Abstract

Optical scattering arising from interface roughness and interference effects is a dominant loss mechanism of thin film coatings for 193nm. A procedure is presented where at-wavelength scatter measurements in combination with atomic force microscopy are used as a tool for the in-depth characterization of the origins of scattering. For highly reflective coatings, the influence of the substrate roughness on the growth properties is analyzed. Moreover, the effects of interface roughness and optical thickness deviations on the scattering properties are separated. Furthermore, the procedure was used to investigate scattering properties of coatings at 45° incidence and of coatings applied in immersion fluid that so far could not be accessed by direct measurement.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. LaPedus, "Matsushita enters 45-nm production," EE Times Online (2007), http://www.eetimes.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=199905335, last visited on 28 June 2007.
  2. B. W. Smith, Y. Fan, M. Slocum, and L. Zavyalova, "25 nm immersion lithography at a 193 nm wavelength," Proc. SPIE 5754, 141-147 (2005).
  3. B. J. Lin, "Optical lithography: present and future challenges," C. R. Physique 7, 858-874 (2006).
  4. T. Zell, "Present and future of 193 nm lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 83, 624-633 (2006).
  5. W. M. Tong and R. S. Williams, "Kinetics of surface growth: phenomenology, scaling, and mechanisms of smoothening and roughening," Annu. Rev. Chem. 45, 401-438 (1994).
  6. B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demchishin, "Investigations of the structure and properties of thick Ni, Ti, W, Al2O3, and ZrO2 vacuum condensates," Phys. Met. Metallogr. USSR 28, 83 (1969).
  7. J. A. Thornton, "Structure and topography of sputtered coatings," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 239-260 (1977).
  8. R. Messier, "Toward quantification of thin film morphology," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4/3, 490-495 (1986).
  9. H. A. Macleod, "Structure-related optical properties of thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 418-422 (1986).
  10. A. Duparré, "Scattering from surfaces and thin films," in Encyclopedia of Modern Optics, B. D. Guenther, D. G. Steel, and L. Bayvel, eds. (Elsevier, 2004).
  11. J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis, 2nd ed., Vol. PM24 of the Press Monographs (SPIE, 1995).
  12. J. M. Bennett and L. Mattson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, 1989).
  13. A. Duparré, J. Ferre-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, and J. M. Bennett, "Surface characterization techniques for determining the root-mean-square roughness and power spectral densities of optical components," Appl. Opt. 41, 154-171 (2002).
  14. M. Flemming, K. Roder, and A. Duparré, "Scanning force microscopy for optical surface metrology," Proc. SPIE 5965, 0A (2005).
  15. A. Duparré, "Light scattering of thin dielectric films," in Thin Films for Optical Coatings, R. E. Hummel and K. H. Guenther, eds., Vol. 1 of Handbook of Optical Properties Series (CRC, 1995), pp. 273-304.
  16. J. M. Elson, J. P. Rahn, and J. M. Bennett, "Light scattering from multilayer optics: comparison of theory and experiment," Appl. Opt. 19, 669-679 (1980).
  17. P. Bousquet, F. Flory, and P. Roche, "Scattering from multilayer thin films: theory and experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1115-1123 (1981).
  18. C. K. Carniglia, "Scalar scattering theory for multilayer optical coatings," Opt. Eng. 18, 104-115 (1979).
  19. J. M. Elson, J. P. Rahn, and J. M. Bennett, "Relationship of the total integrated scattering from multilayer-coated optics to the angle of incidence, polarization, correlation length, and roughness cross-correlation properties," Appl. Opt. 22, 3207-3219 (1983).
  20. "Optics and optical instruments - Test methods for radiation scattered by optical components," ISO 13696:2002 (International Organization for Standardization (2002).
  21. S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, "Scattering analysis of optical components in the DUV," Proc. SPIE 6101, 1H (2006).
  22. S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, "Sensitive and flexible light scatter techniques from the VUV to IR regions," Proc. SPIE 5965, 424-432 (2005).
  23. C. Amra, D. Torricini, and P. Roche, "Multiwavelength (0.45-10.6 μm) angle-resolved scatterometer or how to extend the optical window," Appl. Opt. 32, 5462-5474 (1993).
  24. S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, "Measurement system to determine the total and angle resolved light scattering of optical components in the deep-ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral regions," Appl. Opt. 44, 6093-6107 (2005).
  25. C. Amra, "Light scattering from multilayer optics. II. Application to experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 211-226 (1994).
  26. C. Amra, J. H. Apfel, and E. Pelletier, "Role of interface correlation in light scattering by a multilayer," Appl. Opt. 31, 3134-3151 (1992).
  27. H. Uhlig, R. Thielsch, J. Heber, and N. Kaiser, "Lanthanide tri-fluorides: a survey of the optical, mechanical and structural properties of thin films with emphasis of their use in the DUV-VUV spectral range," Proc. SPIE 5963, 0N (2005).
  28. J. Ferré-Borrull, A. Duparré, and E. Quesnel, "Procedure to characterize microroughness of optical thin films: application to ion-beam-sputtered vacuum-ultraviolet coatings," Appl. Opt. 40, 2190-2199 (2001).
  29. M. Adamik, G. Sáfrán, P. B. Barna, I. Tomov, U. Kaiser, S. Laux, J. Jinschek, and W. Richter, "Structure evolution of NdF3 optical thin films," Phys. Status Solidi A 175, 637-649 (1999).
  30. J. E. Rudisill, A. Duparré, and S. Schröder, "Determination of scattering losses in ArF* excimer laser all-dielectric mirrors for 193 nm microlithography application," Proc. SPIE 5647, 9-22 (2005).
  31. M. Flemming and A. Duparré, "Design and characterization of nanostructured ultrahydrophobic coatings," Appl. Opt. 45, 1397-1401 (2006).

