. M. Iftiquar, H. Ito, and M. Ohtsu, “Tunable donut light beam for a near-field optical funnel of atoms,” Tech. Digest of the CLEO/PR01 (IEEE, 2001), pp. 34-35.

K. J. Kuhn, Laser Engineering (Prentice-Hall, 1998), p. 86.

M. Manusuripur, Classical Optics and Its Applications (Cambridge, 2002).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts, 2004), Chap. 4.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts, 2004), pp. 97-101.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

K. J. Kuhn, Laser Engineering (Prentice-Hall, 1998), p. 86.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986), pp 647.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of selective doughnutlike vortex laser beam generation: part (I) a high-order mode selector and part (II) an astigmatic mode converter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of vortex laser beam generation with a Nd GdVO 4 microchip laser with off-axis LD pumping and an astigmatic mode converter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental HG 0 , m and LG p = 0 , 1 mode outputs as a function of LD pump power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental generations of vortices ( LG p = 0 , l modes) by off-axis LD pumping and the AMC with increasing distance from the cavity central axis d at a fixed pump power of 120 mW : (a)  d = 70 μm , (b)  110 μm , (c)  135 μm , and (d)  160 μm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Illustrations of the gain region control mechanism for high-order mode selector.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulation demonstration of the mode superposition of (a) the tilted HG 0 , 2 mode and (b) the LG p = 0 , = 2 mode.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulation patterns: (a) intensity distributions of controlled HGMs in laser cavity, (b) intensity and (c) phase distribution of resulting LG p = 0 , l modes from the doughnutlike beam generator, and (d) interferograms of the resulting LG p = 0 , l modes with tilted plane waves.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulation mode purity of the generated beams versus decenter errors of the concave mirror (solid black curve), SC lens (solid gray curve), and pumping beam position (dotted black curve).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Estimated Off-Axis Distance r and Size of Effective Gain Region ( a , b ) at the Laser Medium to LG p = 0 Modes Generation

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

LG p l ( r , ϕ , z ) 1 1 + z 2 / z R 2 ( 2 r w ( z ) ) l L p l ( 2 r 2 w ( z ) 2 ) × exp ( i k r 2 2 R ( z ) ) exp ( r 2 w ( z ) 2 ) × exp ( i l ϕ ) × exp [ i ( 2 p + l + 1 ) tan 1 ( z z R ) ] ,
( n + 1 / 2 ) ψ x ( z ) + ( m + 1 / 2 ) ψ y ( z ) ,
ψ x ( z ) = arctan [ ( z z o x ) / z R x ] ,
ψ y ( z ) = arctan [ ( z z o y ) / z R y ] ,
g i ( x , y ) = g i 0 ( x , y ) / ( 1 + I i + ( x , y ) + I i ( x , y ) I s ( x , y ) ) ,
I i + ( x , y ) = ( 1 α ) i = 0 q α i I i + ( q i ) ,
I i ( x , y ) = ( 1 α ) i = 0 q α i I i ( q i ) .
E i out ( x , y ) = E i in ( x , y ) exp [ 1 2 g i ( x , y ) d ] .
E q + 1 ( x , y ) E q ( x , y ) .
MP = | u , u pl | 2 = | u ( u pl ) * d A | 2 .

Metrics