2007 (1)

M. LaPedus, "Matsushita enters 45-nm production," EE Times Online (2007), http://www.eetimes.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=199905335, last visited on 28 June 2007.

2006 (4)

B. J. Lin, "Optical lithography: present and future challenges," C. R. Physique 7, 858-874 (2006).

T. Zell, "Present and future of 193 nm lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 83, 624-633 (2006).

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, "Scattering analysis of optical components in the DUV," Proc. SPIE 6101, 1H (2006).

M. Flemming and A. Duparré, "Design and characterization of nanostructured ultrahydrophobic coatings," Appl. Opt. 45, 1397-1401 (2006).

2005 (6)

J. E. Rudisill, A. Duparré, and S. Schröder, "Determination of scattering losses in ArF* excimer laser all-dielectric mirrors for 193 nm microlithography application," Proc. SPIE 5647, 9-22 (2005).

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, "Sensitive and flexible light scatter techniques from the VUV to IR regions," Proc. SPIE 5965, 424-432 (2005).

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, "Measurement system to determine the total and angle resolved light scattering of optical components in the deep-ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral regions," Appl. Opt. 44, 6093-6107 (2005).

H. Uhlig, R. Thielsch, J. Heber, and N. Kaiser, "Lanthanide tri-fluorides: a survey of the optical, mechanical and structural properties of thin films with emphasis of their use in the DUV-VUV spectral range," Proc. SPIE 5963, 0N (2005).

B. W. Smith, Y. Fan, M. Slocum, and L. Zavyalova, "25 nm immersion lithography at a 193 nm wavelength," Proc. SPIE 5754, 141-147 (2005).

M. Flemming, K. Roder, and A. Duparré, "Scanning force microscopy for optical surface metrology," Proc. SPIE 5965, 0A (2005).

2004 (1)

A. Duparré, "Scattering from surfaces and thin films," in Encyclopedia of Modern Optics, B. D. Guenther, D. G. Steel, and L. Bayvel, eds. (Elsevier, 2004).

2002 (2)

A. Duparré, J. Ferre-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, and J. M. Bennett, "Surface characterization techniques for determining the root-mean-square roughness and power spectral densities of optical components," Appl. Opt. 41, 154-171 (2002).

"Optics and optical instruments - Test methods for radiation scattered by optical components," ISO 13696:2002 (International Organization for Standardization (2002).

2001 (1)

J. Ferré-Borrull, A. Duparré, and E. Quesnel, "Procedure to characterize microroughness of optical thin films: application to ion-beam-sputtered vacuum-ultraviolet coatings," Appl. Opt. 40, 2190-2199 (2001).

1999 (1)

M. Adamik, G. Sáfrán, P. B. Barna, I. Tomov, U. Kaiser, S. Laux, J. Jinschek, and W. Richter, "Structure evolution of NdF3 optical thin films," Phys. Status Solidi A 175, 637-649 (1999).

1995 (2)

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis, 2nd ed., Vol. PM24 of the Press Monographs (SPIE, 1995).

A. Duparré, "Light scattering of thin dielectric films," in Thin Films for Optical Coatings, R. E. Hummel and K. H. Guenther, eds., Vol. 1 of Handbook of Optical Properties Series (CRC, 1995), pp. 273-304.

1994 (2)

W. M. Tong and R. S. Williams, "Kinetics of surface growth: phenomenology, scaling, and mechanisms of smoothening and roughening," Annu. Rev. Chem. 45, 401-438 (1994).

C. Amra, "Light scattering from multilayer optics. II. Application to experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 211-226 (1994).

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

C. Amra, J. H. Apfel, and E. Pelletier, "Role of interface correlation in light scattering by a multilayer," Appl. Opt. 31, 3134-3151 (1992).

1989 (1)

J. M. Bennett and L. Mattson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, 1989).

1986 (2)

R. Messier, "Toward quantification of thin film morphology," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4/3, 490-495 (1986).

H. A. Macleod, "Structure-related optical properties of thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 418-422 (1986).

1983 (1)

J. M. Elson, J. P. Rahn, and J. M. Bennett, "Relationship of the total integrated scattering from multilayer-coated optics to the angle of incidence, polarization, correlation length, and roughness cross-correlation properties," Appl. Opt. 22, 3207-3219 (1983).

1981 (1)

P. Bousquet, F. Flory, and P. Roche, "Scattering from multilayer thin films: theory and experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1115-1123 (1981).

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

C. K. Carniglia, "Scalar scattering theory for multilayer optical coatings," Opt. Eng. 18, 104-115 (1979).

1977 (1)

J. A. Thornton, "Structure and topography of sputtered coatings," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 239-260 (1977).

1969 (1)

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demchishin, "Investigations of the structure and properties of thick Ni, Ti, W, Al2O3, and ZrO2 vacuum condensates," Phys. Met. Metallogr. USSR 28, 83 (1969).

Adamik, M.

M. Adamik, G. Sáfrán, P. B. Barna, I. Tomov, U. Kaiser, S. Laux, J. Jinschek, and W. Richter, "Structure evolution of NdF3 optical thin films," Phys. Status Solidi A 175, 637-649 (1999).

Amra, C.

Apfel, J. H.

C. Amra, J. H. Apfel, and E. Pelletier, "Role of interface correlation in light scattering by a multilayer," Appl. Opt. 31, 3134-3151 (1992).

Barna, P. B.

M. Adamik, G. Sáfrán, P. B. Barna, I. Tomov, U. Kaiser, S. Laux, J. Jinschek, and W. Richter, "Structure evolution of NdF3 optical thin films," Phys. Status Solidi A 175, 637-649 (1999).

Bennett, J. M.

A. Duparré, J. Ferre-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, and J. M. Bennett, "Surface characterization techniques for determining the root-mean-square roughness and power spectral densities of optical components," Appl. Opt. 41, 154-171 (2002).

J. M. Bennett and L. Mattson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, 1989).

J. M. Elson, J. P. Rahn, and J. M. Bennett, "Relationship of the total integrated scattering from multilayer-coated optics to the angle of incidence, polarization, correlation length, and roughness cross-correlation properties," Appl. Opt. 22, 3207-3219 (1983).

J. M. Elson, J. P. Rahn, and J. M. Bennett, "Light scattering from multilayer optics: comparison of theory and experiment," Appl. Opt. 19, 669-679 (1980).

Bousquet, P.

P. Bousquet, F. Flory, and P. Roche, "Scattering from multilayer thin films: theory and experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1115-1123 (1981).

Carniglia, C. K.

C. K. Carniglia, "Scalar scattering theory for multilayer optical coatings," Opt. Eng. 18, 104-115 (1979).

Demchishin, A. V.

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demchishin, "Investigations of the structure and properties of thick Ni, Ti, W, Al2O3, and ZrO2 vacuum condensates," Phys. Met. Metallogr. USSR 28, 83 (1969).

Duparré, A.

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, "Scattering analysis of optical components in the DUV," Proc. SPIE 6101, 1H (2006).

M. Flemming and A. Duparré, "Design and characterization of nanostructured ultrahydrophobic coatings," Appl. Opt. 45, 1397-1401 (2006).

J. E. Rudisill, A. Duparré, and S. Schröder, "Determination of scattering losses in ArF* excimer laser all-dielectric mirrors for 193 nm microlithography application," Proc. SPIE 5647, 9-22 (2005).

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, "Sensitive and flexible light scatter techniques from the VUV to IR regions," Proc. SPIE 5965, 424-432 (2005).

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, "Measurement system to determine the total and angle resolved light scattering of optical components in the deep-ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral regions," Appl. Opt. 44, 6093-6107 (2005).

M. Flemming, K. Roder, and A. Duparré, "Scanning force microscopy for optical surface metrology," Proc. SPIE 5965, 0A (2005).

A. Duparré, "Scattering from surfaces and thin films," in Encyclopedia of Modern Optics, B. D. Guenther, D. G. Steel, and L. Bayvel, eds. (Elsevier, 2004).

A. Duparré, J. Ferre-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, and J. M. Bennett, "Surface characterization techniques for determining the root-mean-square roughness and power spectral densities of optical components," Appl. Opt. 41, 154-171 (2002).

J. Ferré-Borrull, A. Duparré, and E. Quesnel, "Procedure to characterize microroughness of optical thin films: application to ion-beam-sputtered vacuum-ultraviolet coatings," Appl. Opt. 40, 2190-2199 (2001).

A. Duparré, "Light scattering of thin dielectric films," in Thin Films for Optical Coatings, R. E. Hummel and K. H. Guenther, eds., Vol. 1 of Handbook of Optical Properties Series (CRC, 1995), pp. 273-304.

Elson, J. M.

J. M. Elson, J. P. Rahn, and J. M. Bennett, "Relationship of the total integrated scattering from multilayer-coated optics to the angle of incidence, polarization, correlation length, and roughness cross-correlation properties," Appl. Opt. 22, 3207-3219 (1983).

J. M. Elson, J. P. Rahn, and J. M. Bennett, "Light scattering from multilayer optics: comparison of theory and experiment," Appl. Opt. 19, 669-679 (1980).

Fan, Y.

B. W. Smith, Y. Fan, M. Slocum, and L. Zavyalova, "25 nm immersion lithography at a 193 nm wavelength," Proc. SPIE 5754, 141-147 (2005).

Ferre-Borrull, J.

A. Duparré, J. Ferre-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, and J. M. Bennett, "Surface characterization techniques for determining the root-mean-square roughness and power spectral densities of optical components," Appl. Opt. 41, 154-171 (2002).

Ferré-Borrull, J.

J. Ferré-Borrull, A. Duparré, and E. Quesnel, "Procedure to characterize microroughness of optical thin films: application to ion-beam-sputtered vacuum-ultraviolet coatings," Appl. Opt. 40, 2190-2199 (2001).

Flemming, M.

M. Flemming and A. Duparré, "Design and characterization of nanostructured ultrahydrophobic coatings," Appl. Opt. 45, 1397-1401 (2006).

M. Flemming, K. Roder, and A. Duparré, "Scanning force microscopy for optical surface metrology," Proc. SPIE 5965, 0A (2005).

Flory, F.

P. Bousquet, F. Flory, and P. Roche, "Scattering from multilayer thin films: theory and experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1115-1123 (1981).

Gliech, S.

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, "Scattering analysis of optical components in the DUV," Proc. SPIE 6101, 1H (2006).

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, "Sensitive and flexible light scatter techniques from the VUV to IR regions," Proc. SPIE 5965, 424-432 (2005).

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, "Measurement system to determine the total and angle resolved light scattering of optical components in the deep-ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral regions," Appl. Opt. 44, 6093-6107 (2005).

A. Duparré, J. Ferre-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, and J. M. Bennett, "Surface characterization techniques for determining the root-mean-square roughness and power spectral densities of optical components," Appl. Opt. 41, 154-171 (2002).

Heber, J.

H. Uhlig, R. Thielsch, J. Heber, and N. Kaiser, "Lanthanide tri-fluorides: a survey of the optical, mechanical and structural properties of thin films with emphasis of their use in the DUV-VUV spectral range," Proc. SPIE 5963, 0N (2005).

Jinschek, J.

M. Adamik, G. Sáfrán, P. B. Barna, I. Tomov, U. Kaiser, S. Laux, J. Jinschek, and W. Richter, "Structure evolution of NdF3 optical thin films," Phys. Status Solidi A 175, 637-649 (1999).

Kaiser, N.

H. Uhlig, R. Thielsch, J. Heber, and N. Kaiser, "Lanthanide tri-fluorides: a survey of the optical, mechanical and structural properties of thin films with emphasis of their use in the DUV-VUV spectral range," Proc. SPIE 5963, 0N (2005).

Kaiser, U.

M. Adamik, G. Sáfrán, P. B. Barna, I. Tomov, U. Kaiser, S. Laux, J. Jinschek, and W. Richter, "Structure evolution of NdF3 optical thin films," Phys. Status Solidi A 175, 637-649 (1999).

LaPedus, M.

M. LaPedus, "Matsushita enters 45-nm production," EE Times Online (2007), http://www.eetimes.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=199905335, last visited on 28 June 2007.

Laux, S.

M. Adamik, G. Sáfrán, P. B. Barna, I. Tomov, U. Kaiser, S. Laux, J. Jinschek, and W. Richter, "Structure evolution of NdF3 optical thin films," Phys. Status Solidi A 175, 637-649 (1999).

Lin, B. J.

B. J. Lin, "Optical lithography: present and future challenges," C. R. Physique 7, 858-874 (2006).

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, "Structure-related optical properties of thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 418-422 (1986).

Mattson, L.

J. M. Bennett and L. Mattson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, 1989).

Messier, R.

R. Messier, "Toward quantification of thin film morphology," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4/3, 490-495 (1986).

Movchan, B. A.

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demchishin, "Investigations of the structure and properties of thick Ni, Ti, W, Al2O3, and ZrO2 vacuum condensates," Phys. Met. Metallogr. USSR 28, 83 (1969).

Notni, G.

A. Duparré, J. Ferre-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, and J. M. Bennett, "Surface characterization techniques for determining the root-mean-square roughness and power spectral densities of optical components," Appl. Opt. 41, 154-171 (2002).

Pelletier, E.

C. Amra, J. H. Apfel, and E. Pelletier, "Role of interface correlation in light scattering by a multilayer," Appl. Opt. 31, 3134-3151 (1992).

Quesnel, E.

J. Ferré-Borrull, A. Duparré, and E. Quesnel, "Procedure to characterize microroughness of optical thin films: application to ion-beam-sputtered vacuum-ultraviolet coatings," Appl. Opt. 40, 2190-2199 (2001).

Rahn, J. P.

J. M. Elson, J. P. Rahn, and J. M. Bennett, "Relationship of the total integrated scattering from multilayer-coated optics to the angle of incidence, polarization, correlation length, and roughness cross-correlation properties," Appl. Opt. 22, 3207-3219 (1983).

J. M. Elson, J. P. Rahn, and J. M. Bennett, "Light scattering from multilayer optics: comparison of theory and experiment," Appl. Opt. 19, 669-679 (1980).

Richter, W.

M. Adamik, G. Sáfrán, P. B. Barna, I. Tomov, U. Kaiser, S. Laux, J. Jinschek, and W. Richter, "Structure evolution of NdF3 optical thin films," Phys. Status Solidi A 175, 637-649 (1999).

Roche, P.

C. Amra, D. Torricini, and P. Roche, "Multiwavelength (0.45-10.6 μm) angle-resolved scatterometer or how to extend the optical window," Appl. Opt. 32, 5462-5474 (1993).

P. Bousquet, F. Flory, and P. Roche, "Scattering from multilayer thin films: theory and experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1115-1123 (1981).

Roder, K.

M. Flemming, K. Roder, and A. Duparré, "Scanning force microscopy for optical surface metrology," Proc. SPIE 5965, 0A (2005).

Rudisill, J. E.

J. E. Rudisill, A. Duparré, and S. Schröder, "Determination of scattering losses in ArF* excimer laser all-dielectric mirrors for 193 nm microlithography application," Proc. SPIE 5647, 9-22 (2005).

Sáfrán, G.

M. Adamik, G. Sáfrán, P. B. Barna, I. Tomov, U. Kaiser, S. Laux, J. Jinschek, and W. Richter, "Structure evolution of NdF3 optical thin films," Phys. Status Solidi A 175, 637-649 (1999).

Schröder, S.

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, "Scattering analysis of optical components in the DUV," Proc. SPIE 6101, 1H (2006).

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, "Sensitive and flexible light scatter techniques from the VUV to IR regions," Proc. SPIE 5965, 424-432 (2005).

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, "Measurement system to determine the total and angle resolved light scattering of optical components in the deep-ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral regions," Appl. Opt. 44, 6093-6107 (2005).

J. E. Rudisill, A. Duparré, and S. Schröder, "Determination of scattering losses in ArF* excimer laser all-dielectric mirrors for 193 nm microlithography application," Proc. SPIE 5647, 9-22 (2005).

Slocum, M.

B. W. Smith, Y. Fan, M. Slocum, and L. Zavyalova, "25 nm immersion lithography at a 193 nm wavelength," Proc. SPIE 5754, 141-147 (2005).

Smith, B. W.

B. W. Smith, Y. Fan, M. Slocum, and L. Zavyalova, "25 nm immersion lithography at a 193 nm wavelength," Proc. SPIE 5754, 141-147 (2005).

Steinert, J.

A. Duparré, J. Ferre-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, and J. M. Bennett, "Surface characterization techniques for determining the root-mean-square roughness and power spectral densities of optical components," Appl. Opt. 41, 154-171 (2002).

Stover, J. C.

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis, 2nd ed., Vol. PM24 of the Press Monographs (SPIE, 1995).

Thielsch, R.

H. Uhlig, R. Thielsch, J. Heber, and N. Kaiser, "Lanthanide tri-fluorides: a survey of the optical, mechanical and structural properties of thin films with emphasis of their use in the DUV-VUV spectral range," Proc. SPIE 5963, 0N (2005).

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton, "Structure and topography of sputtered coatings," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 239-260 (1977).

Tomov, I.

M. Adamik, G. Sáfrán, P. B. Barna, I. Tomov, U. Kaiser, S. Laux, J. Jinschek, and W. Richter, "Structure evolution of NdF3 optical thin films," Phys. Status Solidi A 175, 637-649 (1999).

Tong, W. M.

W. M. Tong and R. S. Williams, "Kinetics of surface growth: phenomenology, scaling, and mechanisms of smoothening and roughening," Annu. Rev. Chem. 45, 401-438 (1994).

Torricini, D.

Uhlig, H.

H. Uhlig, R. Thielsch, J. Heber, and N. Kaiser, "Lanthanide tri-fluorides: a survey of the optical, mechanical and structural properties of thin films with emphasis of their use in the DUV-VUV spectral range," Proc. SPIE 5963, 0N (2005).

Williams, R. S.

W. M. Tong and R. S. Williams, "Kinetics of surface growth: phenomenology, scaling, and mechanisms of smoothening and roughening," Annu. Rev. Chem. 45, 401-438 (1994).

Zavyalova, L.

B. W. Smith, Y. Fan, M. Slocum, and L. Zavyalova, "25 nm immersion lithography at a 193 nm wavelength," Proc. SPIE 5754, 141-147 (2005).

Zell, T.

T. Zell, "Present and future of 193 nm lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 83, 624-633 (2006).

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

J. A. Thornton, "Structure and topography of sputtered coatings," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 239-260 (1977).

Annu. Rev. Chem. (1)

W. M. Tong and R. S. Williams, "Kinetics of surface growth: phenomenology, scaling, and mechanisms of smoothening and roughening," Annu. Rev. Chem. 45, 401-438 (1994).

Appl. Opt. (4)

A. Duparré, J. Ferre-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, and J. M. Bennett, "Surface characterization techniques for determining the root-mean-square roughness and power spectral densities of optical components," Appl. Opt. 41, 154-171 (2002).

J. M. Elson, J. P. Rahn, and J. M. Bennett, "Relationship of the total integrated scattering from multilayer-coated optics to the angle of incidence, polarization, correlation length, and roughness cross-correlation properties," Appl. Opt. 22, 3207-3219 (1983).

C. Amra, J. H. Apfel, and E. Pelletier, "Role of interface correlation in light scattering by a multilayer," Appl. Opt. 31, 3134-3151 (1992).

J. Ferré-Borrull, A. Duparré, and E. Quesnel, "Procedure to characterize microroughness of optical thin films: application to ion-beam-sputtered vacuum-ultraviolet coatings," Appl. Opt. 40, 2190-2199 (2001).

Appl. Opt. (4)

C. R. Physique (1)

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

T. Zell, "Present and future of 193 nm lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 83, 624-633 (2006).

Opt. Eng. (1)

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Proc. SPIE (5)

J. E. Rudisill, A. Duparré, and S. Schröder, "Determination of scattering losses in ArF* excimer laser all-dielectric mirrors for 193 nm microlithography application," Proc. SPIE 5647, 9-22 (2005).

H. Uhlig, R. Thielsch, J. Heber, and N. Kaiser, "Lanthanide tri-fluorides: a survey of the optical, mechanical and structural properties of thin films with emphasis of their use in the DUV-VUV spectral range," Proc. SPIE 5963, 0N (2005).

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Proc. SPIE (1)

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Basic geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

System for TS and ARS measurements at 193 n m .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Double-goniometer setup for ARS measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AFM images in 1 μ m × 1     μ m (left) and 10 μ m × 10 μ m scan areas of coatings deposited onto superpolished (s) and normal polished (n) substrates. Height scales: m = 5 : 5 n m , m = 10 , 15: 15 n m .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PSDs calculated from AFM data for m = 5 , 10, 15, and modeled PSDs for coatings deposited onto superpolished (left) and normal polished (right) substrates. Arrows indicate different roughness components (see text). The fundamental growth modes in the high spatial frequency and the low spatial frequency ranges based on ABC models are shown for the case of five-layer pairs on the s-substrate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

AFM images in 50 μ m × 50 μ m scan area of coatings with m = 15 deposited onto superpolished (s) and normal polished (n) substrates. Height scale: 15 n m .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

ARS at 193 n m of HR coatings on s- and n-substrates; measurement and simulation results.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral photometry results.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Simulation of ARS at 193 n m using the design with the correct center wavelength of 193 n m and for comparison with a realized center wavelength of 200 n m .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

C1ARS of HR coating for 45°; measurement and simulation results.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Simulated ARS at 193 n m at an angle of incidence of −45° for different polarizations of the incident and scattered light represented as projections onto the scattering hemisphere. The radial axis corresponds to θ s = 0 ° 90 ° and the annular axis to φ s = 0 ° 360 ° ). The white cross marks the direction of specular reflection.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

ARS of AR coating with nitrogen as the surrounding medium; measurement and simulation results.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

ARS of AR coating with nitrogen or immersion fluid as the surrounding medium; simulations for s- and p-polarized incident light.

Equations (3)

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A R S ( θ s ) = Δ P s / Δ Ω s P i 1 λ 4 i = 0 N j = 0 N C i C j * P S D i j ( f ) .
T S b = R ( 4 π σ λ ) 2 for   τ c λ T S b = R ( 4 π σ λ ) 2 ( 2 τ c λ ) 2 for   τ c λ ,
T S b = 2 π 2 ° 85 ° A R S ( θ s ) sin θ s d θ s ,

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